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Reliability of Large and Complex Systems, Second Edition (by Krzysztof Kolowrocki)

Reliability of Large and Complex Systems, Second Edition

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Reliability of Large and Complex Systems, previously titled Reliability of Large Systems, is an innovative guide to the current state and reliability of large and complex systems.

In addition to revised and updated content on the complexity and safety of large and complex mechanisms, this new edition looks at the reliability of nanosystems, a key research topic in nanotechnology science. The author discusses the importance of safety investigation of critical infrastructures that have aged or have been exposed to varying operational conditions. This reference provides an asymptotic approach to reliability; its methodology, whilst largely mathematical, is designed to help the reader understand and construct general models of large and systems in a wide range of engineering fields.

A complete and innovative guide to the reliability of large and complex systemsProvides the reader with a strong foundational knowledge of safety investigation into critical infrastructures; the main research area in the world of safety scienceExplains how to construct large, reliable and safe systems in variable operation conditions
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WIRED: Radical New Theory Could Kill the Multiverse Hypothesis and Gets Rid of Concepts Like "Length" and "Mass"

WIRED: Radical New Theory Could Kill the Multiverse Hypothesis and Gets Rid of Concepts Like "Length" and "Mass" | Complex Systems and X-Events | Scoop.it
Mass and length may not be fundamental properties of nature, according to new ideas bubbling out of the multiverse.

 

Though galaxies look larger than atoms and elephants appear to outweigh ants, some physicists have begun to suspect that size differences are illusory. Perhaps the fundamental description of the universe does not include the concepts of “mass” and “length,” implying that at its core, nature lacks a sense of scale.

 

This little-explored idea, known as scale symmetry, constitutes a radical departure from long-standing assumptions about how elementary particles acquire their properties. But it has recently emerged as a common theme of numerous talks and papers by respected particle physicists. With their field stuck at a nasty impasse, the researchers have returned to the master equations that describe the known particles and their interactions, and are asking: What happens when you erase the terms in the equations having to do with mass and length?

 

Nature, at the deepest level, may not differentiate between scales. With scale symmetry, physicists start with a basic equation that sets forth a massless collection of particles, each a unique confluence of characteristics such as whether it is matter or antimatter and has positive or negative electric charge. As these particles attract and repel one another and the effects of their interactions cascade like dominoes through the calculations, scale symmetry “breaks,” and masses and lengths spontaneously arise.

 

Similar dynamical effects generate 99 percent of the mass in the visible universe. Protons and neutrons are amalgams — each one a trio of lightweight elementary particles called quarks. The energy used to hold these quarks together gives them a combined mass that is around 100 times more than the sum of the parts. “Most of the mass that we see is generated in this way, so we are interested in seeing if it’s possible to generate all mass in this way,” said Alberto Salvio, a particle physicist at the Autonomous University of Madrid and the co-author of a recent paper on a scale-symmetric theory of nature.

 

In the equations of the “Standard Model” of particle physics, only a particle discovered in 2012, called the Higgs boson, comes equipped with mass from the get-go. According to a theory developed 50 years ago by the British physicist Peter Higgs and associates, it doles out mass to other elementary particles through its interactions with them. Electrons, W and Z bosons, individual quarks and so on: All their masses are believed to derive from the Higgs boson — and, in a feedback effect, they simultaneously dial the Higgs mass up or down, too.

 

The new scale symmetry approach rewrites the beginning of that story.
“The idea is that maybe even the Higgs mass is not really there,” said Alessandro Strumia, a particle physicist at the University of Pisa in Italy. “It can be understood with some dynamics.”

 

The concept seems far-fetched, but it is garnering interest at a time of widespread soul-searching in the field. When the Large Hadron Collider at CERN Laboratory in Geneva closed down for upgrades in early 2013, its collisions had failed to yield any of dozens of particles that many theorists had included in their equations for more than 30 years. The grand flop suggests that researchers may have taken a wrong turn decades ago in their understanding of how to calculate the masses of particles.

 

“We’re not in a position where we can afford to be particularly arrogant about our understanding of what the laws of nature must look like,” said Michael Dine, a professor of physics at the University of California, Santa Cruz, who has been following the new work on scale symmetry. “Things that I might have been skeptical about before, I’m willing to entertain.”

 


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Kondratieff cycles and algorithms

Research into the origins and progress of the process of industrial development over a longer period clearly reveals, according to Schumpeter [1], that it always occurs in a long wave movement extending over a period of around 45 to 60 years.


