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Complexity, Innovation, and Development: Schumpeter Revisited - Harvard - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs

Complexity, Innovation, and Development: Schumpeter Revisited - Harvard - Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs | Complex Systems and X-Events | Scoop.it
The role of innovation and entrepreneurship is increasingly getting policy attention in emerging countries. A growing body of literature is deriving its inspiration from the work of Joseph Schumpeter.
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Traces: Ants and Urban Design

Traces: Ants and Urban Design | Complex Systems and X-Events | Scoop.it
by Hugh Lester 17 March 2014 Notes on Traces Hugh Lester In an earlier essay, "Notes on Human Use," I introduced the concept of affordances and constraints. Built form, such as walls, act as constraints to movement. Benches or the tops of low walls afford places to sit and rest. Urban fabric can therefore be…
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This is an interesting essay written by my friend and colleague, Hugh Lester.

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A Biologically Inspired Model of Distributed Online Communication Supporting Efficient Search and Diffusion of Innovation


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Ants determine their next move at rest: motor planning and causality in complex systems

To find useful work to do for their colony, individual eusocial animals have to move, somehow staying attentive to relevant social information. Recent research on individual Temnothorax albipennis ants moving inside their colony’s nest found a power-law relationship between a movement’s duration and its average speed; and a universal speed profile for movements showing that they mostly fluctuate around a constant average speed. From this predictability it was inferred that movement durations are somehow determined before the movement itself. Here, we find similar results in lone T. albipennis ants exploring a large arena outside the nest, both when the arena is clean and when it contains chemical information left by previous nest-mates. This implies that these movement characteristics originate from the same individual neural and/or physiological mechanism(s), operating without immediate regard to social influences. However, the presence of pheromones and/or other cues was found to affect the inter-event speed correlations. Hence we suggest that ants’ motor planning results in intermittent response to the social environment: movement duration is adjusted in response to social information only between movements, not during them. This environmentally flexible, intermittently responsive movement behaviour points towards a spatially allocated division of labour in this species. It also prompts more general questions on collective animal movement and the role of intermittent causation from higher to lower organizational levels in the stability of complex systems.

 

Edmund R Hunt, Roland J Baddeley, Alan Worley, Ana B Sendova-Franks, Nigel R Franks. 2016 Ants determine their next move at rest: motor planning and causality in complex systems. Royal Society Open Science 3:150534.
http://rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/3/1/150534


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Energy and resilience: The effects of endogenous interdependencies on trade network formation across space among major Japanese firms

The dynamic drivers of interfirm interactions across space have rarely been explored in the context of disaster recovery; therefore, the mechanism through which shocks propagate is unclear. This paper uses stochastic actor-oriented modeling to examine how trade networks among the 500 largest Japanese companies evolved during 2010 and 2011, i.e. before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake to identify sources of vulnerability in the system. In contrast to previous reports on broken supply chains, the network displayed only modest change even in the directly affected areas. Controlling for distance and for firm size, we find that when firms changed their partners, they preferred firms that were popular among other firms, that had partners in common with them and that also bought some products or services from them. These findings concur with a criticism that Japanese firms avoid external actors and exhibit inflexibility in reorganizing their networks in times of need, which contrasts with the non-cliquish network structures observed in high-performing economic sectors. The results also highlight the role of energy firms in disaster resilience. Unlike other large Japanese companies that cluster in major urban centers, energy firms are distributed across Japan. However, despite their peripheral physical locations, energy firms are centrally located in trade networks. Thus, while a disaster in any region may affect some energy firms and lead to large-scale temporary shocks, the entire network is unlikely to be disconnected by any region-specific disaster because of the spatial distribution of the topological network core formed by energy companies.

 

Energy and resilience: The effects of endogenous interdependencies on trade network formation across space among major Japanese firms
PETR MATOUS and YASUYUKI TODO

Network Science

http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/nws.2015.37

 


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Momentum is building on the urgent need to halt and reverse extreme economic inequality

Momentum is building on the urgent need to halt and reverse extreme economic inequality | Complex Systems and X-Events | Scoop.it

Despite the region's buoyant growth rate, sub-Saharan African countries have some of the highest levels of income inequality in the world, explains Winnie Byanyima.

