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A viral grappling hook: Flu virus attacks like a pirate boarding party

A viral grappling hook: Flu virus attacks like a pirate boarding party | Influenza | Scoop.it

Viruses are biological pirates, invading cells and hijacking their machinery to reproduce and infect again. Research at Harvard Medical School is shedding new light on the battle line where viral and cell membranes meet, and the key role of a protein grappling hook with which the influenza virus commandeers its prize—your cells.

An influenza virus is a collection of eight RNA strands enclosed in a lipid-bilayer membrane. When the virus encounters a cell—in your lung, for example—that cell may engulf the virus inside an internal membrane called an endosome. To escape that bubble, the virus fuses its membrane with the endosome's, opening a window into the cell's interior. Once free, the viral RNA is copied, and the hijacked cell begins to manufacture copies of the virus. To fuse the two membranes, the virus carries a protein called hemagglutinin (the "H" in H1N1). Triggered by the acidic environment of an endosome, that protein will extend from the viral membrane and attach, like a grappling hook, to the endosome's membrane. When enough hooks are set, they draw the membranes together until they fuse The flu virus carries about 300 to 400 of these hooks, and virologists had known that several are needed to fuse the membranes.

 

In their latest study, reported last month in the new journal eLife, the HMS team show why. Using a microscope developed by first author Tijana Ivanovic, a research fellow in the HMS Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, the team looked closely at changes in the protein throughout its assault on the endosome. They observed that three or four hemagluttinin hooks must attach in close proximity to fuse the membranes. Without the help of neighbors, an individual hook is too weak to pull the membranes together. Instead, they observed, the protein remains stretched between the two membranes, like a bridge. And that's an intriguing target, said Stephen Harrison, the study's senior author and the Giovanni Armenise-Harvard Professor of Basic Biomedical Science in the department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology at HMS. "That bridge can hang out there for as long as a minute," Harrison said. "That makes it an interesting target for an inhibitor, in principle, at least, because it's there for long enough to be targetable." The study also appears to settle a question about the nature of the hemagglutinin protein, and viral fusion: Are multiple hooks needed because they interact directly with each other to fuse the membranes, or because that's the number required to pull the somewhat elastic membranes together by brute force? The researchers' answer: brute force. "That observation helps us distinguish between classes of models for a stage of the fusion process," Harrison said. "That notion is probably fundamental to all viral fusion proteins—or for that matter to most cellular membrane fusion events facilitated by proteins."


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Influenza
Flu in all Forms, Be Informed...Not Panicked.
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Viral evolution: Past, present and future of influenza viruses : Nature Reviews Microbiology : Nature Publishing Group

Viral evolution: Past, present and future of influenza viruses : Nature Reviews Microbiology : Nature Publishing Group | Influenza | Scoop.it
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Serological evidence of H7, H5 and H9 avian influenza virus co-infection among herons in a city park in Jiangxi, China : Scientific Reports : Nature Publishing Group

Extensive surveillance of influenza A viruses in different avian species is critical for understanding its transmission. Here, a breeding colony of Little Egrets and Black-crowned Night Herons was monitored both serologically and virologically in a city park of Jiangxi in 2009. A portion of herons had antibodies against H7 (52%), H5 (55%) and H9 (6%) subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) in egg yolk samples, and 45% had antibodies against different AIV serotypes (H5, H7 or H9) simultaneously. Greater numbers of samples with anti-AIV H5N1 recombination-4 (Re-4, clade 7) antibodies were measured compared with those containing anti-H5N1 Re-1 (clade 0) and Re-5 (clade 2.3.4) antibodies. Eight strains of H5 and 9 strains of H9 were isolated from poultry of nearby markets. These results indicate wild birds are at risk from infection and co-infection with H7, H5, and H9 subtypes. Investigation of wild bird infection might provide an early warning sign of potential novel AIVs circulating in the nearby poultry industry and even in human society.
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Highly pathogenic avian influenza Vietnam: Information received on 20/09/2014 from Dr Dong Pham Van, Director General, Chief Veterinary Officer, Department of Animal Health, Ministry of Agriculture...