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Complex systems engineering for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope | SPIE Newsroom: SPIE

Complex systems engineering for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope | SPIE Newsroom: SPIE | Complex Systems and X-Events | Scoop.it
A rigorous new model-based systems approach improves the understanding of the telescope's functional behavior and interactions, and allows efficient operation of the observatory.
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AC2014 - Policy-making in complex adaptive systems: climate change, geoengineering and radical uncertainty (1)

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The Butterfly Defect: How Globalization Creates Systemic Risks, and What to Do about It (by Ian Goldin & Mike Mariathasan)

The Butterfly Defect: How Globalization Creates Systemic Risks, and What to Do about It

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Global hyperconnectivity and increased system integration have led to vast benefits, including worldwide growth in incomes, education, innovation, and technology. But rapid globalization has also created concerns because the repercussions of local events now cascade over national borders and the fallout of financial meltdowns and environmental disasters affects everyone. The Butterfly Defect addresses the widening gap between systemic risks and their effective management. It shows how the new dynamics of turbo-charged globalization has the potential and power to destabilize our societies. Drawing on the latest insights from a wide variety of disciplines, Ian Goldin and Mike Mariathasan provide practical guidance for how governments, businesses, and individuals can better manage risk in our contemporary world.

Goldin and Mariathasan assert that the current complexities of globalization will not be sustainable as surprises become more frequent and have widespread impacts. The recent financial crisis exemplifies the new form of systemic risk that will characterize the coming decades, and the authors provide the first framework for understanding how such risk will function in the twenty-first century. Goldin and Mariathasan demonstrate that systemic risk issues are now endemic everywhere--in supply chains, pandemics, infrastructure, ecology and climate change, economics, and politics. Unless we are better able to address these concerns, they will lead to greater protectionism, xenophobia, nationalism, and, inevitably, deglobalization, rising conflict, and slower growth.

 

 


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The Social Metabolism: A Socio-Ecological Theory of Historical Change (by Manuel González de Molina & Víctor M. Toledo)

The Social Metabolism: A Socio-Ecological Theory of Historical Change (Environmental History)

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Today, the most notable feature of the modern world is the growing concern for the future, since human society is immersed in a “giant, uncontrolled experiment” (McNeill, 2000), which it has caused, where natural and social processes are connected in an unprecedented way, generating new unpredictable and surprising dynamics and synergies that are threatening the human species, planetary equilibrium and the whole of life itself. Faced with the above situation, science as a whole is compelled to look back in order to learn from the past (lessons), and to adopt a rigorous historical perspective that will provide a thorough understanding of current situations from a socio-ecological perspective, capable of orchestrating interdisciplinary research into relations between society and nature.

Over this last decade, the concept of social metabolism has gained prestige as a theoretical instrument for the required analysis, to such an extent that there are now dozens of researchers, hundreds of articles and several books that have adopted and use this concept. However, there is a great deal of variety in terms of definitions and interpretations, as well as different methodologies around this concept, which prevents the consolidation of a unified field of new knowledge. The fundamental aim of the book is to conduct a review of the past and present usage of the concept of social metabolism, its origins and history, as well as the main currents or schools that exist around this concept. At the same time, the reviews and discussions included are used by the authors as starting points to draw conclusions and propose a theory of socio-ecological transformations.      

The theoretical and methodological innovations of this book include: a. the rigorous definition of a basic model for the process of social metabolism;

b. the distinction of two types of metabolic processes: tangible and intangible;

c. detailed discussion regarding the concept of nature appropriation;

d. analysis of the social metabolism at different scales (spatial dimension);

e. historical analysis of the social metabolism (temporal dimension and socio-ecological change);

f. overcoming the merely “systemic” or “cybernetic” nature of approaches, giving protagonism to collective action; and consequence and explanation of the above:

g. integration of an ethical and political dimension to the theory.

 

 


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Blue Urbanism: Exploring Connections Between Cities and Oceans (by Timothy Beatley)

Blue Urbanism: Exploring Connections Between Cities and Oceans

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What would it mean to live in cities designed to foster feelings of connectedness to the ocean? As coastal cities begin planning for climate change and rising sea levels, author Timothy Beatley sees opportunities for rethinking the relationship between urban development and the ocean. Modern society is more dependent upon ocean resources than people are commonly aware of—from oil and gas extraction to wind energy, to the vast amounts of fish harvested globally, to medicinal compounds derived from sea creatures, and more. In Blue Urbanism, Beatley argues that, given all we’ve gained from the sea, city policies, plans, and daily urban life should acknowledge and support a healthy ocean environment.

