This is the website of the National Art Education Association's Women's Caucus. The NAEAWC website links to activities of the WC, including awards, art exhibitions, history and mission, and their blog.
The National Art Education Association's Women's Caucus exists to eradicate gender discrimination in all areas of art education, to support women art educators in their professional endeavors, and to educate the general public about the contributions of women in the arts.
We believe that all women and men, girls and boys, must have equal freedom and opportunity to participate in and benefit from the arts and teaching professions. Educational practices which encourage gender stereotyping in the practice of the arts and or which do not provide equal exposure to the contributions of women artists and art educators perpetuate negative gender attitudes and social patterns. Such practices maintain women in positions of limited power, achievement, and aspiration, and negatively affect all members of society.
GOAL 3: PROMOTE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER WOMENTarget 3.A: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015The world has achieved parity in primary education between girls and boys, but for girls in some regions, education remains elusive.The ratio between the enrolment rate of girls and that of boys grew from 91 in 1999 to 97 in 2010 for all developing regions. The gender parity index value of 97 falls within the plus-or-minus 3-point margin of 100 per cent, the accepted measure for parity.Gender inequality persists and women continue to face discrimination in access to education, work and economic assets, and participation in government.Globally, women’s share in paid jobs outside of the agricultural sector increased only slightly from 35 per cent in 1990 to 40 per cent in 2010.Violence against women continues to undermine efforts to reach all goals.Poverty is a major barrier to secondary education, especially among older girls.Women are largely relegated to more vulnerable forms of employment.Globally, women occupy only 25 per cent of senior management positions and, in 2008/2009, were on average paid 23 per cent less than men.Business ownership is concentrated in men’s hands throughout the developing world.
EDITOR'S NOTE: The following is the text of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub. L. 88-352) (Title VII), as amended, as it appears in volume 42 of the United States Code, beginning at section 2000e. Title VII prohibits employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex and national origin. The Civil Rights Act of 1991 (Pub. L. 102-166) (CRA) and the Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009 (Pub. L. 111-2) amend several sections of Title VII. In addition, section 102 of the CRA (which is printed elsewhere in this publication) amends the Revised Statutes by adding a new section following section 1977 (42 U.S.C. 1981), to provide for the recovery of compensatory and punitive damages in cases of intentional violations of Title VII, the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, and section 501 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Cross references to Title VII as enacted appear in italics following each section heading. Editor's notes also appear in italics.
To enforce the constitutional right to vote, to confer jurisdiction upon the district courts of the United States to provide injunctive relief against discrimination in public accommodations, to authorize the attorney General to institute suits to protect constitutional rights in public facilities and public education, to extend the Commission on Civil Rights, to prevent discrimination in federally assisted programs, to establish a Commission on Equal Employment Opportunity, and for other purposes.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That this Act may be cited as the “Civil Rights Act of 1964”.
For too long, Muslim feminists have endured the question of whether Islam and feminism can coexist. This seemingly innocent question, asked on the part of concerned feminists and others, presumes (and sometimes even enshrines) the claim of Islam’s incongruity with feminism. The underlying assumptions that frame this tired debate are often articulated in this way: Can religious practice, which often hinges on patriarchal authority and interpretation, be amenable to feminist thought, action, and praxis? Can feminist ideals be sought and attained within a religious (thus patriarchal), as opposed to a secular (and therefore egalitarian), framework? And, more specifically, can Islam, as a religious identity, doctrine, and practice, work in tandem with the principles and ideals of democratic feminism?
Girls Inc. inspires all girls to be strong, smart, and boldSM through life-changing programs and experiences that help girls navigate gender, economic, and social barriers. Research-based curricula, delivered by trained, mentoring professionals in a positive all-girl environment equip girls to achieve academically; lead healthy and physically active lives; manage money; navigate media messages; and discover an interest in science, technology, engineering, and math. The network of local Girls Inc. nonprofit organizations serves 125,000 girls ages 6 - 18 annually across the United States and Canada.
Title IX, Education Admendments of 1972 - Sex Discrimination
Section 1681. Sex
(a) Prohibition against discrimination; exceptions. No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance, except that:
(1) Classes of educational institutions subject to prohibition
in regard to admissions to educational institutions, this section shall apply only to institutions of vocational education, professional education, and graduate higher education, and to public institutions of undergraduate higher education;
(2) Educational institutions commencing planned change in admissions
in regard to admissions to educational institutions, this section shall not apply (A) for one year from June 23, 1972, nor for six years after June 23, 1972, in the case of an educational institution which has begun the process of changing from being an institution which admits only students of one sex to being an institution which admits students of both sexes, but only if it is carrying out a plan for such a change which is approved by the Secretary of Education or (B) for seven years from the date an educational institution begins the process of changing from being an institution which admists only students of one sex to being an institution which admits students of both sexes, but only if it is carrying out a plan for such a change which is approved by the Secretary of Education, whichever is the later...
In 2001, the incarceration rate for black women (730.7 per every 100,000) was not only the highest for all women in the city, but even exceeded that of white men (488.3 per 100,000.) Those numbers were substantially lower for Latinas.)
