"The earliest black family films were produced by independent black producers who used African American writers for the scripts. These black writers used their own creative talents in write original screenplays, or they made film adaptations from black literary works. For example, the Frederick Douglass Film Company produced THE COLORED AMERICAN, OR WINNING HIS SUIT (1916) which was written by Rev. W.S. Smith, a black Baptist minister. THE COLORED AMERICAN resembled Lincoln family films because the film dealt with a black hero proving his worth, and the plot ends with him returning to his black family. In May 1917, the Frederick Douglass Company premiered a Paul Laurence Dunbar film adaptation of his short story, "The Scapegoat." The production of THE SCAPEGOAT pioneered film adaptations of African American literary works."