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The tale of the dog behind the 'kiss of life' discovery - BBC News

The tale of the dog behind the 'kiss of life' discovery - BBC News | First Aid Training | Scoop.it

There are about 30,000 cardiac arrests every year in the UK and ten times that number in the US. It is one of the most common ways to die.

It is also one of the most common scenarios in which a bystander can save a life through CPR or cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the technique used to keep blood and oxygen pumping round the body until emergency help arrives.

This 'kiss of life' has an intriguing history stretching back over 100 years to when electricity was first being installed in domestic homes and, in part, it owes its discovery to the fate of an unnamed lab dog.

Throughout the early 1900s an electrical revolution hit America, and homes became populated with electrical appliances - everything from light bulbs to refrigerators.

But, on the down side, electrocution was a major risk to people working on the newly-installed power lines. Many died of cardiac arrests.

Shock tactics

As a result, external defibrillators had been invented to shock the heart back into rhythm without opening the chest - but they were too big and cumbersome to use outside of hospitals.

In the 1950s, the Edison Electric Institute in the US decided to sponsor researchers to investigate the effects of electrical currents on the heart.

Enter Guy Knickerbocker, a fastidious, 29-year-old graduate working under electrical engineer William Kouwenhoven in one of the labs at Johns Hopkins University in Maryland. They were trying to improve the external defibrillator, which Kouwenhoven had invented a few years earlier.

In 1958, before the ethical treatment of animals became a serious consideration, their experiments involved testing on laboratory dogs.

Knickerbocker, now 86 years old, remembers working with a colleague one day when, suddenly, one of the dogs went into cardiac arrest, or ventricle fibrillation (VF).

Thanks to a unnamed dog, Knickerbocker and his colleagues discovered how to slow down the dying process in the 1950s

Normally when this happened, they would use a defibrillator to shock the dog's heart back into rhythm - but that day they were in the lab on the 12th floor and the equipment was on the fifth floor.

The notoriously slow lifts in the building meant they would never get the defibrillator to the dog in time.

"There is very little chance of survival after cardiac arrest that goes on longer than five minutes," says Knickerbocker.

'Sprang to life'

Knickerbocker had a brainwave. Only a few weeks earlier he had observed that just the pressure of the defibrillator paddles on the dog's chest caused a change in blood pressure.

Did this change in pressure mean that the blood was moving around the body?

He took a chance: "We started to pump the dog's chest because it seemed to be the right thing to do."

Knickerbocker raced along the stairs to the fifth floor to get the defibrillator while his colleagues pressed the dog's chest for 20 minutes - four times longer than any previous successful attempt.

When he arrived back with the defibrillator and administered two shocks, the dog sprang back to life.

The importance of their discovery cannot be overstated; the experiment established beyond doubt that rhythmic pressing of the chest could sustain life.

Knickerbocker says: "We had found a way to slow down the dying process, and give people time to receive defibrillation".

From pooch to people

Knickerbocker excitedly shared his discovery with cardiac surgeon, Dr Jim Jude, who worked in the next-door lab.

Dr Jude immediately realised its potential, and along with Kouwenhoven, set about working out exactly where to push, how often, and how much force to apply - and found they could extend a dog's life for more than an hour.


"I didn't believe the chest compression technique would ever translate to humans, and neither did a lot of my colleagues," he says today.

This included the head of surgery at Johns Hopkins at that time who wanted the team to provide a lot of evidence before he let them publish their findings.

However Dr Jude was convinced the dog-saving technique could work on people.

The chest compression technique, he realised, could be used to simulate up to 40% of normal cardiac activity. The only problem was that there was no-one to test it on.

A little over a year later, a 35-year-old woman, who was admitted for a gall bladder operation at Johns Hopkins, reacted badly to the anaesthetic and went into cardiac arrest.

Dr Jude immediately began applying rhythmic, manual pressure to her chest. Within two minutes her heart started again and she went on to have the operation and make a full recovery.

'Happy and proud'

This led Kouwenhoven, Jude and Knickerbocker to publish their discovery in a paper in 1960.

"Anyone, anywhere, can now initiate cardiac resuscitative procedures," the authors concluded. "All that is needed are two hands."

In collaboration with another research group who were looking at ventilation techniques, they developed modern CPR.

Now it is taught across the world and in some countries it is also taught in schools.

The American Heart Association estimates that CPR provided immediately after sudden cardiac arrest can double or triple a victim's chance of survival.

 

 

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Study shows public access defibrillators are increasing survival but are not being used enough

New research presented at this year's Euroanaesthesia shows that use of public access defibrillation on people suffering cardiac arrest is associated with a large increase in chances of survival. However, despite the great potential, publicly accessible Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs) are not being used enough, concludes research by Dr Marianne Agerskov and colleagues at Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Publicly accessible AEDs are now commonplace in many European countries, and they are often found in sport centres, transportation hubs, and other public places. In Denmark, an online network owned by the foundation TrygFonden, contains detailed information about AED location and accessibility on all AEDs voluntarily registered in the network by AED owners. The Emergency Medical Dispatch Centres (EMD) across the country are linked to the network, enabling them to refer cardiac arrest witnesses to the nearest accessible AED. The network has provided a unique opportunity to assess the use and effects of public access defibrillation in Copenhagen.

In this study, the authors determined: (1) the proportion of AEDs applied to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) victims before arrival of the ambulance; and (2) the proportion of AEDs referred to by the EMD. When the dispatcher at the EMD suspects a cardiac arrest, they are able, through the network, to refer the witness to/explain on the phone where the nearest accessible AED is. The research team also assessed 30-day survival and characteristics of OHCA-victims.

The researchers identified a total of 521 patients with OHCA from the Mobile Emergency Care Unit and the Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry between 2011 and 2013. They obtained Electrocardiogram-downloads from all applied AEDs. Information regarding AED-referral by the EMD was obtained from the nationwide AED Network.

An AED was applied to an OHCA-victim before ambulance arrival in 20/521 (3.8%) cases, and 13/521 (2.5%) OHCA-victims were defibrillated by an AED. To explain further: an AED was applied in 20 cases of cardiac arrest, but the AED only defibrillates (delivers one or more shocks) when it registers a "shockable rhythm". In case of cardiac arrest, the heart either has some "electricity" left, which means the muscle is still working, but in an unsynchronised way, so that it can't deliver blood to the rest of the body. In that case, a shock delivered by a defibrillator sort of "resets" the heart so it again beats synchronized. In other cases, the heart has an unshockable rhythm which means no electricity and it can't be defibrillated by an AED, the only chance to get the heart beating is by performing chest compressions and hope that the heart will get some electricity so that it can be defibrillated. An AED only works when it can deliver a shock, and the data in this study showed that an AED was actually valuable in the 13 out of 20 cases where it was applied, underscoring their eligibility. Thirteen of the 20 people who had an AED applied had a shockable rhythm, and thus received one or more shocks from the AED. In six cases, the member of the public was guided to the AED by the dispatcher.

