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Rapid Influenza Tests Need To Be More Reliable, FDA Says - Medscape

Medscape Rapid Influenza Tests Need To Be More Reliable, FDA Says Medscape The rapid influenza detection tests (RIDTs) that physicians use in their office need to become more accurate to keep pace with mutating influenza bugs, according to the US...
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Influenza
Flu in all Forms, Be Informed...Not Panicked.
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Viral evolution: Past, present and future of influenza viruses : Nature Reviews Microbiology : Nature Publishing Group

Viral evolution: Past, present and future of influenza viruses : Nature Reviews Microbiology : Nature Publishing Group | Influenza | Scoop.it
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Where Is Avian Flu Hiding?

Three strains of the virus are decimating poultry farms across the country, but how they’re being transmitted remains unclear
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Rescooped by Mel Melendrez-Vallard from Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca
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Viral Interference: The Case of Influenza Viruses

It is well-known that infection of an organism, whether plant, animal or bacterium, with a virus can prevent or partially inhibit infection with another virus within the same host resulting in a “viral interference”. Although originally described for plant viruses in 1929, similar observations were made for bacteriophage and a plethora of animal viruses in the1940s and 1950s. In fact, Jenner reported that herpetic infections may prevent the development of vaccinia lesions in 1804, perhaps the first report of viral interference. These original reports have been well-supported through experimental studies in animals, as well as epidemiological and modeling studies, for a variety of viruses including influenza.


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Avian Flu Diary: Eurosurveillance: Genetic Diversity Of H5N8 Detected In Japanese Birds

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Avian Flu Diary: University Of Minnesota: The Economic Impact Of Avian Flu To Date

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An outbreak unlike any other: Perspective on the 2014-2015 avian influenza

An outbreak unlike any other: Perspective on the 2014-2015 avian influenza | Influenza | Scoop.it
Historically, there have been only three recorded outbreaks of the avian influenza in the United States: in 1924, 1983, and in 2004. The 1924 and 2004 outbreaks were quickly contained and eradicated.

Via Ed Rybicki
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Forecasting the 2013–2014 Influenza Season Using Wikipedia

Author Summary We use modern methods for injecting current data into epidemiological models in order to offer a probabilistic evaluation of the future influenza state in the U.S. population.
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Avian Flu Diary: CIDRAP: H5N2 Roundup & Detection In Environmental Air Samples

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Molecular Epidemiology of Influenza A/H3N2 Viruses Circulating in Mexico from 2003 to 2012

Molecular Epidemiology of Influenza A/H3N2 Viruses Circulating in Mexico from 2003 to 2012 | Influenza | Scoop.it
In this work, nineteen influenza A/H3N2 viruses isolated in Mexico between 2003 and 2012 were studied. Our findings show that different human A/H3N2 viral lineages co-circulate within a same season and can also persist locally in between different influenza seasons, increasing the chance for genetic reassortment events. A novel minor cluster was also identified, named here as Korea, that circulated worldwide during 2003. Frequently, phylogenetic characterization did not correlate with the deter
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Simultaneous detection of novel H7N9 and other influenza A viruses in poultry by multiplex real-time RT-PCR

Background:
A novel reassortant H7N9 influenza A virus has crossed the species barrier from poultry to cause human infections in China in 2013 and 2014.
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H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in the Republic of Korea: Epidemiology During the First Wave, from January Through July 2014. - PubMed - NCBI

Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2015 Apr;6(2):106-11. doi: 10.1016/j.phrp.2015.01.005. Epub 2015 Feb 19.
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Adaptive mutations that occurred during 2009 H1N1 influenza virus pandemic circulation in humans enhance virulence in mice

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Wind-Mediated Spread of Low-Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus into the Environment during Outbreaks at Commercial Poultry Farms. - PubMed - NCBI

PLoS One. 2015 May 6;10(5):e0125401. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0125401. eCollection 2015.
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Distinct kinetics and pathways of apoptosis in influenza A and B virus infection

Highlights

 • Differences in apoptosis kinetics of Influenza A and B cell infection were observed.

• Both influenza A and B infection activate the PI3K/Akt survival pathway.• IκB/NF-κB survival pathway acts as major contributor for the differences observed.


