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Yet another avian influenza virus, H10N8, infects humans

Yet another avian influenza virus, H10N8, infects humans | Influenza | Scoop.it
To the collection of avian influenza viruses known to sporadically infect humans we can now add H10N8, recently found in two individuals in China.
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Influenza
Flu in all Forms, Be Informed...Not Panicked.
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Viral evolution: Past, present and future of influenza viruses : Nature Reviews Microbiology : Nature Publishing Group

Viral evolution: Past, present and future of influenza viruses : Nature Reviews Microbiology : Nature Publishing Group | Influenza | Scoop.it
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Key to Universal Flu Vaccine: Embrace the Unfamiliar

Key to Universal Flu Vaccine: Embrace the Unfamiliar | Influenza | Scoop.it
Vaccine researchers have developed a strategy aimed at generating broadly cross-reactive antibodies against the influenza virus: embrace the unfamiliar.
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Editorial Commentary: Some Perspectives Regarding Risk Factors for A(H7N9) Influenza Virus Infection in Humans

Editorial Commentary: Some Perspectives Regarding Risk Factors for A(H7N9) Influenza Virus Infection in Humans http://t.co/lk4jsFQOrR
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Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine | Seasonal Influenza (Flu) | CDC

Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine | Seasonal Influenza (Flu) | CDC | Influenza | Scoop.it
Questions and answers for the general public on the quadrivalent flu vaccine - CDC (#flu #influenza UPDATED: Quadrivalent Flu Vaccine Questions and Answers http://t.co/wqyJypRQGd)...
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Meanwhile, Back In Vietnam . . . .

Credit FAO     # 8987     The FAO is reporting a third outbreak of the newly emerging avian H5N6 virus – this time on a Pheasant farm in Lao Cai Province.  This latest outbreak is nearly 300km distant from the closest of the two outbreaks...
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Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus from Waterfowl, South Korea, 2014 - Volume 20, Number 9—September 2014 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC

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Mutations of Novel Influenza A(H10N8) Virus in Chicken Eggs and MDCK Cells - Volume 20, Number 9—September 2014 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC

The recent emergence of human infection with influenza A(H10N8) virus is an urgent public health concern. Genomic analysis showed that the virus was conserved in chicken eggs but presented substantial adaptive mutations in MDCK cells. Our results provide additional evidence for the avian origin of this influenza virus.
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Swine-to-Human Transmission of Influenza A(H3N2) Virus at Agricultural Fairs, Ohio, USA, 2012 - Volume 20, Number 9—September 2014 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC

Swine-to-Human Transmission of Influenza A(H3N2) Virus at Agricultural Fairs, Ohio, USA, 2012 - Volume 20, Number 9—September 2014 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC | Influenza | Scoop.it
Agricultural fairs provide an opportunity for bidirectional transmission of influenza A viruses. We sought to determine influenza A virus activity among swine at fairs in the United States. As part of an ongoing active influenza A virus surveillance project, nasal swab samples were collected from exhibition swine at 40 selected Ohio agricultural fairs during 2012. Influenza A(H3N2) virus was isolated from swine at 10 of the fairs. According to a concurrent public health investigation, 7 of the 10 fairs were epidemiologically linked to confirmed human infections with influenza A(H3N2) variant virus. Comparison of genome sequences of the subtype H3N2 isolates recovered from humans and swine from each fair revealed nucleotide identities of >99.7%, confirming zoonotic transmission between swine and humans. All influenza A(H3N2) viruses isolated in this study, regardless of host species or fair, were >99.5% identical, indicating that 1 virus strain was widely circulating among exhibition swine in Ohio during 2012.
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Characterization of Drug-Resistant Influenza A(H7N9) Variant Viruses Isolated from an Oseltamivir-Treated Patient in Taiwan. [J Infect Dis. 2014]

PubMed comprises more than 23 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Rescooped by Mel Melendrez-Vallard from Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca
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The inherent mutational tolerance and antigenic evolvability of influenza hemagglutinin - Elife. 2014

Influenza is notable for its evolutionary capacity to escape immunity targeting the viral hemagglutinin. We used deep mutational scanning to examine the extent to which a high inherent mutational tolerance contributes to this antigenic evolvability. We created mutant viruses that incorporate most of the ≈104 amino-acid mutations to hemagglutinin from A/WSN/1933 (H1N1) influenza. After passaging these viruses in tissue culture to select for functional variants, we used deep sequencing to quantify mutation frequencies before and after selection. These data enable us to infer the preference for each amino acid at each site in hemagglutinin. These inferences are consistent with existing knowledge about the protein's structure and function, and can be used to create a model that describes hemagglutinin's evolution far better than existing phylogenetic models. We show that hemagglutinin has a high inherent tolerance for mutations at antigenic sites, suggesting that this is one factor contributing to influenza's antigenic evolution.

 


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Live attenuated influenza vaccine strains elicit a greater innate immune response than antigenically-matched seasonal influenza viruses

Influenza viruses are global pathogens that infect approximately 10-20% of the world's population each year. Vaccines, including the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), are the best defense against influenza infections. The LAIV is a novel vaccine that actively replicates in the human nasal epithelium and elicits both mucosal and systemic protective immune responses. The differences in replication and innate immune responses following infection of human nasal epithelium with influenza seasonal wild type (WT) and LAIV viruses remain unknown. Using a model of primary differentiated human nasal epithelial cell (hNECs) cultures, we compared influenza WT and antigenically-matched cold adapted (CA) LAIV virus replication and the subsequent innate immune response including host cellular pattern recognition protein expression, host innate immune gene expression, secreted pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and intracellular viral RNA levels. Growth curves comparing virus replication between WT and LAIV strains revealed significantly less infectious virus production during LAIV compared with WT infection. Despite this disparity in infectious virus production the LAIV strains elicited a more robust innate immune response with increased expression of RIG-I, TLR-3, IFNβ, STAT-1, IRF-7, MxA, and IP-10. There were no differences in cytotoxicity between hNEC cultures infected with WT and LAIV strains as measured by basolateral levels of LDH. Elevated levels of intracellular viral RNA during LAIV as compared with WT virus infection of hNEC cultures at 33°C may explain the augmented innate immune response via the up-regulation of pattern recognition receptors and down-stream type I IFN expression. Taken together our results suggest that the decreased replication of LAIV strains in human nasal epithelial cells is associated with a robust innate immune response that differs from infection with seasonal influenza viruses, limits LAIV shedding and plays a role in the silent clinical phenotype seen in human LAIV inoculation.

