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Influenza
Flu in all Forms, Be Informed...Not Panicked.
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Viral evolution: Past, present and future of influenza viruses : Nature Reviews Microbiology : Nature Publishing Group

Viral evolution: Past, present and future of influenza viruses : Nature Reviews Microbiology : Nature Publishing Group | Influenza | Scoop.it
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Avian Flu Diary: Serial Passage Of H5N2 In Mice

Avian Flu Diary: Serial Passage Of H5N2 In Mice | Influenza | Scoop.it
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Avian Flu Diary: EID Journal: Respiratory Viruses & Bacteria Among Pilgrims During The 2013 Hajj

Avian Flu Diary: EID Journal: Respiratory Viruses & Bacteria Among Pilgrims During The 2013 Hajj | Influenza | Scoop.it
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Considerations for the rapid deployment of vaccines against H7N9 influenza.[Expert Rev Vaccines. 2014] - PubMed - NCBI

PubMed comprises more than 23 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Ahead of Print -Global and Local Persistence of Influenza A(H5N1) Virus - Volume 20, Number 8—August 2014 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC

Ahead of Print -Global and Local Persistence of Influenza A(H5N1) Virus - Volume 20, Number 8—August 2014 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC | Influenza | Scoop.it
An understanding of the global migration dynamics of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus is helpful for surveillance and disease prevention. To characterize the migration network of this virus, we used genetic analysis, which supported a global persistence model in which each of 9 regions acts to some extent as a source. Siberia is the major hub for the dispersal of the virus. Southeast Asia and Africa are major sources of genetically and antigenically novel strains. We found evidence of local persistence of the virus in Southeast Asia and Africa, which is rare for human influenza A viruses. The differences in migration dynamics between avian and human influenza viruses might help with the design of region-specific surveillance efforts and the selection of vaccine candidates.
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ASMscience | Emergence of Influenza Viruses and Crossing the Species Barrier

Influenza A viruses are zoonotic pathogens that infect a variety of host species including wild aquatic birds, domestic poultry, and a limited number of mammals including humans. The error-prone nature of the virus's replication machinery and its ability to transmit among multiple hosts lead to generation of novel virus variants with altered pathogenicity and virulence. Spatial, molecular, and physiological barriers inhibit cross-species infections, particularly in the case of human infection with avian viruses. Pigs are proposed as a mixing vessel that facilitates movement of avian viruses from the wild bird reservoir into humans. However, the past decade has witnessed the emergence of highly pathogenic and virulent avian H5 and H7 viruses that have breached these barriers, bypassed the pig intermediate host, and infected humans with a high mortality rate, but have not established human-to-human transmissible lineages. Because influenza viruses pose a significant risk to both human and animal health, it is becoming increasingly important to attempt to predict their identities and pathogenic potential before their widespread emergence. Surveillance of the wild bird reservoir, molecular characterization and documentation of currently circulating viruses in humans and animals, and a comprehensive risk assessment analysis of individual isolates should remain a high priority. Such efforts are critical to the pursuit of prevention and control strategies, including vaccine development and assessment of antiviral susceptibility, that will have a direct impact on the well-being of humans and animals worldwide.
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Cleavage site and Ectodomain of HA2 sub-unit sequence of three equine influenza virus isolated in Morocco

Background:
The equine influenza (EI) is an infectious and contagious disease of the upper respiratory tract of horses. Two outbreaks were notified in Morocco during 1997 and 2004 respectively in Nador and Essaouira.
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The Genesis of the 1918 Spanish Influenza Pandemic

Michael Worobey, Professor, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, The University of Arizona The Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918 was the most intense outbreak ...
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Genetic Dynamic Analysis of the Influenza A H5N1 NS1 Gene in China

Genetic Dynamic Analysis of the Influenza A H5N1 NS1 Gene in China | Influenza | Scoop.it
by Kaifa Wei, Yanhui Chen, Yina Lin, Yutian Pan
The direct precursors of the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (GS/GD) virus lineage and its reassortants have been established geographically and ecologically.
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Influenza A Virus Host Shutoff Disables Antiviral Stress-Induced Translation Arrest

Influenza A Virus Host Shutoff Disables Antiviral Stress-Induced Translation Arrest | Influenza | Scoop.it
From molecules to physiology
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Evolution and Ecology of Influenz... [Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2014] - PubMed - NCBI

PubMed comprises more than 23 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Airborne Transmission of Highly Pathogenic H7N1 Influenza Virus in Ferrets

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Conservation of T cell epitopes between seasonal influenza viruses and the novel influenza A H7N9 virus

Conservation of T cell epitopes between seasonal influenza viruses and the novel influenza A H7N9 virus | Influenza | Scoop.it

