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Avian Flu Diary: Referral: A Review of Human Influenza A(H5N1 ...

Avian Flu Diary: Referral: A Review of Human Influenza A(H5N1 ... | Influenza | Scoop.it
In 2013, 38 human cases of Influenza A(H5N1) were reported from around the world. This number represents an 18% increase over the number of reported cases in 2012. Six countries reported cases in 2013, Bangladesh, ...
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Influenza
Flu in all Forms, Be Informed...Not Panicked.
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Viral evolution: Past, present and future of influenza viruses : Nature Reviews Microbiology : Nature Publishing Group

Viral evolution: Past, present and future of influenza viruses : Nature Reviews Microbiology : Nature Publishing Group | Influenza | Scoop.it
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Australia Influenza Surveillance 2014 - FluTrackers

Australia Influenza Surveillance 2014 Australia
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Coordinated Evolution of Influenza A Surface Proteins

Coordinated Evolution of Influenza A Surface Proteins Alexey D. Neverov, Sergey Kryazhimskiy, Joshua B. Plotkin, Georgii A. Bazykin doi: Surface proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) o...
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Rescooped by Mel Melendrez-Vallard from Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca
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Shotgun glycomics of pig lung identifies natural endogenous receptors for influenza viruses

Significance

Studies using novel “shotgun glycan microarray” technology identify, for the first time to our knowledge, the endogenous receptors for influenza viruses from a natural host, the pig. Libraries of total N-glycans from pig lung were probed for binding properties using a panel of influenza viruses isolated from humans, birds, and swine. Natural glycan receptors were identified for all viruses examined, and although some displayed the rather broad α2,3 or α2,6 sialic acid linkage specificity conventionally associated with avian or human viruses, other strains were highly specific, revealing a complexity that has not been demonstrated previously. Because pigs are often implicated as intermediate hosts for pandemic viruses, these results and the approaches described will transform our understanding of influenza host range, transmission, and pathogenicity.


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Influenza A Virus Attenuation by Codon Deoptimization of the NS Gene for Vaccine Development

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Using Clinician's Search Query Data to Monitor Influenza Epidemics

Search query information from a clinician's database, UpToDate, is shown to timely predict influenza epidemics in the United States. Our results show that digital disease surveillance tools based on experts' databases may be able to provide an alternative, reliable and stable signal for accurate predictions of flu outbreaks.


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Characterization of Drug-Resistant Influenza A(H7N9) Variant Viruses Isolated from an Oseltamivir-Treated Patient in Taiwan

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Sanofi Pasteur Announces Publication of Positive Data for Fluzone High-Dose Vaccine in the New England Journal of Medicine

Study Demonstrates Fluzone High-Dose Vaccine 24.2 Percent More Effective Than Standard-Dose Fluzone Vaccine in Preventing Influenza in Adults 65 Years of Age and Older August 13, 2014 Sanofi Pasteur, the vaccines division of Sanofi, today announced...
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CDC Updates Flu Vaccine Recommendations for 2014-15 - Monthly Prescribing Reference

CDC Updates Flu Vaccine Recommendations for 2014-15 Monthly Prescribing Reference The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has issued updated recommendations regarding the use of...
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Ecological Routes of Avian Influenza Virus Transmission to a Common Mesopredator: An Experimental Evaluation of Alternatives

Ecological Routes of Avian Influenza Virus Transmission to a Common Mesopredator: An Experimental Evaluation of Alternatives | Influenza | Scoop.it
by J. Jeffrey Root, Kevin T. Bentler, Susan A. Shriner, Nicole L. Mooers, Kaci K. VanDalen, Heather J. Sullivan, Alan B. Franklin
Background Wild raccoons have been shown to be naturally exposed to avian influenza viruses (AIV).
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Avian Flu Diary: Vietnam Gears Up To Detect, Fight Avian H5N6

Avian Flu Diary: Vietnam Gears Up To Detect, Fight Avian H5N6 | Influenza | Scoop.it
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Adaptive Evolution and Environmental Durability Jointly Structure Phylodynamic Patterns in Avian Influenza Viruses

Adaptive Evolution and Environmental Durability Jointly Structure Phylodynamic Patterns in Avian Influenza Viruses | Influenza | Scoop.it
PLOS Biology is an open-access, peer-reviewed journal that features works of exceptional significance in all areas of biological science, from molecules to ecosystems, including works at the interface with other disciplines.
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Vietnam: H5N6 in poultry in Ha Tinh and Lang Son provinces - FluTrackers

Vietnam: H5N6 in poultry in Ha Tinh and Lang Son provinces Vietnam (Vietnam detects new strain of Avian Influenza H5N6 in poultry http://t.co/QBT7pPXKDz h/t Shiloh #birdflu #H5N1 #influenza)...
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Characterization of Drug-Resistant Influenza A(H7N9) Variant Viruses Isolated from an Oseltamivir-Treated Patient in Taiwan. [J Infect Dis. 2014]

PubMed comprises more than 23 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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The inherent mutational tolerance and antigenic evolvability of influenza hemagglutinin - Elife. 2014

Influenza is notable for its evolutionary capacity to escape immunity targeting the viral hemagglutinin. We used deep mutational scanning to examine the extent to which a high inherent mutational tolerance contributes to this antigenic evolvability. We created mutant viruses that incorporate most of the ≈104 amino-acid mutations to hemagglutinin from A/WSN/1933 (H1N1) influenza. After passaging these viruses in tissue culture to select for functional variants, we used deep sequencing to quantify mutation frequencies before and after selection. These data enable us to infer the preference for each amino acid at each site in hemagglutinin. These inferences are consistent with existing knowledge about the protein's structure and function, and can be used to create a model that describes hemagglutinin's evolution far better than existing phylogenetic models. We show that hemagglutinin has a high inherent tolerance for mutations at antigenic sites, suggesting that this is one factor contributing to influenza's antigenic evolution.