The data showed that the 30-day survival for all patients, regardless of initial rhythm, was 50% for patients with an AED applied and 19% for patients without an AED applied. For OHCA with an initial shockable rhythm (meaning they could directly benefit from the applied AED) 30-day survival was 64% with an AED applied versus 47% without.

The authors conclude: "Members of the public were only directed to the nearest AED for a minor proportion of OHCA victims, but there was a significantly higher survival in patients where an AED was applied before EMS arrival. This indicates the life-saving potential and need to further develop public access defibrillation networks."

They add that during recent years, Denmark has seen an increased use of AEDs, which might reflect several initiatives taken to raise survival after OHCA in Denmark including; implementation of mandatory resuscitation training in elementary schools and when acquiring a driver's licence, improving the telephone guidance to bystanders witnessing a cardiac arrest, by using health care professionals to receive calls at the EMD, as nurses or experienced ambulance rescuers trained to recognise cardiac arrests and to guide the callers to perform chest compressions and use an AED until ambulance arrives.

Discussing some changes that they would like to see in the future, the authors say: "There has been a large increase in the number of publicly accessible AEDs. Means to increase AED utilisation should target public awareness of the AED network and the location of the AEDs, CPR and AED training, and further development of the existing AED network and linkage to the emergency medical dispatch system."


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Bristol taxi driver Dean Clarke saves passenger's live with CPR

Bristol taxi driver Dean Clarke saves passenger's live with CPR | First Aid Training | Scoop.it

When taxi driver Dean Clarke picked up his last fare on Saturday night, he never imagined by the time the journey ended he would have saved a life.

But when a 76-year-old passenger collapsed and began having a heart attack, his instincts kicked in along with advice picked up from an advertising campaign.

Mr Clarke, who has been a taxi driver for Bristol-based Homesafe Cars for two years, administered emergency CPR to John Alexander for 20 minutes, despite having no previous first aid experience.

And the technique he used to save his passengers life were gleaned from watching a campaign backed by soccer hardman Vinnie Jones. In the Staying Alive advert the footballer turned actor demonstrates how to administer CPR accompanied by the Bee Gees' hit of the same name.

The 54-year-old was helping the man and his wife out of the taxi outside their Hanham home after they had been to a pub in Cadbury Heath celebrating their son's birthday.

Mr Clarke said: "As I helped the man out of the car, he collapsed back. It was really frightening, I rang an ambulance and told them what was happening. They talked me through some basic CPR and I just had to keep his head back and his airways open.

"I had never done CPR before, the only knowledge I had of it was from the Vinny Jones' CPR videos. The man on the phone was great, if it wasn't for him I wouldn't have been able to do anything."

Mr Clarke also rang his colleague to go back to the pub and pick up the man's son. After 20 minutes, an ambulance arrived to take the man to hospital where he was treated.

Paramedics told Dean if it wasn't for the CPR he administered, the man may not have survived.

He said: "They said I helped save the man's life, but if it wasn't for the people at the end of the phone talking me through I wouldn't have been able to do any of it, so I owe it to them really. I'm just so glad to hear the man is ok, miraculously he is out of hospital already and doing well I hear so that is all that matters. I was very anxious on Sunday until I heard he was OK.

"I don't feel like I've done anything out of the ordinary, I was just doing my job and what anyone would have done. But it was a very frightening experience and I'm just glad it has been a positive outcome."

The manager of Homesafe Taxis Mark Horman said: "It's amazing really what he did and we are very proud to have him as one of our taxi drivers. He went above and beyond and we are just pleased that the man is OK and out of hospital. His family have been in touch with us through our Facebook page and have thanked us."

Aide White said on the Facebook page: "Thanks guys, this is my father-in-law of 35 years. You lived up to your company's name, Homesafe. You did a great job."

Daughter Louise White said: "Thank you very much this customer is my Dad we have just picked him up from hospital and apart from bruising and a chest infection he is OK as a family we can not thank you enough. My mum and dad will be in contact with you soon thanks again.

 

 

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Thousands of cardiac arrest victims die needlessly

Thousands of cardiac arrest victims die needlessly | First Aid Training | Scoop.it

A new survey has found almost a fifth of Brits don't know what it is and 45 per cent are not confident enough to perform it

Thousands of Brits are needlessly dying from cardiac arrests because too many people have no idea how to perform CPR, experts warn.

A new study has found that almost a fifth of Brits - 18% - do not know what CPR is and 60% have never been trained how to do it.

Experts say that if CPR was made compulsory at secondary schools, up to 5,000 lives a year could be saved.

Catherine Kelly, director of prevention, survival and support at the British Heart Foundation, said: “In the UK, less than 1 in 10 people survive an out of hospital cardiac arrest.

“However in Norway, where CPR is taught in secondary schools, the survival figure is as high as one in four.

“That’s why it’s the BHF’s ambition to teach CPR to all young people in secondary schools across the UK.

“Training secondary school children in CPR could help to save lives. If we achieve the survival rates seen in countries where secondary school training is mandatory we could contribute to helping save an additional 5,000 lives each year.”

The research by ITV’s Good Morning Britain reveals that just under half - 45% - of us do not feel confident to carry out CPR on someone who has had a cardiac arrest.

A third - 35% - said they would be worried that attempting CPR could make things worse.

The OnePoll survey for Good Morning Britain was commissioned to launch of the Heels 4 Hearts campaign, which aims to give pupils in UK secondary schools and sixth forms the opportunity to learn CPR.

Heels 4 Hearts, which is supported by the British Heart Foundation, aims to encourage the public to donate unwanted shoes to BHF shops during the campaign. Money raised by the shoes will help fund CPR kits for schools.

Throughout this week on Good Morning Britain, presenters will hear from people whose lives have been saved by CPR, meet pupils who are being taught CPR skills and interview celebrities with personal experience of heart disease.

Other findings from the survey of 5,000 people revealed that eight out of ten - 83% - people agree it should be compulsory to learn CPR in school.

Also 40% of those asked believed ovarian or breast cancer was the biggest single killer of women when in fact coronary heart disease kills three times as many women as breast cancer.

Celebrities including Sir Tom Jones, Dame Kelly Holmes and Dame Helen Mirren have already pledged their support for Heels 4 Hearts and will be donating shoes to the campaign.