The book explores issues ranging from urban design and land use, to resource extraction and renewable energy, to educating urbanites about the wonders of marine life. Beatley looks at how emerging practices like “community supported fisheries” and aquaponics can provide a sustainable alternative to industrial fishing practices. Other chapters delve into incentives for increasing use of wind and tidal energy as renewable options to oil and gas extraction that damages ocean life, and how the shipping industry is becoming more “green.” Additionally, urban citizens, he explains, have many opportunities to interact meaningfully with the ocean, from beach cleanups to helping scientists gather data.

While no one city “has it all figured out,” Beatley finds evidence of a changing ethic in cities around the world: a marine biodiversity census in Singapore, decreasing support for shark-finning in Hong Kong, “water plazas” in Rotterdam, a new protected area along the rocky shore of Wellington, New Zealand, “bluebelt” planning in Staten Island, and more. Ultimately he explains we must create a culture of “ocean literacy” using a variety of approaches, from building design and art installations that draw inspiration from marine forms, to encouraging citizen volunteerism related to oceans, to city-sponsored research, and support for new laws that protect marine health.

 

 


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The Organized Mind: Thinking Straight in the Age of Information Overload: Daniel J. Levitin: 9780525954187: Amazon.com: Books

The Organized Mind: Thinking Straight in the Age of Information Overload

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The Organized Mind: Thinking Straight in the Age of Information Overload [Daniel J. Levitin] on Amazon.com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. New York Times bestselling author and neuroscientist Daniel J. Levitin shifts his keen insights from your brain on music to your brain in a sea of details. The information age is drowning us with an unprecedented deluge of data. At the same time
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HARPS | Abstract | Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: a realist evaluation of a capacity building programme for district managers in Tumkur, India

Health systems interventions, such as capacity-building of health workers, are implemented across districts in order to improve performance of healthcare organisations. However, such interventions often work in some settings and not in others. Local health systems could be visualised as complex adaptive systems that respond variously to inputs of capacity building interventions, depending on their local conditions and several individual, institutional, and environmental factors. We aim at demonstrating how the realist evaluation approach advances complex systems thinking in healthcare evaluation by applying the approach to understand organisational change within local health systems in the Tumkur district of southern India.
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HARPS | Article collections | Advancing the application of systems thinking in health

HARPS | Article collections | Advancing the application of systems thinking in health | Complex Systems and X-Events | Scoop.it
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Signaling networks in MS: A systems-based approach to developing new pharmacological therapies

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X Center Network – Mathematical Model for the Dynamic Behavior of the Demographic Transition by Roger D. Jones

X Center Network – Mathematical Model for the Dynamic Behavior of the Demographic Transition by Roger D. Jones | Complex Systems and X-Events | Scoop.it
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Systems Thinking and the Future of Cities

Systems Thinking and the Future of Cities | Complex Systems and X-Events | Scoop.it
The idea that nothing exists in isolation−but only as part of a system−has long been embedded in folklore, religious scriptures, and common sense.
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Massive online brain being built for the world's robots - Mother Nature Network

Massive online brain being built for the world's robots - Mother Nature Network | Complex Systems and X-Events | Scoop.it
Mother Nature Network Massive online brain being built for the world's robots Mother Nature Network As individual robots learn new knowledge, this knowledge can also be uploaded to the global brain, meaning that all other robots hooked up to the...

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Complex systems theory a short film

Complex systems theory a short film | Complex Systems and X-Events | Scoop.it
short film series on complex systems.Starting with complexity theory this section looks as its relevant to gaining a better understanding both the natural (Complex systems-a brief video: http://t.co/jHaneJUSLf)...

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HARPS | Full text | Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: managing rural China health system development in complex and dynamic contexts

This paper explores the evolution of schemes for rural finance in China as a case study of the long and complex process of health system development. It argues that the evolution of these schemes has been the outcome of the response of a large number of agents to a rapidly changing context and of efforts by the government to influence this adaptation process and achieve public health goals.
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Crossing boundaries: complex systems, transdisciplinarity and applied impact agendas | Decision Sciences

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Complexity: A Very Short Introduction (by John H. Holland)

The importance of complexity is well-captured by Hawking's comment: "Complexity is the science of the 21st century". From the movement of flocks of birds to the Internet, environmental sustainability, and market regulation, the study and understanding of complex non-linear systems has become highly influential over the last 30 years.