ROME — Pope Francis has backed the Vatican's doctrinal crackdown on a major group of American nuns, reasserting the Roman Catholic Church's conservative approach to various social issues in a move that could cool the warm reception he has...
This April 2013 LA Times news article describes the actions of the new Pope (and the old Vatican) to curtail the radical feminist views of an order of nuns (mostly US)."...the Vatican dispatched an archbishop to rewrite the group's statutes and set up reeducation programs to bring nuns back into line" Even a Twitter campaign couldn't save the nuns from "re-education".
Women account for 48% of the workforce. Sklar, Holly., Mykyta, Laryssa., Wefald, Susan. Raise the Floor: Wages And Policies That Work For All Of Us. Ms. New York: Ms. Foundation for Women. 2001. Three out of four women of childbearing age are now employed.40% of working women are mothers with children under 1858% of mothers with children under age 2 work62% of mothers with children under age 6 work70% of mothers with children under age 18 work Catalyst, Mothers’ Day Update on Working Moms (May 11, 1997)
Women Work to Support Themselves and Their Families
70% of working women work out of economic necessity. US Census Bureau 41% of working women are the sole providers for their households. They are single, divorced, separated or widowed. 28% have dependent children. 1997 AFL-CIO survey, “Ask a Working Woman” Of the 68.5 million families in the United States in 1993, 12.4 million (18 %) were headed by women—8 million were white, 3.8 million were black, and 1.5 million were Hispanic. Nancy Campbell, “Women and Work,” Ohio State University Women’s Studies Department, 1998
Many Working Women Are Part of the Working Poor and Live In Poverty
Sexual harassment is a form of sex discrimination.The legal definition of sexual harassment is “unwelcomeverbal, visual, or physical conduct of a sexual nature that is severe or pervasive and affects working conditions or creates a hostile work environment.”
For almost twenty years the Women of Color Resource Center has been at the forefront of the social justice feminist movement, promoting the well-being of women and girls of color across the United States, through popular education, leadership development, research and social analysis.
As a movement building organization, WCRC’s work supports the health and growth of social change organizations and individuals, sustainable infrastructures, and network development. We strive toward a stronger movement by building trust and a common vision between organizations and individuals working in different sectors and on multiple issues
Reauthorization of theWomen’s Educational Equity Act (WEEA) of 2001 Background:Since 1974, WEEA has been the only federal education program specifically focused on gender equity. The federal government has a responsibility to actively implement Title IX and other federal civil rights laws using preventive as well as enforcement strategies. WEEA was known for funding model gender equity programs and for using its Resource Center to share information on these programs and assist states with gender equity initiatives. However, WEEA has never been adequately funded and the Bush Administration ended the WEEA Equity Resource Center in 2003. At its height, WEEA received $10 million in 1980, although it had been authorized for $80 million. Since 1987 the annual appropriations for WEEA have been less than $4 million and in the proposed FY ’11 Department of Education budget WEEA is to receive only $2.278 million -- less than many congressional earmarks! This amount is not even sufficient to support annual competitions for gender equity programs that were held in past years. This is not to say that there has been no funding of gender equity programs –the Perkins Vocational Education Acts had provided $100 million annually for sex equity in non-traditional careers and to assist displaced homemakers until 1998 and the National Science Foundation has funded gender equity STEM (science, technology, engineering & mathematics) activities for many years – but the funding has been narrow and not focused on the broad goal of educational equity for girls and boys, women and men. Federal support of gender equity education has been minimal, uncoordinated, and inadequately focused on preventing sex discrimination. A new coordinated approach is needed to take advantage of the common underlying challenges in fully implementing gender equity in a wide variety of areas (such as STEM, vocational education, and under-representation of women in education administration). The Department of Education (ED) is in an ideal position to provide leadership in accomplishing many gender equality goals.
As a global women’s advocacy organization, WEDO envisions a just world that promotes and protects human rights, gender equality and the integrity of the environment.
Mission To contribute toward its vision for the world, WEDO’s mission is to ensure that women’s rights; social, economic and environmental justice; and sustainable development principles-as well as the linkages between them-are at the heart of global and national policies, programs and practices.
Approach WEDO views strong and diverse partnerships as integral to meeting its goals. It allies with women’s organizations; environmental, development and human rights organizations; governments; and intergovernmental organizations, including the United Nations, to achieve its mission. WEDO’s core competency has been high-level advocacy in international arenas, while building bridges among a range of stakeholders.
The documents gathered for this mini-edition chronicle Margaret Sanger's publication of the radical, feminist journal, The Woman Rebel, and her emergence as the foremost leader of the birth control movement. The events surrounding the publication of the journal in 1914, including Sanger's indictment for violation of federal obscenity laws, her unlawful flight from prosecution, her 13-months in exile in Europe, and her emotional return to New York in the fall of 1915 to face trial, trace the inception of the birth control movement in the U.S. and mark a pivotal time in Sanger's life. The Woman Rebel established Sanger as a dynamic and controversial feminist voice, the leading birth control agitator in America, and an influential international, a position she held for the next fifty years.