Ms Kelly, of the BHF, added: “It’s shocking that 60% of the population have not been trained in CPR and that 45% do not feel confident to carry out CPR on someone who has had a cardiac arrest.

“Knowing how to react when you’re faced with a cardiac arrest can mean the difference between life and death. That’s why we’re urging everyone to donate their unwanted shoes to the Heels 4 Hearts campaign which will go towards funding CPR kits for secondary schools in the UK.”

Good Morning Britain’s Dr Hilary Jones said: “These findings don’t surpriseme but are disappointing because being able to carry out CPR undoubtedly saves lives and is so easy to do.

“In countries where it is taught in schools people who need CPR have more than double the chance of surviving a cardiac arrest then in the UK despite heart disease being the biggest killer in our country.

“Learning CPR and having a simple to use defibrillator in public places would make a huge difference to heart attack outcomes. I am passionate about this campaign and together we can all make a difference and become lifesavers.”

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Man saved by heroic passers-by

Man saved by heroic passers-by | First Aid Training | Scoop.it

THE heroic actions of a quick thinking woman from Alcester and her friend saved a cyclist's life when he collapsed on a country road.

The man was cycling along Fish Hill near the Cotswold village of Broadway last March when he collapsed.

Fortunately he was spotted on the side of the road by Gemma Guedes, 30, from Alcester, and her friend Katie Nightingale, who were only travelling down the road by chance after taking a wrong turn on their way to take Gemma's pet puppy for a walk.

 

The pair spotted the man receiving CPR from a fellow cyclist and immediately remembered that there were defibrillators kept at the nearby Farncombe Estate, where they both used to work.

"It was very worrying to see someone receiving CPR as it was the first time that I have ever been in that situation," said Mrs Guedes. "We were just very lucky that Farncombe Estate was so close and that they have trained people to use the defibrillator."

The friends called ahead and were met by security supervisor Tony Haines, of Pensham, near Pershore, who had grabbed a defibrillator.

They dashed back to the stricken man with Mr Haines - an experienced St John Ambulance volunteer - in tow and used the defibrillator to re-start his heart.

He was then rushed to Worcestershire Royal Hospital, where grateful medics confirmed the cyclist would not have survived without the defibrillator and their quick-thinking actions.

"When we arrived the man was starting to turn blue around the lips - Tony gave him a single shock and his heart re-started. After a few minutes the man started talking, which was a huge relief to everyone.

"We waited for the Air Ambulance to arrive and once the man was airlifted to the hospital you could feel that everyone felt a great sense of achievement," added Mrs Guedes.

Mr Haines said he was glad the estate had the vital life-saving equipment . Both he and St John Ambulance are now urging more places, especially in isolated rural locations, to get equipment of their own.

Mr Haines said: “We gave the man a single shock and his heart restarted. Within a few minutes he was talking, it was amazing.

“This incident just goes to show what a difference a defibrillator can make and I would urge as many organisations as possible to have one on hand in case of emergency.”

 

 

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Scottish Dentists to be given defibrillators

Scottish Dentists to be given defibrillators | First Aid Training | Scoop.it

Defibrillators are to be installed in every Scottish NHS dental practice.

The £1m Scottish government scheme aims to boost the survival chances for people who have cardiac arrests.

The 970 defibrillators will also be mapped by ambulance staff so call handlers can direct people to the nearest one while patients wait for paramedics to arrive.

More than 1,500 Scots died in the community last year after suffering a cardiac arrest.

A defibrillator can be used by anyone to deliver an electric shock to the chest to restore a person's heart to a normal rhythm after a cardiac arrest.

'Every second counts'

Ministers said that currently, only 5% of people who have a cardiac arrest in the community survive and every minute of delay cuts their chances.

Public Health Minister Michael Matheson said: "Every second counts when someone's heart goes into cardiac arrest and having access to a defibrillator can mean the difference between life and death.

"As these machines are becoming easier to use it is only right that the public have more access to its life-saving potential in any public place.

"There are almost 1,000 NHS dental practices in the centre of Scottish communities. By giving them this equipment we are providing 1,000 more chances to save a life.

"I believe that this investment will save many more lives."

The machines are expected to be in place by the end of August.

Any dental practice which has already bought a defibrillator will be compensated.

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Making defibrillators as common as fire extinguishers could save lives

Making defibrillators as common as fire extinguishers could save lives | First Aid Training | Scoop.it

Despite several campaigns to increase numbers of defibrillators in public places - and the English government's acknowledgement of their life-saving role - public access to them is low, as is understanding of their use, says a new UK study. The findings imply it would be a different story if defibrillators were as accessible and as well understood as fire extinguishers.

Estimates from the British Heart Foundation (BHF) suggest around 60,000 out of hospital cardiac arrests occur in the UK every year.

A defibrillator - also called an automated external defibrillator or AED - is a device that delivers an electric shock to the heart of someone who is having a cardiac arrest. Prompt use of an AED can shock the heart back into rhythm.

Acting quickly when someone is in cardiac arrest before the ambulance arrives can save their life. Every minute without CPR and defibrillation reduces their chance of survival by 10%.

The aim of the new UK study was to find out how available AEDs were, given the effort that has been put in over the last 10 years to promote and deploy them in public places, such as shopping centers and train stations.

The study was conducted by researchers from the University of Southamptom, working with the South Central Ambulance Service, and it is published in the journal Heart.

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Grandfather saved by CPR training

Grandfather saved by CPR training | First Aid Training | Scoop.it

A GRANDFATHER has told how he would be "eternally grateful" to the woman who saved his life after he collapsed in a Falmouth restaurant.

John Ollernshaw, from Flushing, would have died if a member of staff from Princess Pavilion had not resuscitated him during a cardiac arrest in November.

John Ollernshaw and wife Sylvia, with Ceinwen Morgans, who performed CPR on him after he collapsed.

 

Catering team leader Ceinwen Morgans started CPR on the 82-year-old within minutes of the arrest, having been trained in first aid just a few weeks earlier.

Mr Ollernshaw said: "I guess I was in the right place at the right time.

 

"If it had happened somewhere else, who knows what the chances of finding someone who knew what to do would have been.

"I will be eternally grateful to that young lady and the fact she had completed the first aid course."

Mr Ollernshaw's wife, Sylvia, credited Ms Morgans with saving his life.

"He went straight down and the girl just started resuscitating him immediately until the paramedics came," she said. "She cracked two of his ribs in the process and she had to keep going for a considerable amount of time. It was that which saved his life.

"We have been told that if the waitress hadn't been trained he would have died before the paramedic arrived.

"It was just amazing really, it seemed like it was just instinctive for her which was marvellous."

