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Preferential recognition of avian-like receptors in human influenza A H7N9 viruses - Science 2013

Preferential recognition of avian-like receptors in human influenza A H7N9 viruses - Science 2013 | Influenza | Scoop.it

The 2013 outbreak of avian-origin H7N9 influenza in eastern China has raised concerns about its ability to transmit in the human population. The hemagglutinin glycoprotein of most human H7N9 viruses carries Leu226, a residue linked to adaptation of H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic viruses to human receptors. However, glycan array analysis of the H7 hemagglutinin reveals negligible binding to humanlike α2-6–linked receptors and strong preference for a subset of avian-like α2-3–linked glycans recognized by all avian H7 viruses. Crystal structures of H7N9 hemagglutinin and six hemagglutinin-glycan complexes have elucidated the structural basis for preferential recognition of avian-like receptors. These findings suggest that the current human H7N9 viruses are poorly adapted for efficient human-to-human transmission


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Influenza
Flu in all Forms, Be Informed...Not Panicked.
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Viral evolution: Past, present and future of influenza viruses : Nature Reviews Microbiology : Nature Publishing Group

Viral evolution: Past, present and future of influenza viruses : Nature Reviews Microbiology : Nature Publishing Group | Influenza | Scoop.it
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Predicting Flu Evolution the Next Step Towards Better Flu Vaccines

Predicting Flu Evolution the Next Step Towards Better Flu Vaccines | Influenza | Scoop.it
Researchers discover that individual flu strains elicit an antibody response to multiple different flu strains already experienced by a patient A global team of researchers using a new modelling system have discovered that upon infection, patients...
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The K526R substitution in viral protein PB2 enhances the effects of E627K on influenza virus replication : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group

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Avian Flu Diary: OIE: European H5N8 Strain `Closely Related’ To Korean Strain

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Avian Flu Diary: Netherlands: Third Farm Affected By Bird Flu – Ter Aar Confirmed H5N8

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Rescooped by Mel Melendrez-Vallard from DNA & RNA Research
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After 40 years, the first complete picture of a key flu virus machine

If you planned to sabotage a factory, a recon trip through the premises would probably be much more useful than just peeping in at the windows. Scientists looking to understand – and potentially thwart – the influenza virus have now gone from a similar window-based view to the full factory tour, thanks to the first complete structure of one of the flu virus’ key machines. The structure, obtained by scientists at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Grenoble, France, allows researchers to finally understand how the machine works as a whole. Published today in two papers in Nature, the work could prove instrumental in designing new drugs to treat serious flu infections and combat flu pandemics.


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Avian Flu Diary: EID Journal: Subclinical HPAI In Vaccinated Poultry – China

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Frontiers | D701N mutation in the PB2 protein contributes to the pathogenicity of H5N1 avian influenza viruses but not transmissibility in guinea pigs | Virology

H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) of clade 2.3.2 has been circulating in waterfowl in Southern China since 2003. Our previous studies showed that certain H5N1 HPAIV isolates within clade 2.3.2 from Southern China had high pathogenicity in different birds. Guinea pigs have been successfully used as models to evaluate the transmissibility of AIVs and other species of influenza viruses in mammalian hosts. However, few studies have reported pathogenicity and transmissibility of H5N1 HPAIVs of this clade in guinea pigs. In this study, we selected an H5N1 HPAIV isolate, A/duck/Guangdong/357/2008, to investigate the pathogenicity and transmissibility of the virus in guinea pigs. The virus had high pathogenicity in mice; additionally, it only replicated in some tissues of the guinea pigs without production of clinical signs, but was transmissible among guinea pigs. Interestingly, virus isolates from co-caged guinea pigs had the D701N mutation in the PB2 protein. These mutant viruses showed higher pathogenicity in mice and higher replication capability in guinea pigs but did not demonstrate enhanced the transmissibility among guinea pigs. These findings indicate the transmission of the H5N1 virus between mammals could induce virus mutations, and the mutant viruses might have higher pathogenicity in mammals without higher transmissibility. Therefore, the continued evaluation of the pathogenicity and transmissibility of avian influenza virus (AIVs) in mammals is critical to the understanding of the evolutionary characteristics of AIVs and the emergence of potential pandemic strains.
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Molecular characterization of H3N2 influenza A viruses isolated from Ontario swine in 2011 and 2012

Background:
Data about molecular diversity of commonly circulating type A influenza viruses in Ontario swine are scarce.
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Rescooped by Mel Melendrez-Vallard from Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca
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Charting the life-course epidemiology of influenza

Interaction between the human immune system and influenza virus is predominantly driven by antigenic drift. In this process, ongoing mutation of the virus slowly changes its antigenic signature, eventually allowing the virus to infect people with immunity to earlier versions of the virus. Along with antigenic shifts, through which extreme changes in influenza A lead to pandemics (most often when genes from two or more different strains of influenza reassort to form a new subtype), antigenic drift is the dominant driver of influenza epidemiology. One of the most important results of antigenic drift is the need to periodically reformulate and annually administer influenza vaccine. On page 996 of this issue, Fonville et al. (1) use a technique called “antibody landscapes” to characterize antibody protection from the full spectrum of influenza strains, illuminating the interaction between new influenza exposures and past immunity

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Designing a better flu vaccine

We all hate getting sick and the seasonal flu vaccine can help prevent a time of serious illness. Unfortunately the vaccine is usually an educated guess as to which strains of the flu are going to ...
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Avian Flu Diary: PLoS Path: Genetics, Receptor Binding, and Transmissibility Of Avian H9N2

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Rescooped by Mel Melendrez-Vallard from Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca
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Influenza A virus nucleoprotein selectively decreases neuraminidase gene-segment packaging while enhancing viral fitness and transmissibility

Significance

The influenza A virus (IAV) genome consists of eight unique RNA segments, each of which is required for productive infection. IAV is believed to copackage its individual gene segments into virions with nearly perfect efficiency to maximize replicative potential. We contradict this view by demonstrating that decreased gene packaging can be associated with increased in vivo fitness and transmissibility. Incomplete packaging likely is facilitated by the extensive coinfection that we demonstrate in vivo, which promotes complementation and explains the frequent reassortment reported previously. We also reveal roles for the viral nucleoprotein in modulating glycoprotein function and gene packaging during host adaptation. These findings necessitate a major shift in how we think about the infectious and evolutionary potential of IAV populations.

 


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Predicting evolution from the shape of genealogical trees

eLife - Open access to the most promising advances in science
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