In this Very Short Introduction, one of the leading figures in the field, John Holland, introduces the key elements and conceptual framework of complexity. From complex physical systems such as fluid flow and the difficulties of predicting weather, to complex adaptive systems such as the highly diverse and interdependent ecosystems of rainforests, he combines simple, well-known examples -- Adam Smith's pin factory, Darwin's comet orchid, and Simon's 'watchmaker' -- with an account of
the approaches, involving agents and urn models, taken by complexity theory.

 

 


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Tom Cockburn's curator insight, July 16, 12:34 AM

Very good overrview

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Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos: With Applications to Physics, Biology, Chemistry, and Engineering - 2nd edition (by Steven H. Strogatz)

This textbook is aimed at newcomers to nonlinear dynamics and chaos, especially students taking a first course in the subject. The presentation stresses analytical methods, concrete examples, and geometric intuition. The theory is developed systematically, starting with first-order differential equations and their bifurcations, followed by phase plane analysis, limit cycles and their bifurcations, and culminating with the Lorenz equations, chaos, iterated maps, period doubling, renormalization, fractals, and strange attractors.

A unique feature of the book is its emphasis on applications. These include mechanical vibrations, lasers, biological rhythms, superconducting circuits, insect outbreaks, chemical oscillators, genetic control systems, chaotic waterwheels, and even a technique for using chaos to send secret messages. In each case, the scientific background is explained at an elementary level and closely integrated with mathematical theory.

In the twenty years since the first edition of this book appeared, the ideas and techniques of nonlinear dynamics and chaos have found application to such exciting new fields as systems biology, evolutionary game theory, and sociophysics. This second edition includes new exercises on these cutting-edge developments, on topics as varied as the curiosities of visual perception and the tumultuous love dynamics in Gone With the Wind.

 

 


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Growing Adaptive Machines: Combining Development and Learning in Artificial Neural Networks (Studies in Computational Intelligence): Taras Kowaliw, Nicolas Bredeche, René Doursat: 9783642553363: Am...

Growing Adaptive Machines: Combining Development and Learning in Artificial Neural Networks (Studies in Computational Intelligence) [Taras Kowaliw, Nicolas Bredeche, René Doursat] on Amazon.com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The pursuit of artificial intelligence has been a highly active domain of research for decades, yielding exciting scientific insights and productive new technologies. In terms of generating intelligence
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Complexity and the Human Experience: Modeling Complexity in the Humanities and Social Sciences (edited by Paul A. Youngman & Mirsad Hadzikadic)

Questions of values, ontologies, ethics, aesthetics, discourse, origins, language, literature, and meaning do not lend themselves readily, or traditionally, to equations, probabilities, and models. However, with the increased adoption of natural science tools in economics, anthropology, and political science—to name only a few social scientific fields highlighted in this volume—quantitative methods in the humanities are becoming more common.

The theory of complexity holds significant promise for better understanding social and human phenomena based on interactions among the participating "agents," whatever they may be: a thought, a person, a conversation, a sentence, or an email. Such systems can exhibit phase transitions, feedback loops, self-organization, and emergent properties. These dynamic systems lend themselves naturally to the kind of analysis made possible by models and simulations developed with complex science tools. This volume offers a tour of quantitative analyses, models, and simulations of humanities and social science phenomena that have been historically the purview of qualitative methods.

 

 


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HARPS | Full text | Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: realist evaluation of the Leadership Development Programme for district manager decision-making in Ghana

Although there is widespread agreement that strong district manager decision-making improves health systems, understanding about how the design and implementation of capacity-strengthening interventions work is limited. The Ghana Health Service has adopted the Leadership Development Programme (LDP) as one intervention to support the development of management and leadership within district teams. This paper seeks to address how and why the LDP ‘works’ when it is introduced into a district health system in Ghana, and whether or not it supports systems thinking in district teams.
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Unintended Consequences of Messing with Complex Systems | Ben Casnocha

Unintended Consequences of Messing with Complex Systems | Ben Casnocha | Complex Systems and X-Events | Scoop.it
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X Center Network – Roger D. Jones – US Healthcare as a Complex System

X Center Network – Roger D. Jones – US Healthcare as a Complex System | Complex Systems and X-Events | Scoop.it
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APPROACHING X-EVENT IN THE FOREST INDUSTRY by Wilenius Markku 19'19'' - YouTube

X Center Network Annual conference 2014 in Vienna Topic: APPROACHING X-EVENT IN THE FOREST INDUSTRY
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