It was the first time Ms Morgans, from Falmouth, had put her training into practical use since completing the course. She said: "It all just happened so quickly and luckily I knew what to do. Nothing can prepare you for the real thing. I think my adrenalin carried me through and I was able to just get on with it but afterwards it was a little bit traumatising.

"If there hadn't been someone like me there that day then John would have died and his family would have faced Christmas and the new year without him."

Mr Ollernshaw, a dad of two and grandfather of three, had to be defibrillated on the way to the Royal Cornwall Hospital in Truro. In the ambulance, his wife was warned he was unlikely to survive the night.

"Our local vicar came with me to the hospital and by the time we got there the staff had managed to get him going on the machines because he wasn't able to do it himself," said Mrs Ollernshaw.

He remained on life support for four days before he was able to breathe on his own, then spent almost a month in hospital, during which he underwent heart-bypass surgery.

Alison Brown, cardiac rehab nurse at the Royal Cornwall Hospitals Trust, said: "It is fantastic that he was in a public place where there was someone who had been recently trained in CPR."

 

 

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Mystery of the world's most-kissed woman

Mystery of the world's most-kissed woman | First Aid Training | Scoop.it

Millions of people around the world have learned CPR on a mannequin known as Resusci Anne. The story of the 19th Century beauty behind the model - or at least, one version of it - will be told at a symposium in London to mark European Restart a Heart Day. But does anyone really know anything about her?

The Lorenzi workshop is a small haven of peace and antiquity in the busy Parisian suburb of Arcueil. And it's the last of its kind. Downstairs the mouleurs, or cast-makers, create figurines, busts and statues, pouring plaster into moulds in much the same way they have since the family business started in the 1870s.

But if you want to be face-to-face with history, pick your way up the dusty wooden stairs to a room above the workshop. It's an unsettling experience. Hanging all around you in the narrow attic are life and death masks of poets and artists, politicians and revolutionaries: Napoleon, Robespierre, Verlaine, Victor Hugo, the robust, impatient face of the living Beethoven and the sallow, diminished features of the composer's death mask.

Yet, surprisingly, of all the visages of the great and the good on display at Lorenzi's, the best-seller is the mask of a young woman. She has a pleasant, attractive face, with the hint of a smile playing on her lips. Her eyes are closed but they look as if they might spring open at any moment. Hers is the one mask that has no name. She's known simply as the Inconnue, the unknown woman of the Seine.

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Heathrow is the safest place in London to have a cardiac arrest

The London Ambulance Service has declared Heathrow Airport as having the highest cardiac arrest survival rate in London, outside of hospital.

The airport has 180 heart-starting defibrillators, over 100 first aid-trained front line staff and a specialist team of 15 bicycle-riding London Ambulance Service paramedics.

 

Recent statistics show that the Heathrow Cycle Response Unit reached 93.6% of the most serious and life-threatening emergencies at the airport within eight minutes – far exceeding the national target of 75% within that time frame.  The overall cardiac arrest survival rate in London in 2011/12 was 10.9% and in Heathrow was 74%.

 

The bicycling paramedics treated almost 900 passengers out of the 6.5m that travelled in June – with more than a fifth being treated for life-threatening conditions.  It is reported that passengers are never more than two minutes away from a defibrillator.

 

London Ambulance Service Community Resuscitation Training Officer Martin Bullock said:  “We’ve been working with Heathrow Airport for over ten years and thanks to the defibrillators, its first aid-trained staff and our cycle responders, it has one of the highest cardiac arrest survival rates in the world.  The survival rate witnessed for cardiac arrests at the airport is six times as high as in London overall.”

 

If a passenger is believed to be in a life-threatening condition, the onsite ambulance is called at the same time to ensure additional helps arrives as soon as possible.  In less serious cases, the bicycle paramedic or emergency medical technician is sent initially on their own and can then request further assistance if required.

 

Heathrow also encourages its staff to participate in company-wide first aid courses.

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Experience: I saved a man's life while singing Stayin' Alive

Experience: I saved a man's life while singing Stayin' Alive | First Aid Training | Scoop.it
Sharon Thorneywork: 'It was only when I arrived at work that it hit me. I started to cry, overwhelmed at what had just happened'
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'OK Glass, Save A Life.' The Application Of Google Glass In Sudden Cardiac Death

'OK Glass, Save A Life.' The Application Of Google Glass In Sudden Cardiac Death | First Aid Training | Scoop.it

Google Glass has made its way into healthcare.  Its use in the operating room and in medical education has been profiled here.  Yet the magic of Glass will be found in the applications that can make this “technology” into real-world solutions for health and medicine.  It’s a bit like the smart phone and how its realization is a function of the countless apps that bring the device to life.

Inside The Operating Room

Christian Assad, MD has taken the next step with Glass and developing a practical app that can turn Glass into a real life-saver. He recently profiles this application on his blog and I believe it’s an important turn of events that showcase just how technology can be applied to medicine and public health issues.  Here’s how it presents the concept in his blog–Google Glass and augmented CPR:

THE CPRGLASS SCENARIO

1)   Person walking, witnesses someone passing out (syncope)

2)   Individual says “OK GLASS, CPRGLASS”
A) Instructions appear ABC (Assess Airway, Breathing and Circulation)
B) “OK GLASS, No Pulse!”      (An algorithm developed by Hao-Yu Wu et al at MIT demonstrate how a normal camera can detect a pulse in a person with strong accuracy.) We are looking incorporate such algorithm aka (which will be open source) ”Eulerian video magnification” to CPRGLASS for 2 reasons;
                           1) Will help as an innovative method to assess if the compressions are adequate
                           2) Will be able to tell us if patient has regained pulse if we stop compressions, possibly, instead of even having to look for a pulse


3)   This triggers the following algorithm
A) Staying Alive Music starts which will guide you to do the compressions at a rate of 100/min.
B) Gyroscope tells you if compressions are adequate enough by moving
C) Tracks TIME of CPR initiation and number of compressions given
D) Calls 911 with your GPS based location
E) Via GPS will try to find nearest AED which information is being obtained by crowdsourcing. Ex AED4US
F) Sends Txt Msg to nearest hospital with information regarding ungoing CPR for them to get prepared

Dr. Assad combines science, technology and popular culture to create a platform that is as simple as it is important.  From the scientific underpinning to the driving musical beat, he’s part of a generation of clinicians ushering in digital health and the interesting and evolving role of Google Glass.

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It is Not Possible to Swallow Your Tongue

It is Not Possible to Swallow Your Tongue | First Aid Training | Scoop.it
Myth: It is possible to swallow your tongue.