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Influenza A Virus on Oceanic Islands: Host and Viral Diversity in Seabirds in the Western Indian Ocean

Influenza A Virus on Oceanic Islands: Host and Viral Diversity in Seabirds in the Western Indian Ocean | Influenza | Scoop.it
Author Summary Avian influenza viruses circulate in wild birds, worldwide, in particular in ducks and seabirds from which a large diversity of viruses have been described.

Via Ed Rybicki
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Influenza A virus utilizes a suboptimal Kozak sequence to fine-tune virus replication and host response

The segment-specific non-coding regions (NCRs) of influenza A virus RNA genome play important roles in controlling viral RNA transcription, replication and genome packaging. In this report, we present, for the first time to our knowledge, a full view of the segment-specific NCRs of all influenza A viruses by bioinformatics analysis. Our systematic functional analysis revealed that the eight segment-specific NCRs identified could differentially regulate viral RNA synthesis and protein expression at both transcription and translation levels. Interestingly, a highly conserved suboptimal nucleotide at −3 position of the Kozak sequence, which downregulated protein expression at the translation level, was only present in the segment-specific NCR of PB1. By reverse genetics, we demonstrate that recombinant viruses with an optimized Kozak sequence at the −3 position in PB1 resulted in a significant multiple-cycle replication reduction that was independent of PB1-F2 expression. Our detailed dynamic analysis of virus infection revealed that the mutant virus displays slightly altered dynamics from the wild-type virus on both viral RNA synthesis and protein production. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the level of PB1 expression is involved in regulating type I IFN production. Together, these data reveal a novel strategy exploited by influenza A virus to fine-tune virus replication dynamics and host antiviral response through regulating PB1 protein expression.


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Residues 41V and/or 210D in the NP protein enhance polymerase activities and potential replication of novel influenza (H7N9) viruses at low temperature

Background:
The influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged in the spring of 2013 in China. It contained six internal genes from Y280-like H9N2 viruses, which have co-circulated with G1-like lineage viruses throughout poultry in China.
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MapMyFlu: visualizing spatio-temporal relationships between related influenza sequences

Understanding the molecular dynamics of viral spreading is crucial for anticipating the epidemiological implications of disease outbreaks. In the case of influenza, reassortments or point mutations affect the adaption to new hosts or resistance to anti-viral drugs and can determine whether a new strain will result in a pandemic infection or a less severe progression. To this end, tools integrating molecular information with epidemiological parameters are important to understand how molecular characteristics reflect in the infection dynamics. We present a new web tool, MapMyFlu, which allows to spatially and temporally display influenza viruses related to a query sequence on a Google Map based on BLAST results against the NCBI Influenza Database. Temporal and geographical trends appear clearly and may help in reconstructing the evolutionary history of a particular sequence. The tool is accessible through a web server, hence without the need for local installation. The website has an intuitive design and provides an easy-to-use service, and is available at http://mapmyflu.ipmb.uni-heidelberg.de


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Specific Inhibitory Effect of κ-Carrageenan Polysaccharide on Swine Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus

by Qiang Shao, Qiang Guo, Wen ping Xu, Zandong Li, Tong tong Zhao
The 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic placed unprecedented demands on antiviral drug resources and the vaccine industry.
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BMC Infectious Diseases | Full text | Estimates of the reproduction number for seasonal, pandemic, and zoonotic influenza: a systematic review of the literature

The potential impact of an influenza pandemic can be assessed by calculating a set of transmissibility parameters, the most important being the reproduction number (R), which is defined as the average number of secondary cases generated per typical infectious case.
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Change in pattern of H5N2 spread raises questions

Experts say H5N2 is changing its transmission pattern, raising the possibility of barn-to-barn spread through the air.
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Cross-reactive neuraminidase-inhibiting antibodies elicited by immunization with recombinant neuraminidase proteins of H5N1 and pH1N1 influenza A viruses

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The European and Japanese outbreaks of H5N8 derive from a single source population providing evidence for the dispersal along the long distance bir... - PubMed - NCBI

PeerJ. 2015 Apr 30;3:e934. doi: 10.7717/peerj.934. eCollection 2015.
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Peramivir is as effective as oral oseltamivir in the treatment of severe seasonal influenza. - PubMed - NCBI

J Med Virol. 2015 May 6. doi: 10.1002/jmv.24232. [Epub ahead of print]
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