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Complex International Borders

More complex international borders in this follow up to part 1. 
In this video I look at even more enclaves and exclaves."

Via Seth Dixon, FCHSAPGEO
Seth Dixon's curator insight, January 9, 8:09 AM

This video (like part 1) shows some great examples of how the political organization of space and administration of borders can get complicated.  Here are the examples (and time in the video when they are covered in the video) on these complex borders:

Tags: borders, political, territoriality, sovereignty, video.

harrison babbitt's curator insight, February 1, 2:09 PM

this correlates with unit 4 political geography because it is showing a nation state.

Rescooped by FCHSAPGEO from Geography Education

Where China and Kazakhstan Meet

Where China and Kazakhstan Meet | FCHS AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY | Scoop.it

e "While people often say that borders aren’t visible from space, the line between Kazakhstan and China could not be more clear in this satellite image. Acquired by the Landsat 8 satellite on September 9, 2013, the image shows northwestern China around the city of Qoqek and far eastern Kazakhstan near Lake Balqash.

The border between the two countries is defined by land-use policies. In China, land use is intense. Only 11.62 percent of China’s land is arable. Pressed by a need to produce food for 1.3 billion people, China farms just about any land that can be sustained for agriculture. Fields are dark green in contrast to the surrounding arid landscape, a sign that the agriculture is irrigated. As of 2006, about 65 percent of China’s fresh water was used for agriculture, irrigating 629,000 square kilometers (243,000 square miles) of farmland, an area slightly smaller than the state of Texas.

The story is quite different in Kazakhstan. Here, large industrial-sized farms dominate, an artifact of Soviet-era agriculture. While agriculture is an important sector in the Kazakh economy, eastern Kazakhstan is a minor growing area. Only 0.03 percent of Kazakhstan’s land is devoted to permanent agriculture, with 20,660 square kilometers being irrigated. The land along the Chinese border is minimally used, though rectangular shapes show that farming does occur in the region. Much of the agriculture in this region is rain-fed, so the fields are tan much like the surrounding natural landscape."


Tags: remote sensing, land use, environment, geospatial, environment modify, food, agriculture, agricultural land change.

Via Seth Dixon
FCHSAPGEO's insight:

We discussed Landsat images today and borders. Here is a current article to bring it all together.

Jacob Crowell's curator insight, November 24, 2014 2:38 PM

This photo shows what happens when a government is dedicated to developing agricultural industry. With a population so large it is critical that they capitalize on all their irritable land and there for that is why the border is so drastically different. In China they need the land to be used when it is possible.  

Kaitlin Young's curator insight, December 14, 2014 2:11 PM

The border between Kazakhstan and China holds stark contrasts. The Kazakh side is barren desert, with almost no agricultural or transportation system development. On the other side, agricultural plots are squished right up to the border, and an urban center sits right off of the border. When a country has a population of over a billion people, it needs to produce food for those people. China uses almost all of the land it can to grow food, and it has shelled out money in order to make desolate landscapes with little agricultural potential into productive areas. Kazakhstan has a relatively small population with little economic development, so it does not need to utilize and manipulate marginal lands in order to continue growth. 

Lora Tortolani's curator insight, March 1, 10:00 PM

This photograph illustrates how cultures and land use can be vastly different even in neighboring countries.

Rescooped by FCHSAPGEO from Geography Education

China publishes new map

China publishes new map | FCHS AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY | Scoop.it
China has published a new map of the entire country including the islands in the South China Sea (West Philippine Sea) in order to "better show" its territorial claim over the region.

Via Seth Dixon
James Hobson's curator insight, November 21, 2014 7:12 PM

(East Asia topic 2)

The aggressive stance which China is seen as taking towards its oceanic claims can be tied closely with its lack of a mainland frontier. Having no where else to go westward, the only other option is apparently to go very-outward into the south and east. The fact that there is virtually no land in this region is a mute point due to the huge resources which lie under the ocean's surface.

   This action taken by China seems to eerily represent actions of the United States around 70 years ago; once the western frontier had been settled and firmly claimed, the desire to continue expansion can be seen through the U.S.'s involvement with Hawaii, the Philippines, Guam, Midway Island, and the like. Though there may have been the use of war as a reason to do this in the case of America, the nationalistic desire for expansion can clearly be seen. European powers, which have especially been short on land frontiers, certainly have exhibited the same traits in history.