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GM and Lyft Are Building a Network of Self-Driving Cars

GM and Lyft Are Building a Network of Self-Driving Cars | Complex Systems and X-Events | Scoop.it

GM will invest $500 million in Lyft, a clear sign the auto giant is serious about moving beyond the era of the personal, human-driven automobile.


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How messy problems can inspire creativity

How messy problems can inspire creativity | Complex Systems and X-Events | Scoop.it

Challenges and problems can derail your creative process ... or they can make you more creative than ever.


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The Rise of the Artificially Intelligent Hedge Fund

The Rise of the Artificially Intelligent Hedge Fund | Complex Systems and X-Events | Scoop.it

Last week, Ben Goertzel and his company turned on a hedge fund that makes all its stock trades using AI---no human intervention required.


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Striking Photos of India’s Rapid, Chaotic Urbanization

Striking Photos of India’s Rapid, Chaotic Urbanization | Complex Systems and X-Events | Scoop.it

Lars Mortensen documents the ever-expanding construction in India, from the high rises to the slums.

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Permaculture Forest Gardening, Edible Landscapes Urban Permaculture

Permaculture Forest Gardening, Edible Landscapes Urban Permaculture This video consists of three mini-documentaries: 1. (0:12) FOREST GARDENING with

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Hurricane Presentation by Dr. Roger Jones - YouTube

The heart of hurricane season is approaching, and scientists predict that Earth’s changing climate change will create more of the most powerful storms along ...
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GM and Lyft Are Teaming Up to Build a Network of Self-Driving Cars

GM and Lyft Are Teaming Up to Build a Network of Self-Driving Cars | Complex Systems and X-Events | Scoop.it

General Motors and Lyft are teaming up to create a national network of self-driving cars, the companies jointly announced this morning.

GM will invest $500 million in Lyft and take a seat on the ride-sharing startup’s board of directors. It will also become a preferred provider of cars for short-term use to Lyft drivers.

 

GM, America’s biggest automaker, has been working on autonomous technology since it first collaborated with Carnegie Mellon University in 2007, for an autonomous vehicle competition sponsored by DARPA. Next year, it plans to finally put a related product on the market: “Super Cruise,” a semi-autonomous feature that will let a car handle itself on the highway, will be available on the 2017 Cadillac CT6.


The partnership with Lyft, though, signifies ambitions far beyond Super Cruise. While we have no details on the proposed “network of on-demand autonomous vehicles”—such as how it will work or when it will arrive—we can assume it will require a far more advanced take on autonomous driving than Super Cruise will offer. Lyft, like other ride-sharing services, does the bulk of its work in cities, which are devilishly hard for robots to navigate. Urban areas are full of complicated intersections, pedestrians, cyclists, and other hard-to-predict variables.


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Transdisciplinarity: Thinking Inside and Outside the Box

Transdisciplinarity: Thinking Inside and Outside the Box | Complex Systems and X-Events | Scoop.it
Students experience deeper learning and start thinking outside the box when their teachers collaborate to present different aspects of the same subject across various disciplines.

 

Learn more:

 

https://gustmees.wordpress.com/2015/07/19/learning-path-for-professional-21st-century-learning-by-ict-practice/

 


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The power of crowds

Human computation, a term introduced by Luis von Ahn (1), refers to distributed systems that combine the strengths of humans and computers to accomplish tasks that neither can do alone (2). The seminal example is reCAPTCHA, a Web widget used by 100 million people a day when they transcribe distorted text into a box to prove they are human. This free cognitive labor provides users with access to Web content and keeps websites safe from spam attacks, while feeding into a massive, crowd-powered transcription engine that has digitized 13 million articles from The New York Times archives (3). But perhaps the best known example of human computation is Wikipedia. Despite initial concerns about accuracy (4), it has become the key resource for all kinds of basic information. Information science has begun to build on these early successes, demonstrating the potential to evolve human computation systems that can model and address wicked problems (those that defy traditional problem-solving methods) at the intersection of economic, environmental, and sociopolitical systems.