Highly pathogenic avian influenza Vietnam: Information received on 20/09/2014 from Dr Dong Pham Van, Director General, Chief Veterinary Officer, Department of Animal Health, Ministry of Agriculture... | Influenza | Scoop.it

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Conserved and host-specific features of influenza virion architecture : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group

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Non-rhinovirus enteroviruses associated with respiratory infections in Peru (2005-2010)

Background:
Enteroviruses (EVs) are a common cause of respiratory tract infections and are classified into seven species (EVA-D and rhinoviruses [RHVs] A-C) with more than 200 different serotypes.
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Research Report on China Avian Influenza Vaccine Industry 2014-2018

Research Report on China Avian Influenza Vaccine Industry, 2014-2018 under Pharmaceuticals is now available with LifeScienceIndustryResearch.com. This life sciences market research report 22859 is priced at US $ 1800 for a single user PDF license.

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Gloria Rosenow's curator insight, September 20, 6:38 AM

The Report “Research Report on China Avian Influenza Vaccine Industry, 2014-2018” by China Research and Intelligence is now available at lifescienceindustryresearch.com. Contact sales@lifescienceindustryresearch.com Phone with “Research Report on China Avian Influenza Vaccine Industry, 2014-2018″ in subject line and your contact details to purchase this report or get your questions answered.


The collection of ‘Pharmaceuticals’ market research reports has a new addition of “Research Report on China Avian Influenza Vaccine Industry, 2014-2018” on lifescienceindustryresearch.com.

 

Many countries choose to kill all infected poultry to control avian influenza, instead of immunizations. The total number of poultry exceeds 10 billion in China. Epidemic diseases, which are difficult to control, will result in huge losses. Therefore, it is quite necessary to immunize the poultry with avian influenza vaccines.

 

Avian influenza vaccines have been used for more than 10 years in China. Some poultry farms in China began to use H5N1 avian influenza vaccines voluntarily 10 years ago without compulsory requirements. Chinese avian influenza vaccine industry was in the initial stage in 20012005 with upcoming problems. To resolve these problems, the Ministry of Agriculture of China sets up an entry barrier for the avian influenza vaccine production and imposes strict supervision. The Ministry of Agriculture of China established strict regulations on the production and sales of avian influenza vaccines. For instance, avian influenza vaccines must be produced in workshops that are in compliance with GMP and inspected every year.

 

In China, the subsidy provided by the government over killing the infected poultry is CNY 10 per bird. In case of serious epidemic diseases, the subsidy amount will be higher.


Price for single user license is US $1800 and corporate user

license is US $2700


Inquire for discount on this report @ http://www.lifescienceindustryresearch.com/discount?rname=22859.

 

In 2013, the live stock volume of laying hens in China was about 1.4 billion while that of broilers was approximately 10 billion. The output volume of eggs in China was 28.76 million tons in 2013, up by 0.5% YOY. According to National Compulsory Immunization Plan of Animal Epidemic Diseases 2013 issued by Ministry of Agriculture of China, the government conducts compulsory immunizations against 4 diseases, including highly pathogenic avian influenza. The government is responsible for the expenses. In 2013, the market size of avian influenza vaccines exceeded CNY 1 billion in China.

 

With the increasing living standards of Chinese people, the demand for eggs and poultry meat is growing accordingly, which promotes the development of poultry industry. In China and other neighboring countries, avian influenza, especially highly pathogenic avian influenza, has not been effectively controlled yet. For example, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza broke out in North Korea in May 2013. Besides H5N1, H5 and H7 and other subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza are also highly possible to break out.

 

Therefore, it is predicted that the market size of avian influenza vaccines will keeping increasing and many animal healthcare enterprises attach attention to this market.