 


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Live attenuated influenza vaccine strains elicit a greater innate immune response than antigenically-matched seasonal influenza viruses

Influenza viruses are global pathogens that infect approximately 10-20% of the world's population each year. Vaccines, including the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), are the best defense against influenza infections. The LAIV is a novel vaccine that actively replicates in the human nasal epithelium and elicits both mucosal and systemic protective immune responses. The differences in replication and innate immune responses following infection of human nasal epithelium with influenza seasonal wild type (WT) and LAIV viruses remain unknown. Using a model of primary differentiated human nasal epithelial cell (hNECs) cultures, we compared influenza WT and antigenically-matched cold adapted (CA) LAIV virus replication and the subsequent innate immune response including host cellular pattern recognition protein expression, host innate immune gene expression, secreted pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and intracellular viral RNA levels. Growth curves comparing virus replication between WT and LAIV strains revealed significantly less infectious virus production during LAIV compared with WT infection. Despite this disparity in infectious virus production the LAIV strains elicited a more robust innate immune response with increased expression of RIG-I, TLR-3, IFNβ, STAT-1, IRF-7, MxA, and IP-10. There were no differences in cytotoxicity between hNEC cultures infected with WT and LAIV strains as measured by basolateral levels of LDH. Elevated levels of intracellular viral RNA during LAIV as compared with WT virus infection of hNEC cultures at 33°C may explain the augmented innate immune response via the up-regulation of pattern recognition receptors and down-stream type I IFN expression. Taken together our results suggest that the decreased replication of LAIV strains in human nasal epithelial cells is associated with a robust innate immune response that differs from infection with seasonal influenza viruses, limits LAIV shedding and plays a role in the silent clinical phenotype seen in human LAIV inoculation.

 


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Ed Rybicki's curator insight, August 21, 4:18 AM

Well, of course they do: they engage ALL the levers making the immune system work!

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Influenza A and B Virus Intertypic Reassortment through Compatible Viral Packaging Signals

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Mutational tolerance helps influenza evade the immune system - Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center News

Mutational tolerance helps influenza evade the immune system - Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center News | Influenza | Scoop.it
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center News Mutational tolerance helps influenza evade the immune system Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center News The most effective antibodies against influenza are generated against the viral hemagglutinin (HA)...
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Seasonality in the migration and establishment of H3N2 Influenza lineages with epidemic growth and decline

Seasonality in the migration and establishment of H3N2 Influenza lineages with epidemic growth and decline Daniel Zinder, Trevor Bedford, Edward B. Baskerville, Robert J. Woods, Manojit Roy, Merced...
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Characterizing Influenza surveillance systems performance: application of a Bayesian hierarchical statistical model to Hong Kong surveillance data

Background:
Infectious disease surveillance is a process the product of which reflects both actual disease trends and public awareness of the disease.
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14 Famous People Who Survived the 1918 Flu Pandemic

14 Famous People Who Survived the 1918 Flu Pandemic | Influenza | Scoop.it
With the news filled with sensationalized stories of the current Ebola outbreak, it's important to remember that we've been here before, and that people survive. Here are 15 famous people who contracted the flu in 1918 and lived to tell the tale.
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Vietnam reports H5N6 avian influenza for first time - Outbreak News Today

Vietnam reports H5N6 avian influenza for first time - Outbreak News Today | Influenza | Scoop.it
Vietnam reports H5N6 avian influenza for first time
Outbreak News Today
Vietnamese veterinary authorities have announced for the first time at least two outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6, according to Tuoi Tre News today.
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VIRAPOPS2 supports the influenza virus reassortments - Source Code for Biology and Medicine

For over 400 years, due to the reassortment of their segmented genomes, influenza viruses evolve extremely quickly and cause devastating epidemics. This reassortment arises because two flu viruses can infect the same cell and therefore the new virions' genomes will be composed of segment reassortments of the two parental strains. A treatment developed against parents could then be ineffective if the virions' genomes are different enough from their parent's genomes. It is therefore essential to simulate such reassortment phenomena to assess the risk of apparition of new flu strain.

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Avian Flu Diary: CDC H5N1 Incident & Lab Safety Progress Reports

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Influenza A virus Acquires Enhanced Pathogenicity and Transmissibility After Serial Passages in Swine

Influenza A virus Acquires Enhanced Pathogenicity and Transmissibility After Serial Passages in Swine http://t.co/9rW7eXbL3S
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Department of Health | Australian Influenza Surveillance Report and Activity Updates

The Australian Influenza Surveillance Report and Activity Updates are compiled from a number of data sources, which are used to monitor influenza activity and severity in the community.
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