Nicole Kearsch's curator insight, November 22, 2014 9:46 PM

This new map of China, not surprisingly produced by China, may not look any different than the maps you see now, until you notice the dashed lines in the South China Sea.  These lines are meant to outline the area of Chinese territory.  They have also claimed, which has turned up as false, that they had ancient claim to this area.  This wouldn't be such a big deal except the fact that there are oil reserves in the area in which China has marked its claim.  Not only would this specific area become a new resource for China but also the international waters that they have greatly increased for themselves.  With China's new claim to this area in the South China Sea they have expanded the area that they control as well as gaining a great deal of international water that they would have drilling rights to.  This has neighboring countries up in arms for good reason.  China is trying to take over land that isn't theirs with no validity solely for the oil claims.  Although they are controlling the area in which they have staked a claim on, the courts could soon make sure this isn't happening.

Alec Castagno's curator insight, December 17, 2014 10:50 PM

The new map published by the Chinese government is a clear message of what they feel are their territorial boundaries. In areas that are contested between China and other countries, the map makes a bold claim that these areas belong to China. Chinese activities in these disputed areas match up with the attitude conveyed by this map.

Rescooped by FCHSAPGEO from Geography Education

Military industrial complex: These 15 countries have the largest defense budgets

Military industrial complex: These 15 countries have the largest defense budgets | FCHS AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY | Scoop.it
World defense spending is expected to go up for the first time in five years, thanks to China and Russia.

Via Seth Dixon
Albert Jordan's curator insight, February 12, 2014 5:22 PM

Brazil being in the top 15 of countries with the largest defense budget is not all that surprising considering the political, social, and economic situations of South America. Within Brazil’s sphere of influence, especially areas west of its developed cities, the Amazon jungle still is used by those deemed enemies of the state, whether actual or politically based. Because of that, there comes the difficult task of tracking and deterring rebel activity, arms or drug smuggling, etc. The borders that Brazil share with Bolivia, Colombia, and Venezuela; border security is  likely to be a concern due to the history of drug manufacture and shipping from those nations, along with the violence and corruption that comes with that activity. Not to mention the historical and violent political instability these countries have faced, which are still a concern for the region and world. Venezuela, being an “enemy of the U.S.” and Brazil being an ally, this border area is probably highly militarized or monitored. With this in mind, a slight musing could be given towards how much of the military aid and counter narcotics aid from the United States goes into Brazil’s military funding.

Brazil is also the one of the most stable and economically strong countries on the continent and in order to continue that, the government must be able to keep instability coming over from the border in check as well as deal with rebel forces using the Amazon as a safe haven. What is surprising to me however is that with how far away the rest of the countries in South America are from Brazil in military expenditures causes me to pause and think about just what they may be worrying about from their neighbors? Perhaps as they attempt to get a seat at the big table in international affairs, they feel having a stronger military will improve their image. They may not be worried about regional infighting due to the difficult terrain of the area which would make any military campaign extremely difficult and costly, besides a host of other reasons. In conclusion, Brazil is more than likely looking towards international interests in addition to showcasing their swelling national pride by spending $175 U.S. dollars per person on military expenditures while many continue to go hungry living in the famous favelas of Cidade de Deus.


Giovanni Sonego's curator insight, February 13, 2014 7:48 AM

Con 25,2 miliardi di dollari L'Italia si piazza 14esima, prima dell'Iran

Oltre alla spesa complessiva, per i primi 10 paesi è riportato anche l'ammontare di spese militari pro capite.

Stati Uniti 2.000 $

Cina 83 $

Russia 475 $

Arabia Saudita 2.100 $ 

Regno Unito 900 $

Francia 797 $

Giappone, meno di 400 $

Germania 450 $

India 29 $

Brasile 175 $

E l'Italia? Basta dividere. Sono 413 $ a persona.

Ogni anno, la mia famiglia dà ben 2.065 $ alla difesa.