 

Purchase a copy of this report @ http://www.lifescienceindustryresearch.com/purchase?rname=22859


Through this report, the readers can acquire the following information:

Incidence Status of Avian InfluenzaStatus of Poultry Breeding in ChinaPolicy Environment and Government Procurement for Avian Influenza Vaccines in ChinaSupply and demand Status of Avian Influenza Vaccines in ChinaMajor Manufacturers of Avian Influenza Vaccines and the Operation Status in ChinaProspect of China Avian Influenza Vaccine Industry


The Following Enterprises and People Are Recommended to Purchase This Report:

Manufacturers and Trading Enterprises of Animal VaccinesPoultry Breeding EnterprisesManagement Organizations of Livestock IndustryInvestors and Research Institutes Concerned about the Avian Influenza Vaccine Industry

 

Table of Contents

 

1 Status of Global and China Avian Influenza Vaccine Markets

1.1 Relevant Concepts of Avian Influenza Vaccines

1.2 Brief Introductions to Epidemic Situation of Avian Influenza

 

2 Factors Influencing Development of China Avian Influenza Vaccine Industry, 2012-2013

2.1 Policies in China Animal Vaccine Industry

2.2 Status of China Poultry Industry, 2013

 

3 Operation Status of China Avian Influenza Vaccine Industry, 2009-2013

3.1 Supply of Avian Influenza Vaccines

3.2 Demand

3.3 Status of Free Avian Influenza Vaccines Provided by the Government

 

4 Major Manufacturers of Avian Influenza Vaccines in China, 2012-2013

4.1 QYH Biotech Company Limited

4.2 Qingdao Yebio Bioengineering Co., Ltd.

4.3 Zhaoqing Dahuanong Animal Health Products Co., Ltd.

4.4 Liaoning Yikang Biology Co., Ltd.

4.5 Harbin Weike Biotechnology Development Company

4.6 Harbin Pharmaceutical Group Biological Vaccines Co., Ltd.

4.7 Guangdong Winsun Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.

4.8 Shandong Sinder Technology Co., Ltd.

4.9 Merial Nanjing Animal Health Co., Ltd

 

For other business research / market intelligence report on the ‘Pharmaceuticals’ market, contact sales@lifescienceindustryresearch.com  / Call +1 888 391 5441.

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Avian Flu Diary: FAO Warns On H5N6

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Conserved and host-specific features of influenza virion architecture : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group

Viruses use virions to spread between hosts, and virion composition is therefore the primary determinant of viral transmissibility and immunogenicity. However, the virions of many viruses are complex and pleomorphic, making them difficult to analyse in detail. Here we address this by identifying and quantifying virion proteins with mass spectrometry, producing a complete and quantified model of the hundreds of host-encoded and viral proteins that make up the pleomorphic virions of influenza viruses. We show that a conserved influenza virion architecture is maintained across diverse combinations of virus and host. This ‘core’ architecture, which includes substantial quantities of host proteins as well as the viral protein NS1, is elaborated with abundant host-dependent features. As a result, influenza virions produced by mammalian and avian hosts have distinct protein compositions. Finally, we note that influenza virions share an underlying protein composition with exosomes, suggesting that influenza virions form by subverting microvesicle production.


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Determining the Phylogenetic and Phylogeographic Origin of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H7N3) in Mexico

PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
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Virulence-Affecting Amino Acid Changes in the PA Protein of H7N9 Influenza A Viruses

Novel avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) viruses were first reported to infect humans in March 2013. To date, 143 human cases, including 45 deaths, have been recorded. By using sequence comparisons and phylogenetic and ancestral inference analyses, we identified several distinct amino acids in the A(H7N9) polymerase PA protein, some of which may be mammalian adapting. Mutant viruses possessing some of these amino acid changes, singly or in combination, were assessed for their polymerase activities and growth kinetics in mammalian and avian cells and for their virulence in mice. We identified several mutants that were slightly more virulent in mice than the wild-type A(H7N9) virus, A/Anhui/1/2013. These mutants also exhibited increased polymerase activity in human cells but not in avian cells. Our findings indicate that the PA protein of A(H7N9) viruses has several amino acid substitutions that are attenuating in mammals.