Contrary to popular belief, it is not possible to swallow your tongue. Well, unless of course if you cut it off and then swallowed it… In any event, the tongue is rooted to the floor of the mouth by the lingual frenulum. This makes getting the tongue far enough back in the throat to actually swallow it and get it stuck impossible.

Also contrary to popular belief, one of the worst things a person can try to do for a someone having a seizure is to try to jam something in their mouth to hold their tongue down. They aren’t going to swallow their tongue and someone trying to jam something in their mouth is very likely going to end up injuring them and, depending on what the person used, the seizure victim might just choke on what was jammed in their mouth. The person trying to force the thing in their mouth can also end up getting their fingers bitten severely, if they aren’t careful, and it’s hard to be careful when someone’s jerking about.

Depending on the size of someone’s tongue and where the lingual frenulum is attached, it is possible for a person having a seizure to have temporary blocking of the airway from the tongue; when they are having a seizure, the tongue can fully relax and fall back. However, this isn’t particularly a problem while they are having a seizure as breathing is usually suppressed anyways. It can be a little bit of a problem when the seizure is over and their breathing resumes. However, a more likely choking hazard for someone having a seizure or unconscious is the person’s own bodily fluids, including saliva and vomit, which they may breathe in once their breathing resumes; this can cause them to choke on these fluids, due to a suppressed coughing reflex while they are unconscious.

In these cases though, all you have to do is turn them on their side. The tongue will then naturally fall to the side of their mouth (gravity works!) and their bodily fluids won’t run back down their throat, in both cases, freeing up the airway.

Bonus Facts:

For a seizure victim, rolling them on their left side is the preferred position. I was not able to ascertain why this was the case, but it was recommended by the epilepsy foundation.You should also never try to restrain the person having a seizure. Roll them on their left side and then move objects away from them, so that they don’t injure themselves on those objects. But otherwise, you just have to let the seizure run its course.The lingual frenulum is the small mucous membrane that extends from the floor of the mouth to the mid-line of the tongue.In some people, this lingual frenulum can be so restrictive, in terms of restricting the movement of the tongue, that they can have trouble speaking. When this happens, it is known as Ankyloglossia, or “tongue-tie”. Often these people cannot even extend the tip of their tongue beyond their front teeth. This is particularly a problem for babies with this condition as they have trouble breast feeding, thus trouble taking in enough food.The base of the lingual frenlum contains tissue that has a series of saliva glands on it. The two largest of these are called the Wharton’s Ducts and are in the front.The tongue isn’t just one muscle, as many people say, “the strongest muscle… etc.” In fact, it’s made up of many muscles, which allows for the great range of movement most people have with it, with the muscles running in different directions.As you age, the number of taste buds you have tend to diminish. An average child is born with about 10,000 taste buds. An average elderly person only has about 5,000. This is partially why many kids hate vegetables so much. Vegetables can be very bitter to “super tasters” or those close to that. As you age and your taste buds diminish, this bitter flavor goes away somewhat and changes the taste of the vegetables dramatically in the process.The tongue never really gets a rest. Even while you are sleeping it is constantly pushing saliva into the throat, making sure you don’t drool all over your pillows.
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Film reconstructing how a defib saved a man's life aims to encourage more groups to install them

Film reconstructing how a defib saved a man's life aims to encourage more groups to install them | First Aid Training | Scoop.it

https://youtu.be/VjXTzSQ-b2Y

 

A VIDEO reconstructing how a man was saved by a heart-starting defibrillator will be used to encourage more organisations to install the life-saving machines.

Ian Hough features in the video, called Pulled Through, produced by drp Video for West Midlands Ambulance Service. The film shows what happened to him when he suffered a cardiac arrest.

Mr Hough is a rower but his heart stopped during a regatta at Stourport Boat Club on August 13, 2011.

The club had no defibrillator but luckily there was medical cover on site for the event and the medics leapt into action, using their own machine to re-start his heart in the vital few minutes before paramedics arrived.

Mr Hough, 59, made a full recovery and continues to row – but he says without the defibrillator he firmly believes he would not have lived to see his daughter or granddaughter again.

He said: "I was dead for seven minutes.

"Had this happened on a normal day I would be dead.

"A cardiac arrest can happen to anyone at any time and in any place. I was lucky it happened during the regatta when a defibrillator was on site."

Stourport Boat Club has since installed a machine, as have a number of organisations across the country, including many in Stafford, Stone and Rugeley. The public access defibrillators provide instructions on what to do in an emergency and can save lives.

Ambulance bosses hope the video will encourage even more organisations to do the same.

Cliff Medlicott, from the service, said: "I would encourage as many people as possible to see the film. It is a compelling reconstruction of what happened."

 

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If all school kids knew CPR we could prevent 200,000 deaths, says Bolton MP | Mancunian Matters

If all school kids knew CPR we could prevent 200,000 deaths, says Bolton MP | Mancunian Matters | First Aid Training | Scoop.it

Bolton West MP Julie Hilling is backing the British Heart Foundation’s (BHF) push to make it compulsory for children to learn life-saving skills in school.

The BHF’s Nation of Lifesavers campaign, which launched on March 16 2014, strives to ensure that all secondary school children are taught how to save a life with CPR and Public Access Defibrillator awareness.

Ms Hilling, who has been campaigning with the foundation for four years, told MM: “I can’t imagine anything worse than seeing a loved one collapse in front of me and not knowing what to do and then finding out if only I’d known I could have saved them.

“We could save up to 200,000 lives a year if only people knew what to do if somebody collapsed or had an accident.

“The vast majority of teachers and parents think that it should be compulsory to learn how to save a life.

“I think we’ve got to keep pressure on the government and on Labour to say that this should be a compulsory part.

“Just imagine if we had a world where everybody could save a life.”

According to the BHF, over 30,000 cardiac arrests happen out of hospital every year and less than one in ten people survive.

They are on a mission to create a nation of lifesavers within five years and help more people survive an out of hospital cardiac arrest.

It was March 2012 during an FA cup game when ex Bolton Wanderers player Fabrice Muamba suffered a cardiac arrest on the pitch – an incident which was later used in a BHF advert.

Talking after the event which ended his career, Muamba said: “When it happened, the right people were there for me… I had the right people there to help… If it happened to me in my house I don’t think we would be having this conversation.”

But it is the lifesavers who are the stars of this campaign.

A foundation spokesman said: “We haven’t used celebrity ambassadors for this campaign because we’ve been focusing on the case studies of people who have used CPR and life-saving skills to save people’s lives.”

It is those heroes who inspired Ms Hilling to fight for that life-saving training to become mandatory.

She said: “The inspirational stories of people that have saved lives have made me believe that this is so essential.