Jessica Rieman's curator insight, February 18, 2014 1:32 PM

Russia is the third highest goverment military that spends around 143 million people lived in Russia in 2012 and they spent around $475 per person on it's military. Russia compared to China and the US is another story the US is number one in who spent the most on their military forces at $600.4 billion. As far as China is concerened it comes in at number two at spending around  $112.2 billion. These numbers make sense especially for the power house that China is and how their values of militarism affect their spending and their way of society/life.

Rescooped by FCHSAPGEO from Geography in the classroom

China’s Great Uprooting: Moving 250 Million Into Cities

China’s Great Uprooting: Moving 250 Million Into Cities | FCHS AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY | Scoop.it
A 12-year plan to move hundreds of millions of rural residents into cities is intended to spur economic growth, but could have unintended consequences, skeptics warn.

Via dilaycock
Amanda Donecoff's comment, July 15, 2013 12:39 AM
Amanda Donecoff's comment, July 15, 2013 1:24 AM
The people of China are on a downward slope, even though they are in a process of so much production. Their government has too much power and the people don't have enough say. The urbanization process in place is just another way to stop the people from speaking out or even inquiring about their own opinion. Moving everyone into cities is not going to help China expand or grow as much as they need to as a people in the long run. When you change someone into something they're clearly not, they can never aspire to their true potential. The country of China wants to prosper, but contradicts itself because the government is trying to take away a part of life that has been known to man for as long as anyone could probably remember, which is country; the rural lands that have always run across the Earth. The control and power that China is trying to acquire is not coming easy enough to them because they are too independent. They need to let places like the U.S. help build them and inspire them. Also, their plan for complete city life is not moving fast enough. People are unemployed and financially hurt. Even in 2025, people will continue to hurt and regret the decisions made. Sometimes the government can seem cold and unfeeling because they don't take all of the factors into consideration that they need to so they can thrive. Eventually, people need to come out and make decisions that are risky and outside the box to change the direction that their country is being led into. If China does not stop trying to control their people, and push them all into the city rather than the farming country, it could potentially become a place where people would rather die than be who they are. A great example of this is Foxconn. Many children have committed suicide because of the pressure put on them. Unfortunately, China chose the wrong solution. They didn't actually fix the core of the problem. Putting nets up around the buildings stopped some of the deaths, but it doesn't stop the workers or children from feeling so worthless that they shouldn't exist. China needs to make changes for their morality and for their future as a country with a lot of promise and potential. China and all of its people just need to use their power and ability for the right reasons, in the right ways.
Rescooped by FCHSAPGEO from Geography Education

Shanghai: 1990 vs. 2010

Shanghai: 1990 vs. 2010 | FCHS AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY | Scoop.it

Globalization has hit...hard and fast. 

Via Seth Dixon
Lauren Stahowiak's curator insight, April 14, 2014 6:35 PM

Shanghai has transformed and globalized so quickly in the last twenty years that it doesn't even look like that same place. Skies that were once seen are now blocked by skyscrapers. Buildings that still remain are overpowered and do not stand out like they once did.

James Hobson's curator insight, November 21, 2014 7:02 PM

(East Asia topic 1)

Present-day Shanghai appears as if it could pass as New York city to the untrained eye. These photos show how globalization affects a city physically, but other aspects are impacted by globalization as well. Many megacities find themselves growing away from their origins: ways of life, employment opportunities, languages & dialects, ethnic background, and cultural traditions all find themselves fending off the incoming competition. However, there is a bright side: in many cases that which is lost from or changed in on place can find itself thriving in another - the same mechanism which brought about the original change in the first place. One could argue that 'Chinatowns' and 'Little Italy's are common examples, just as Western traits are transforming Eastern cities.

Jacob Crowell's curator insight, December 15, 2014 1:25 PM

100 years ago this type of development would have taken generations to complete. In the post industrial age we can see that in a mere 20 years a city can be completely transformed.

Rescooped by FCHSAPGEO from Geography in the classroom


Urbanisation | FCHS AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY | Scoop.it

Via dilaycock
dilaycock's curator insight, October 26, 2014 10:50 PM

A number of audio and video resources on urbanisation in China.

Rescooped by FCHSAPGEO from Geography Education

Chinese Uyghurs defy Ramadan ban

Chinese Uyghurs defy Ramadan ban | FCHS AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY | Scoop.it

"The government's attempt to clamp down on religious expression has backfired among Uyghurs."