 

The power of crowds
Pietro Michelucci, Janis L. Dickinson

Science  01 Jan 2016:
Vol. 351, Issue 6268, pp. 32-33
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aad6499


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Large-scale signatures of unconsciousness are consistent with a departure from critical dynamics

Loss of cortical integration and changes in the dynamics of electrophysiological brain signals characterize the transition from wakefulness towards unconsciousness. In this study, we arrive at a basic model explaining these observations based on the theory of phase transitions in complex systems. We studied the link between spatial and temporal correlations of large-scale brain activity recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging during wakefulness, propofol-induced sedation and loss of consciousness and during the subsequent recovery. We observed that during unconsciousness activity in frontothalamic regions exhibited a reduction of long-range temporal correlations and a departure of functional connectivity from anatomical constraints. A model of a system exhibiting a phase transition reproduced our findings, as well as the diminished sensitivity of the cortex to external perturbations during unconsciousness. This framework unifies different observations about brain activity during unconsciousness and predicts that the principles we identified are universal and independent from its causes.

 

Large-scale signatures of unconsciousness are consistent with a departure from critical dynamics
Enzo Tagliazucchi, Dante R. Chialvo, Michael Siniatchkin, Enrico Amico, Jean-Francois Brichant, Vincent Bonhomme, Quentin Noirhomme, Helmut Laufs, Steven Laureys

Interface

http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2015.1027


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Affordable starter homes are popping up on oddly shaped lots in New Orleans

Affordable starter homes are popping up on oddly shaped lots in New Orleans | Complex Systems and X-Events | Scoop.it

Office of Jonathan Tate launched the Starter Home* project, a housing experiment to transform oddly shaped urban lots across cities into valuable housing stock.

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How This Old Downtown Embraced Urban Life

How This Old Downtown Embraced Urban Life | Complex Systems and X-Events | Scoop.it

A review of the Urbanization of Historical Downtown Ripoll, by Comas-Pont Arquitectes, in Ripoll (Girona), Spain.

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GM and Lyft Are Building a Network of Self-Driving Cars

GM and Lyft Are Building a Network of Self-Driving Cars | Complex Systems and X-Events | Scoop.it

GM will invest $500 million in Lyft, a clear sign the auto giant is serious about moving beyond the era of the personal, human-driven automobile.


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The Plan to Unite Bitcoin With All Other Online Currencies

The Plan to Unite Bitcoin With All Other Online Currencies | Complex Systems and X-Events | Scoop.it

The idea is to create a single worldwide network that can not only unite all digital currencies, but all companies and individuals who use those currencies.


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Systemic Risk Of The 80 Percent Who Live In Urban Centers

Systemic Risk Of The 80 Percent Who Live In Urban Centers | Complex Systems and X-Events | Scoop.it

We are facing huge risks of supply chain and societal disruption due to the economic conditions facing the globe today...

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"The Grid" - the modular backpack for urban nomads

KANCHA Design is raising funds for "The Grid" - the modular backpack for urban nomads on Kickstarter!

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Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search

Mastering the game of Go with deep neural networks and tree search | Complex Systems and X-Events | Scoop.it
The game of Go has long been viewed as the most challenging of classic games for artificial intelligence owing to its enormous search space and the difficulty of evaluating board positions and moves. Here we introduce a new approach to computer Go that uses ‘value networks’ to evaluate board positions and ‘policy networks’ to select moves. These deep neural networks are trained by a novel combination of supervised learning from human expert games, and reinforcement learning from games of self-play. Without any lookahead search, the neural networks play Go at the level of state-of-the-art Monte Carlo tree search programs that simulate thousands of random games of self-play. We also introduce a new search algorithm that combines Monte Carlo simulation with value and policy networks. Using this search algorithm, our program AlphaGo achieved a 99.8% winning rate against other Go programs, and defeated the human European Go champion by 5 games to 0. This is the first time that a computer program has defeated a human professional player in the full-sized game of Go, a feat previously thought to be at least a decade away.

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Mathematical Model for the Dynamic Behavior of the Demographic Transition

A mathematical model (Core Model) is presented that describes the gross dynamic behavior of the demographic transition—falling death rates lead to population increase, temporarily rising birth rates, temporarily increased population growth, decreased
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