“It is an option for schools. It isn’t part of the national curriculum so what we really need is for it to be part of the national curriculum so that every school leaver becomes a life saver.”

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Norfolk mother’s praise for ‘guardian angel’ whose first aid skills helped save four-week-old baby

Norfolk mother’s praise for ‘guardian angel’ whose first aid skills helped save four-week-old baby | First Aid Training | Scoop.it

A mother-of-three is urging people to have first aid training, after a “guardian angel” neighbour helped save the life of her four-week old baby when he stopped breathing.

Tina Westlake, 34, said her son Kane, now eight weeks old, “wouldn’t be here” were it not for the actions of 24-year-old Emily White who administered emergency first aid she had recently learnt and carried out CPR until paramedics arrived.

Kane stopped breathing after choking on milk after being laid down for a sleep at the family home in Foulsham, prompting a panic-striken Mrs Westlake to run out into the street to scream for help, carrying her son in her arms.

Neighbour Mrs White, who was on her way to pick her daughter Jorgie up from school, heard the screams and ran back to put into practice skills picked up at a course run by First Aid at Work Norfolk, based at Ringland Road in Taverham.

The mother-of-two, who went on the course to help her secure a job as a first-aider for Fakenham-based Med PTS, said the “excellent” training she received meant she was able to calmly deal with the unfolding emergency.

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Minister backs campaign for vital CPR lessons in schools

Minister backs campaign for vital CPR lessons in schools | First Aid Training | Scoop.it

Schools Minister David Laws backs Mail on Sunday campaign to introduce vital CPR lessons in schools

Every child could leave school with essential lifesaving skills after Ministers backed campaign to add first aid to curriculum
Mr Laws became the first high-profile member of Coalition to support move
He said: ‘All children should leave school with the essential skills and knowledge that prepares them for life'

Schools Minister David Laws became the first high-profile member of the Coalition to support the move

Every child could leave school with essential lifesaving skills after Ministers backed a Mail on Sunday campaign to add first aid to the curriculum.

Schools Minister David Laws became the first high-profile member of the Coalition to support the move, piling pressure on Education Secretary Nicky Morgan to introduce mandatory training for first aid in schools.

Mr Laws said the crucial skills should be taught as a compulsory part of Personal, Social and Health Education (PSHE) lessons, which also cover sex education, anti-bullying and careers advice.

The newspaper is campaigning to make sure all schools teach basic first aid techniques – simple acts that could save hundreds of thousands of lives every year. The skills can also be taught by older children to their younger peers.

Our campaign now has cross-party support and is also backed by teachers and a number of leading charities.

Mr Laws said: ‘Parents expect to see some basic standards laid out on what their children will learn in school. All children should leave school with the essential skills and knowledge that prepares them for life.

‘Liberal Democrats are clear that all schools should teach Personal, Social and Health Education, and that we would expect that to include first aid.’

Mr Laws’s statement comes after Lib Dems voted in October to include mandatory first aid training in schools in their latest manifesto.

Tory Health Minister Earl Howe has also voiced his support, saying: ‘First aid is a highly valuable, potentially lifesaving skill and I encourage schools to teach pupils first aid through their PSHE lessons.’

 

Lib Dem MP Sir Bob Russell, chairman of the all-party parliamentary group on first aid, said he hoped the other two main parties would also add the proposals to their pre-Election manifestos.

‘Mr Laws is considering these proposals,’ he said. ‘Health Secretary Jeremy Hunt has said he sees this as part of the preventative agenda.’

Other politicians backing the plans include Labour’s Julie Hilling and Conservative MP Anne Marie Morris.

Ms Hilling said: ‘This is as essential as learning to read or write. Learning to save a life is precious.’

Charities including St John Ambulance and the British Heart Foundation are also behind the scheme.

BHF chief executive Simon Gillespie said: ‘A future government will need to play its part by making CPR part of the curriculum – a move that already has the support of the public, teachers and doctors.’

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Man campaigns to purchase defibrillators - then has life saved by one

Man campaigns to purchase defibrillators - then has life saved by one | First Aid Training | Scoop.it

A MAN who spearheaded a campaign to purchase defibrillators for use in and around East Grinstead has remarkably had his own life saved by one of the devices.

Jim Miller admits he would be "six feet under" had it not been for the shock he received from one of the machines following a recent heart attack.

The 82-year-old helped to raise enough money to fund three new defibrillators in his role as a volunteer for East Grinstead and District Lions Club back in 2010.

The club purchased the devices to be used by first responders – people living within communities who attend local medical emergencies while paramedics are still on their way.

And another defibrillator, at East Surrey Hospital, ended up saving Jim's own life on March 18.

He said: "I had some discomfort in my chest and I thought it was heartburn.

"I was taken by ambulance to East Surrey Hospital and they were about to send me home. I went to use the phone to tell my wife the good news and that's the last thing I remember. The next thing I knew, I was surrounded by all these people telling me to stay calm and not to move."

Coincidentally, another East Grinstead resident with close links to the lcoal Lions Club also had his life saved by a defibrillator after he suffered a cardiac arrest in February.

Gordon Gould, who runs the charity's website, collapsed at his doctors' surgery, but was resuscitated immediately and transferred to St George's Hospital, in Tooting, by ambulance.

He said: "Defibrillation needs to be applied very quickly, because for every minute that a person is in cardiac arrest before defibrillation, their chances of survival are reduced by about ten per cent. First responders are local volunteers, trained in lifesaving skills and in how to use a defibrillator, and can often get to a scene quicker than an ambulance.

"I am so grateful that a defibrillator was available to save my life, and the more first responders with defibrillators there are, the more lives will be saved."

The defibrillators funded by the Lions in 2010 have been made available for use by first responders in East Grinstead, Lingfield and Dormansland.

Jim, of Fulmar Drive, East Grinstead, said: "The idea is to have a first responder available within eight minutes of an incident. These are people who are trained to use defibrillators and without them, I would be six feet under.

"They saved my life and they saved Gordon's life."

Lifesaving training for first responders is provided by the South East Coast Ambulance Service (SECAmb), though the service admits it does not currently have the funding to support new volunteers. Instead, SECAmb is keen to raise awareness and money for the service.

First responder Richard Herbert, from Dormansland, said: "As first responders, we're not just there for heart attacks. We help with anything an ambulance can help with, such as first aid, cuts and breakages."


Read more: http://www.eastgrinsteadcourier.co.uk/Volunteer-launches-campaign-purchase/story-20894032-detail/story.html#ixzz2yrpyRAVt

 

 

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Take heart - new schools will all get defibrillators, supported by Michael Gove

Take heart - new schools will all get defibrillators, supported by Michael Gove | First Aid Training | Scoop.it

ALL new schools are to be equipped with life-saving defibrillators to cut the number of child heart deaths.