 


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Ed Rybicki's curator insight, August 21, 7:18 AM

Well, of course they do: they engage ALL the levers making the immune system work!

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Influenza A and B Virus Intertypic Reassortment through Compatible Viral Packaging Signals

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Mutational tolerance helps influenza evade the immune system - Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center News

Mutational tolerance helps influenza evade the immune system - Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center News | Influenza | Scoop.it
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center News Mutational tolerance helps influenza evade the immune system Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center News The most effective antibodies against influenza are generated against the viral hemagglutinin (HA)...
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Ahead of Print -Equine Influenza A(H3N8) Virus Infection in Cats - Volume 20, Number 12—December 2014 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC

Ahead of Print -Equine Influenza A(H3N8) Virus Infection in Cats - Volume 20, Number 12—December 2014 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC | Influenza | Scoop.it
Interspecies transmission of equine influenza A(H3N8) virus has resulted in establishment of a canine influenza virus. To determine if something similar could happen with cats, we experimentally infected 14 cats with the equine influenza A(H3N8) virus. All showed clinical signs, shed virus, and transmitted the virus to a contact cohort.
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Seroprevalence to Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Among Poultry Workers and the General Population in Southern China: A Longitudinal Study

Background. Confirmed cases of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection in humans continue to occur in mainland... http://t.co/U2gL7BEciX
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Rare flu strains could be key to super-vaccine

Research suggests that unfamiliar flu strains cause immune system to release broadly effective antibodies Continue reading...
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Avian Flu Diary: Vietnam Orders Intensified H5N6 Surveillance

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Potential Human Adaptation Mutation of Influenza A(H5N1) Virus, Canada - Volume 20, Number 9—September 2014 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC

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Risk Factors for Severe Influenza A–Related Pneumonia in Adult Cohort, Mexico, 2013–14 - Volume 20, Number 9—September 2014 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC

During the 2013–14 influenza season, we assessed characteristics of 102 adults with suspected influenza pneumonia in a hospital in Mexico; most were unvaccinated. More comorbidities and severity of illness were found than for patients admitted during the 2009–10 influenza pandemic. Vaccination policies should focus on risk factors.
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Asymptomatic, Mild, and Severe Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infection in Humans, Guangzhou, China - Volume 20, Number 9—September 2014 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC

Asymptomatic, Mild, and Severe Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infection in Humans, Guangzhou, China - Volume 20, Number 9—September 2014 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC | Influenza | Scoop.it
Targeted surveillance for influenza A(H7N9) identified 21 cases of infection with this virus in Guangzhou, China, during April 1, 2013–March 7, 2014. The spectrum of illness ranged from severe pneumonia to asymptomatic infection. Epidemiologic findings for a family cluster of 1 severe and 1 mild case suggested limited person-to-person transmission of this virus.
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Determinants of Influenza Transmission in South East Asia: Insights from a Household Cohort Study in Vietnam

Determinants of Influenza Transmission in South East Asia: Insights from a Household Cohort Study in Vietnam | Influenza | Scoop.it
by Simon Cauchemez, Neil M. Ferguson, Annette Fox, Le Quynh Mai, Le Thi Thanh, Pham Quang Thai, Dang Dinh Thoang, Tran Nhu Duong, Le Nguyen Minh Hoa, Nguyen Tran Hien, Peter Horby To guide control policies, it is important that the determinants of...
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Australia Influenza Surveillance 2014 - FluTrackers

Australia Influenza Surveillance 2014 Australia
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Coordinated Evolution of Influenza A Surface Proteins

Coordinated Evolution of Influenza A Surface Proteins Alexey D. Neverov, Sergey Kryazhimskiy, Joshua B. Plotkin, Georgii A. Bazykin doi: Surface proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) o...
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Shotgun glycomics of pig lung identifies natural endogenous receptors for influenza viruses

Significance

Studies using novel “shotgun glycan microarray” technology identify, for the first time to our knowledge, the endogenous receptors for influenza viruses from a natural host, the pig. Libraries of total N-glycans from pig lung were probed for binding properties using a panel of influenza viruses isolated from humans, birds, and swine. Natural glycan receptors were identified for all viruses examined, and although some displayed the rather broad α2,3 or α2,6 sialic acid linkage specificity conventionally associated with avian or human viruses, other strains were highly specific, revealing a complexity that has not been demonstrated previously. Because pigs are often implicated as intermediate hosts for pandemic viruses, these results and the approaches described will transform our understanding of influenza host range, transmission, and pathogenicity.


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Influenza A Virus Attenuation by Codon Deoptimization of the NS Gene for Vaccine Development

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Using Clinician's Search Query Data to Monitor Influenza Epidemics

Search query information from a clinician's database, UpToDate, is shown to timely predict influenza epidemics in the United States. Our results show that digital disease surveillance tools based on experts' databases may be able to provide an alternative, reliable and stable signal for accurate predictions of flu outbreaks.


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