Abstract: A novel avian influenza A (H7N9) virus recently emerged in the Yangtze River delta and caused diseases, often severe, in over 130 people. This H7N9 virus appeared to infect humans with greater ease than previous avian influenza virus subtypes such as H5N1 and H9N2. While there are other potential explanations for this large number of human infections with an avian influenza virus, we investigated whether a lack of conserved T-cell epitopes between endemic H1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses and the novel H7N9 virus contributes to this observation. Here we demonstrate that a number of T cell epitopes are conserved between endemic H1N1 and H3N2 viruses and H7N9 virus. Most of these conserved epitopes are from viral internal proteins. The extent of conservation between endemic human seasonal influenza and avian influenza H7N9 was comparable to that with the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1. Thus, the ease of inter-species transmission of H7N9 viruses (compared with avian H5N1 viruses) cannot be attributed to the lack of conservation of such T cell epitopes. On the contrary, our fi ndings predict significant T-cell based cross-reactions in the human population to the novel H7N9 virus. Our findings also have implications for H7N9 virus vaccine design. Influenza virus graphic courtesy of Russell Kightley Media


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Oseltamivir Dosing in Critically Ill Patients With Severe Influenza

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Avian Flu Diary: Are Influenza Pandemic Viruses Members Of An Exclusive Club?

Avian Flu Diary: Are Influenza Pandemic Viruses Members Of An Exclusive Club? | Influenza | Scoop.it
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CID Journal: Under Utilization Of Antivirals For At Risk Flu Patients

CID Journal: Under Utilization Of Antivirals For At Risk Flu Patients | Influenza | Scoop.it
  # 8842   Between the frequent hyperbolic demonization of  influenza antivirals (see Daily Mail: Ministers blew £650MILLION on useless anti-flu drugs) by media critics of `Big Pharma’,  spurred on by repeated Cochrane group analyses...
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Phylogenetic Analysis of H7N9 Avian Influenza... [Biomed Res Int. 2014] - PubMed - NCBI

PubMed comprises more than 23 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Rescooped by Mel Melendrez-Vallard from Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca
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T cell mediated immunity to influenza: mechanisms of viral control: Trends in Immunology

T cell mediated immunity to influenza: mechanisms of viral control: Trends in Immunology | Influenza | Scoop.it

Infection with influenza A virus (IAV) is a major cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Recent findings indicate that T cell immunity is key to limiting severity of disease arising from IAV infection, particularly in instances where antibody immunity is ineffective. As such, there is a need to understand better the mechanisms that mediate effective IAV-specific cellular immunity, especially given that T cell immunity must form an integral part of any vaccine designed to elicit crossreactive immunity against existing and new strains of influenza virus. Here, we review the current understanding of cellular immunity to IAV, highlighting recent findings that demonstrate important roles for both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell immunity in protection from IAV-mediated disease.


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The #antigenic #drift molecular basis of the #H5N1 #influenza viruses in a novel branch of #clade 2.3.4 (Vet Microbiol., abstract, edited)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]
Vet Microbiol. 2014 Jun 25;171(1-2):23-30. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.02.033. Epub 2014 Mar 2.
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#Timeline For #Influenza #H5N1 #Incident (@CDCgov, July 12 2014)

#Timeline For #Influenza #H5N1 #Incident (@CDCgov, July 12 2014) | Influenza | Scoop.it
[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, full page: (LINK).] Timeline For Influenza H5N1 Incident [      ] _____ ______ March 12 CDC Influenza Division (ID) shipped low pathogenic avian influenza H9N2 to USDA SEPRL in Athens, Ga Genetic...
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New analysis: H1N1 slow-spreading, driven by school children

TweetA recent analysis of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic in the U.S. showed the pandemic was slow-growing and that the spread of the illness was likely driven by school-age children.
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Virology Journal | Abstract | Mutations within the conserved NS1 nuclear export signal lead to inhibition of influenza A virus replication

The influenza A virus NS1 protein is a virulence factor and an antagonist of host cell innate immune responses. During virus infection NS1 protein has several functions both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm and its intracellular localization is regulated by one or two nuclear localization signals (NLS) and a nuclear export signal (NES).
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Avian Flu Diary: J. Virol: Continued Reassortment Of Swine Flu Viruses With Genes From pH1N1 In China

Avian Flu Diary: J. Virol: Continued Reassortment Of Swine Flu Viruses With Genes From pH1N1 In China | Influenza | Scoop.it
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Avian Flu Diary: WER: Update On Human Cases Of Influenza At Human-Animal Interface

Avian Flu Diary: WER: Update On Human Cases Of Influenza At Human-Animal Interface | Influenza | Scoop.it
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Taiwanese health officials confirm two additional lab cases of avian flu

TweetHealth officials in Taiwan recently confirmed two additional cases of avian influenza A (H7N9), marking the third and fourth official cases reported by the Taipei Centers for Disease Control.
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50 Member States meet to discuss influenza surveillance - World Health Organization (press release)

50 Member States meet to discuss influenza surveillance World Health Organization (press release) The highlight of the meeting was the announcement of a new joint publication that will replace the EuroFlu bulletin and the ECDC Weekly Influenza...
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