The move, supported by Education Secretary Michael Gove, will be announced in Chancellor George Osborne’s Budget later this month.

More than 270 pupils die after suffering heart attacks at school every year but, according to charity SADS, only 80 of 30,000 schools have automated external defibrillators, which cost £1,500.

Sick youngsters given an electric shock to the heart with the life-saving devices are 50 per cent more likely to survive a coronary than those who have to wait for an ambulance. The odds in rural areas are 75 per cent.

The initiative is being spearheaded by Conservative MP Andrew Percy, a trained first responder who has helped raise funds to buy defibrillators for six schools in his Brigg and Goole constituency. It is backed by the British Heart Foundation, Red Cross, St John Ambulance and Oliver King Foundation.

Mr Percy told the Sunday Express: “It is a national scandal that children are dying unnecessarily in this country because there are not enough public access defibrillators. A relatively small one-off investment could have a lasting legacy, which is why for me it is a complete no-brainer.”

Oliver King was just 12 when he died of a cardiac arrest while taking part in a school swimming race in 2011.

A year after Oliver’s death his family set up the Oliver King Foundation, which wants to see defibrillators installed in all schools, sports centres and other public buildings.

Oliver’s father, Mark, said: “We are losing children who are fit and healthy every week to cardiac arrests.

“When my own son died we waited more than 20 minutes for the ambulance to arrive and it was a seven-minute journey to hospital. I know that had there been a defibrillator on site, he would be here today.

“My question to the Government is why is there a postcode lottery with ­children’s lives with there being defibrillators at some schools and not others?”

 

 

ALL new schools are to be equipped with life-saving defibrillators to cut the number of child heart deaths.By: Marco GiannangeliPublished: Sun, March 9, 2014   

Defibrillators will be supplied to schools to cut down child heart attack deaths [GETTY]

The move, supported by Education Secretary Michael Gove, will be announced in Chancellor George Osborne’s Budget later this month.

More than 270 pupils die after suffering heart attacks at school every year but, according to charity Sads, only 80 of 30,000 schools have automated external defibrillators, which cost £1,500.

Sick youngsters given an electric shock to the heart with the life-saving devices are 50 per cent more likely to survive a coronary than those who have to wait for an ambulance. The odds in rural areas are 75 per cent.

The initiative is being spearheaded by Conservative MP Andrew Percy, a trained first responder who has helped raise funds to buy defibrillators for six schools in his Brigg and Goole constituency. It is backed by the British Heart Foundation, Red Cross, St John Ambulance and Oliver King Foundation.

Mr Percy told the Sunday Express: “It is a national scandal that children are dying unnecessarily in this country because there are not enough public access defibrillators. A relatively small one-off investment could have a lasting legacy, which is why for me it is a complete no-brainer.”

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Oliver King was just 12 when he died of a cardiac arrest while taking part in a school swimming race in 2011

Oliver King was just 12 when he died of a cardiac arrest while taking part in a school swimming race in 2011.

A year after Oliver’s death his family set up the Oliver King Foundation, which wants to see defibrillators installed in all schools, sports centres and other public buildings.

Oliver’s father, Mark, said: “We are losing children who are fit and healthy every week to cardiac arrests.

“When my own son died we waited more than 20 minutes for the ambulance to arrive and it was a seven-minute journey to hospital. I know that had there been a defibrillator on site, he would be here today.

“My question to the Government is why is there a postcode lottery with ­children’s lives with there being defibrillators at some schools and not others?”

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Cooling treatment credited with saving a cardiac arrest patient - Ocala

Cooling treatment credited with saving a cardiac arrest patient - Ocala | First Aid Training | Scoop.it

Cooling treatment credited with saving a cardiac arrest patientOcalaShe suffered cardiac arrest, her body temperature was cooled by emergency health care workers to slow damage to her brain, and she was put into a coma.


Via Carl Robinson
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You are not dead until you are warm and dead...
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Performing 38 minutes of CPR can save patient's life, study finds

Performing CPR for 38 minutes or longer can improve a patient’s chance of surviving cardiac arrest, a new study has found.

The findings, presented at the American Heart Association’s Scientific Sessions 2013, revealed that sustaining CPR that long also improves the chances that survivors will have normal brain function.

Cardiac arrest occurs when electrical impulses in the heart become rapid or chaotic, causing it to suddenly stop beating.

In the US, about 80 percent of cardiac arrests, nearly 288,000 people, occur outside of a hospital each year, and fewer than 10 percent survive.

Research has found that the early return of spontaneous circulation — the body pumping blood on its own — is important for people to survive cardiac arrest with normal brain function.

However, little research has focused on the period between cardiac arrest and any return of spontaneous circulation.

The Japanese Circulation Society Resuscitation Science Study group tracked all out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in Japan between 2005 and 2011.

The researchers studied how much time passed between survivors’ collapse and the return of spontaneous circulation, and how well brain function was preserved a month later.

Survivors were considered to have fared well neurologically if they were alert and able to return to normal activities, or if they had moderate disability but were well enough to work part-time in a sheltered environment or take part in daily activities independently.

“The time between collapse and return of spontaneous circulation for those who fared well was 13 minutes compared to about 21 minutes for those who suffered severe brain disability”, said Ken Nagao, M.D., Ph.D., professor and director-in-chief of the Department of Cardiology, CPR and Emergency Cardiovascular Care at Surugadai Nihon University Hospital in Tokyo.

After adjusting for other factors that can affect neurological outcomes, the researchers found that the odds of surviving an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest without severe brain damage dropped 5 percent for every 60 seconds that passed before spontaneous circulation was restored.

Based on the relationship between favourable brain outcomes and the time from collapse to a return of spontaneous circulation, the researchers calculated that CPR lasting 38 minutes or more was advisable.

“It may be appropriate to continue CPR if the return of spontaneous circulation occurs for any period of time”, concluded Nagao.

 

 

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Denmark setting the bar for CPR! | CPR Professionals Blog

People who suffer a cardiac arrest in Denmark today are three times more likely to survive than a decade ago, thanks largely to a national effort to teach people CPR, a new study says.

Denmark launched a national effort in 2005 to teach its residents to perform CPR, or cardiopulmonary resuscitation, in order to save people who suffer a cardiac arrest outside a hospital. The country gave out 150,000 instructional kits; kids began learning CPR as early as elementary school. Teens were required to learn CPR in order to get a driver’s license.

The results have been dramatic, say authors of a study in today’s Journal of the American Medical Association, or JAMA. About 300,000 people in North America each year suffer a cardiac arrest, when the heart stops beating, outside of a hospital.