 

IMPORTANCE Novel avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) viruses emerged in the spring of 2013. By using computational analyses of A(H7N9) viral sequences, we identified several amino acid changes in the polymerase PA protein, which we then assessed for their effects on viral replication in cultured cells and mice. We found that the PA proteins of A(H7N9) viruses possess


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Avian Flu Diary: Vietnam Reports Additional H5N6 Outbreaks In Poultry

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Occurrence and reassortment of avian influenza A (H7N9) viruses derived from coinfected birds in China

Over the course of two waves of infection, H7N9 avian influenza A virus has caused 436 human infections and claimed 170 lives in China as of July 2014. To investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of H7N9 we surveyed avian influenza viruses in poultry in Jiangsu province within the outbreak epicenter. We found frequent occurrence of H7N9/H9N2 co-infection in chickens. Molecular clock phylogenetic analysis confirms co-infection by H7N9/H9N2 viruses and also reveals that the identity of the H7N9 outbreak lineage is confounded by ongoing reassortment between outbreak viruses and diverse H9N2 viruses in domestic birds. Experimental inoculation of a co-infected sample in cell culture yielded two reassortant H7N9 strains with polymerase segments from the original H9N2 strain. Ongoing reassortment between the H7N9 outbreak lineage and diverse H9N2 viruses may generate new strains with the potential to infect humans, highlighting the need for continued viral surveillance in poultry and humans.

Importance We found frequent occurrence of H7N9/H9N2 co-infection in chickens. The H7N9 outbreak lineage is confounded by ongoing reassortment between H7N9 and H9N2 viruses. The importance of H9N2 viruses as the source of novel avian influenza virus infections in humans requires continuous attention.


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Human H7N9 and H5N1 influenza viruses differ in induction of cytokines and tissue tropism

Since emerging in 2013, the avian-origin H7N9 influenza viruses have resulted in over 400 human infections leading to 115 deaths to date. Although the epidemiology differs from human highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza infections, there is a similar rapid progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The aim of these studies was to compare the pathological and immunological characteristics of a panel of human H7N9 and H5N1 viruses in vitro and in vivo. Although there were similarities between particular H5N1 and H7N9 viruses, including association between lethal disease and spread to the alveolar spaces and kidney, there were also strain-specific differences. Both H5N1 and H7N9 viruses are capable of causing lethal infections, with mortality correlating most strongly with wider distribution of viral antigen in the lungs, rather than with traditional measures of viral titer and host responses. Strain-specific differences included hypercytokinemia in H5N1 infections that was not seen with the H7N9 infections regardless of lethality. Conversely, H7N9 viruses showed a greater tropism for respiratory epithelium covering nasal passages and NALT than H5N1 viruses, which may explain the enhanced transmission in ferret models. Overall these studies highlight some distinctive properties of H5N1 and H7N9 viruses in different in vitro and in vivo models.

Importance The novel avian-origin H7N9 pandemic represents a serious threat to public health. The ability of H7N9 to cause serious lung pathology leading in some cases to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome is of particular concern. Initial reports of H7N9 infection compared them to infections caused by highly pathogenic avian (HPAI) H5N1 viruses. Thus, it is of critical importance to understand the pathology and immunological response to infection with H7N9 as compared to HPAI H5N1 viruses. We compared these responses in both in vitro and in vivo models, and found that H5N1 and H7N9 infections exhibit distinct pathological, immunological and tissue tropism differences that could explain differences in clinical disease and viral transmission.


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UN News - Newly-detected bird flu in Southeast Asia poses threat to animal health, people’s livelihoods

The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) today warned that a recently-emerged strain of avian influenza virus detected in poultry in Southeast Asia presents a new threat to animal health and livelihoods and must be closely monitored.
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Bird flu detected in ducks in Quang Nam - Society - VietNam News

More than 3,100 ducks were found to be infected with the bird flu virus
A/H5N6 in farms in Tam My Dong commune in the central province's Nui
Thanh District.
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BMC Infectious Diseases | Abstract | The evolution of pandemic influenza: evidence from India, 1918-19

The 1918-19 'Spanish' Influenza was the most devastating pandemic in recent history, with estimates of global mortality ranging from 20 to 50 million. The focal point of the pandemic was India, with an estimated death toll of between 10 and 20 million. We will characterize the pattern of spread, mortality, and evolution of the 1918 influenza across India using spatial or temporal data.