Via Seth Dixon
MsPerry's curator insight, August 12, 2014 7:04 PM


Amanda Morgan's curator insight, December 16, 2014 3:58 PM

This article is inspiring in that it shows cultural minority groups defending their cultures and religions

Alec Castagno's curator insight, December 17, 2014 4:19 PM

Chinese efforts to suppress religion and extremism in western China have had an opposite effect, with the people often disregarding laws and efforts against practicing Islam. Celebrating Ramadan and bringing children to a mosque are technically illegal, but it has pushed people to make an effort of involving their children. It is an effort to counter the Chinese push to wipe the regions traditions and culture away, but has created an effort by the people to pass on their culture. Even the law limiting children is widely ignored as it does not fit with the locals beliefs.

Rescooped by FCHSAPGEO from Geography Education

China's territorial claims

One of the geography videos embedded in this interactive map: http://bit.ly/KDY6C2

Via Seth Dixon
Kaitlin Young's curator insight, November 20, 2014 8:44 AM
The People's Republic of China is beginning to frighten its neighbors by flexing its growing power in regards to territorial claims. While China chose to keep to its self during the major periods of world colonialism, it is now considering the benefits of enlarging its borders. Since China is much larger with a more powerful economy and military than its neighbors, countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia risk a lot by fighting China's claims. Oil plays in the South China Sea are causing multiple countries to argue over territory. Whether or not China is willing to spark war within the region to claim natural resources crucial to its growth as a world power is yet to be seen.
Alec Castagno's curator insight, December 17, 2014 3:28 PM

China has a history of imperialism and expansion, and their recent economic gains show it may be considering taking steps in that direction again. The country is in border disputes in at least three different regions with seven countries or more. China appears very bold by claiming desire the control an area that is already disputed between five countries, and is much further away from China than it is the other countries.

John Nieuwendyk's curator insight, December 17, 2014 5:24 PM

China is imposing these territorial claims as it is a benefit for their economy. That being said this can cause geo-political tensions that can have detrimental effects on how one country trades with another. 

Rescooped by FCHSAPGEO from Geography Education

In China, one-child policy compounds loss of child for parents

In China, one-child policy compounds loss of child for parents | FCHS AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY | Scoop.it
One-child policy leaves some parents childless, hopeless and facing financial ruin in old age.

Via Seth Dixon
Antonio Martinez's comment, September 12, 2013 3:36 PM
I can understand why this law is enforced. The obvious reason is that China has an unusually high population compared to other countries. Although, this law definitely has it's downsides. One being that if your child dies such as in the car accident in the beginning of the article, then you will be childless for the rest of your life.
jacob benner's comment, September 14, 2013 5:11 PM
China is overpopulated and it its becoming a problem, but by forcing parents to only have one child is leading to other problems. The childless parents describe there life to be empty and full of depression and without their child they are running into financial issues. Most of the time it is to late for the parents to have another child.
Joseph Thacker 's curator insight, April 15, 2014 5:43 PM

I understand the issues China is having with their large population but the one-child policy hurts the average family. Problems occur when a family can only have one child. If anything were to happen to that child, whether he/she dies young, runs away or gets thrown in prison. That can leave the parents vulnerable later in life. When the parents become elderly they may not have a child to take care of them. China must find another way to control their population. 

Rescooped by FCHSAPGEO from Geography Education

Documentary: Last Train Home

Documentary: Last Train Home | FCHS AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY | Scoop.it

Every spring, China's cities are plunged into chaos as 130 million migrant workers journey to their home villages for the New Year in the world's largest human migration.


I've posted in the past about this documentary which portrays the The cultural importance of New Year's in China and the massive corresponding migratory shifts that take place.  What is new is that the 85 minute documentary is now available online.  "Last Train Home takes viewers on a heart-stopping journey with the Zhangs, a couple who left infant children behind for factory jobs 16 years ago, hoping their wages would lift their children to a better life. They return to a family growing distant and a daughter longing to leave school for unskilled work. As the Zhangs navigate their new world, Last Train Home paints a rich, human portrait of China's rush to economic development."


Tags: China, EastAsia, migration, development, labor, development, transportation, unit 2 population.

Via Seth Dixon
Betty Denise's comment, October 10, 2012 1:29 PM
The request video is not available ...