In Denmark, the number of cardiac arrest victims who received “bystander” CPR — from someone other than a health professional — more than doubled, from 22% in 2001 to 45% in 2010.

In the same time period, the percentage of cardiac arrest victims who arrived at a hospital alive increased from 8% to 22%.

The percentage of patients alive after 30 days tripled, growing from 3.5% to 11%. The percentage of patients alive after one year also more than tripled, from 3% in 2001 to 10% in 2010.

Those findings are impressive, says Michael Sayre, a professor of emergency medicine at the University of Washington and a spokesman for the American Heart Association.

Although other studies have looked at smaller, community efforts to promote CPR, Sayre says the new study is striking because it involved an entire country.

Thanks to efforts by the heart association, Washington and a handful of other states now require students to take a CPR class before graduating from high school, Sayre says.

Still, study authors say that Denmark’s CPR initiative can’t take all of the credit for improving survival.

That’s because Denmark also made other important changes aimed at increasing survival after a heart attack, such as improving the care provided both by hospitals and emergency medical services.

“Teaching bystanders the importance of CPR can make a difference,” says Suzanne Steinbaum, director of the program on women and heart disease Lenox Hill Hospital’s Heart and Vascular Institute, in New York.

Performing CPR is actually easier than ever, Steinbaum says. That’s because the heart association now recommends a “hands-only” CPR procedure, in which bystanders concentrate on performing chest compressions, instead of alternating compressions with mouth-to-mouth breathing.

“Those who witness a cardiac arrest and start CPR can actually change the outcome of what happens to the victim,” she says.

 

 

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Stafford woman campaigns for map of life saving defibrillators in Stafford Borough

Stafford woman campaigns for map of life saving defibrillators in Stafford Borough | First Aid Training | Scoop.it
A STAFFORD woman who was brought back from the dead after having a cardiac arrest has bought a defibrillator for the town centre.
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Adam Leverett's curator insight, September 3, 2013 12:57 PM

You would thinks things like this would be "no-brainers" - why should it have to be a campaign?

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Resuscitation Council UK Training in mouth-to-mouth ventilation

Some instructors have decided not to teach mouth-to-mouth ventilation during resuscitation training.

The current Resuscitation Council (UK) guidelines include mouth-to-mouth ventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for both laypeople and healthcare professionals, but compression-only CPR is encouraged for those who are untrained, unable or unwilling to perform mouth-to-mouth ventilation. Compression-only CPR is better than no CPR, and this is the primary message in high-profile media campaigns in the UK that target people who have not been trained in CPR.

Resuscitation Council (UK) Guidelines 2010 for Basic Life Support state that studies have shown that compression-only CPR may be as effective as combined ventilation and compression in the first few minutes after non-asphyxial arrest. However, chest compression combined with rescue breaths is the method of choice for CPR by trained lay-rescuers and professionals and should be the basis for lay-rescuer education.

Compression-only CPR has potential advantages over chest compression and ventilation, particularly when the rescuer is an untrained or partially-trained layperson. However, there are situations where combining chest compressions with ventilation is better, for example in children, in asphyxial arrests, and in prolonged resuscitation attempts. Therefore, CPR should remain standard care for healthcare professionals and the preferred target for laypeople, the emphasis always being on minimal interruption in chest compressions. A simple, education-based approach is recommended:

Ideally, full CPR skills should be taught to all citizens.Initial or limited-time training should always include chest compression.Subsequent training (which may follow immediately or at a later date) should include ventilation as well as chest compression.

CPR training for citizens should be promoted, but untrained laypeople should be encouraged to give chest compressions only, when appropriate with telephone advice from an ambulance dispatcher.

Those laypeople with a duty of care, such as first-aid workers, lifeguards, and childminders, should be taught chest compression and ventilation.

Resuscitation Council (UK) Guidelines 2010 for In-hospital resuscitation state that if there is no airway and ventilation equipment available, giving mouth-to-mouth ventilation should be considered. If there are clinical reasons to avoid mouth-to-mouth contact, or you are unwilling or unable to do this, do chest compressions until help or airway equipment arrives. A pocket mask or bag-mask device should be available rapidly in all clinical areas.

Current guidelines recommend starting CPR with chest compressions and this helps avoid the need for mouth-to-mouth resuscitation in most clinical situations as airway equipment should be available rapidly. The Resuscitation Council (UK) recognises that there will be circumstances where mouth-to-mouth ventilation is not appropriate. But there are occasions when giving mouth-to-mouth ventilation could be life-saving.

Mouth-to-mouth ventilation is an important resuscitation skill that is relatively easy to teach and learn, and should be included in resuscitation training for healthcare professionals.

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Doctor's plea for defibrillators to be in all public buildings

Doctor's plea for defibrillators to be in all public buildings | First Aid Training | Scoop.it

Dr Aseem Malhotra, from Manchester, a cardiology specialist registrar at the Royal Free Hospital in London, says the machines could save thousands of lives.

Former footballer Fabrice Muamba’s life was saved as medics used a defibrillator when he suffered a heart attack on the pitch

A cardiologist has called for defibrillators to be placed in all public buildings in a bid to improve the  low survival rates for heart attack victims.

About 60,000 heart attacks happen outside of hospitals in Britain each year – but the survival rate is between just two per cent and 12pc.

Dr Aseem Malhotra, from Manchester , a cardiology specialist registrar at the Royal Free Hospital in London, says the machines could save thousands of lives.

The former Manchester Grammar pupil said: “There should be defibrillators in all public buildings. They should be there like you have fire extinguishers.

“We know that, with defibrillation, the chances of survival increase to 75 pc. They are simple, computerised, tell you what to do, and it analyses the heart rhythm for you, shocking patients out of the abnormal rhythm.”

Dr Aseem and colleague Roby Rakhit, consultant cardiologist and clinical director at the hospital, have written an article in the British Medical Journal which says scientific evidence to support early defibrillation is overwhelming.

Dr Aseem Malhotra 

They say lessons can also be learned from Seattle in the US, which has the world’s highest rate of survival for cardiac arrests. Children in Seattle are taught CPR in schools.

They say there should be more CPR training in Britain and steps should also be taken to ensure that patients are sent to the right hospitals where they can be treated by specialist cardiologists.

The call for more machines also comes after the Bolton Wanderers footballer Fabrice Muamba nearly died during a match but was saved thanks to prompt treatment and the use of a defibrillator.

Surveys have revealed that only one in 13 people in Britain feel confident enough to carry out emergency first aid.

Campaigners including leading doctors, health experts and MPs have written to the prime minister asking him to consider changing the law to make the life-saving machines compulsory in every community.

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