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Avian Influenza A H7N9 Virus Induces Severe Pneumonia in Mice without Prior Adaptation and Responds to a Combination of Zanamivir and COX-2 Inhibitor

PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
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BMC Public Health | Abstract | Implementation of Influenza-like illness Sentinel Surveillance in Togo

The emergence of avian influenza A/H5N1 in 2003 as well as the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 highlighted the need to establish influenza sentinel surveillance in Togo.
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Increased Concern over Latest Avian Influenza Strain in Southeast Asia

GLOBAL - A recently-emerged strain of avian influenza virus in poultry in Southeast Asia known as A(H5N6) represents a new threat to animal health and livelihoods and must be closely monitored, the FAO said.
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Impaired Clearance of Influenza A Virus in Obese, Leptin Receptor Deficient Mice Is Independent of Leptin Signaling in the Lung Epithelium and Macrophages

Impaired Clearance of Influenza A Virus in Obese, Leptin Receptor Deficient Mice Is Independent of Leptin Signaling in the Lung Epithelium and Macrophages | Influenza | Scoop.it
by Kathryn A. Radigan, Luisa Morales-Nebreda, Saul Soberanes, Trevor Nicholson, Recep Nigdelioglu, Takugo Cho, Monica Chi, Robert B. Hamanaka, Alexander V. Misharin, Harris Perlman, G. R. Scott Budinger, Gökhan M.
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Flu Vaccination Coverage, United States, 2013-14 Influenza Season | FluVaxView | Seasonal Influenza (Flu) | CDC

Flu Vaccination Coverage, United States, 2013-14 Influenza Season | FluVaxView | Seasonal Influenza (Flu) | CDC | Influenza | Scoop.it
Flu Vaccination Coverage, United States, 2013-14 Influenza Season - CDC (NEW: Flu Vaccination Coverage, United States, 2013-14 Influenza Season http://t.co/xzq3KZvmAC)...
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Phylogenetic analysis of a novel H6N6 avian influenza virus isolated from a green peafowl in China and its pathogenic potential in mice. [Infect Genet Evol. 2014] - PubMed - NCBI

PubMed comprises more than 23 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.

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Research and Markets: China Avian Influenza Vaccine Industry Research ... - Business Wire (press release)

Research and Markets: China Avian Influenza Vaccine Industry Research ...
Business Wire (press release)
Many countries choose to kill all infected poultry to control avian influenza, instead of immunizations.
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What You Should Know for the 2014-2015 Influenza Season | Seasonal Influenza (Flu) | CDC

What You Should Know for the 2014-2015 Influenza Season | Seasonal Influenza (Flu) | CDC | Influenza | Scoop.it
Basic information about the 2014-2015 flu season - CDC (What You Should Know for the 2014-2015 Influenza Season | Seasonal Influenza (Flu) | CDC http://t.co/xPcDGI2gbH)...
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TLR5-Mediated Sensing of Gut Microbiota Is Necessary for Antibody Responses to Seasonal Influenza Vaccination: Immunity

Systems biological analysis of immunity to the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in humans revealed a correlation between early expression of TLR5 and the magnitude of the antibody response. Vaccination of Trl5−/− mice resulted in reduced antibody titers and lower frequencies of plasma cells, demonstrating a role for TLR5 in immunity to TIV. This was due to a failure to sense host microbiota. Thus, antibody responses in germ-free or antibiotic-treated mice were impaired, but restored by oral reconstitution with a flagellated, but not aflagellated, strain of E. coli. TLR5-mediated sensing of flagellin promoted plasma cell differentiation directly and by stimulating lymph node macrophages to produce plasma cell growth factors. Finally, TLR5-mediated sensing of the microbiota also impacted antibody responses to the inactivated polio vaccine, but not to adjuvanted vaccines or the live-attenuated yellow fever vaccine. These results reveal an unappreciated role for gut microbiota in promoting immunity to vaccination.


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Avian Flu Diary: USDA IAV-S Surveillance Program Detects Novel H3N1 In US Swine

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