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Rescooped by Rakesh Yashroy from Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca
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Quantitative Temporal Viromics: An Approach to Investigate Host-Pathogen Interaction: Cell

Quantitative Temporal Viromics: An Approach to Investigate Host-Pathogen Interaction: Cell | Exocytosis | Scoop.it

A systematic quantitative analysis of temporal changes in host and viral proteins throughout the course of a productive infection could provide dynamic insights into virus-host interaction. We developed a proteomic technique called “quantitative temporal viromics” (QTV), which employs multiplexed tandem-mass-tag-based mass spectrometry. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is not only an important pathogen but a paradigm of viral immune evasion. QTV detailed how HCMV orchestrates the expression of >8,000 cellular proteins, including 1,200 cell-surface proteins to manipulate signaling pathways and counterintrinsic, innate, and adaptive immune defenses. QTV predicted natural killer and T cell ligands, as well as 29 viral proteins present at the cell surface, potential therapeutic targets. Temporal profiles of >80% of HCMV canonical genes and 14 noncanonical HCMV open reading frames were defined. QTV is a powerful method that can yield important insights into viral infection and is applicable to any virus with a robust in vitro model.


Via burkesquires
Rakesh Yashroy's insight:

As such, host-pathogen signaling is fast becoming the field of immense interest @ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Membrane_vesicle_trafficking

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Rescooped by Rakesh Yashroy from Plant-microbe interaction
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Agrobacterium tumefaciens Deploys a Superfamily of Type VI Secretion DNase Effectors as Weapons for Interbacterial Competition In Planta: Cell Host & Microbe

Agrobacterium tumefaciens Deploys a Superfamily of Type VI Secretion DNase Effectors as Weapons for Interbacterial Competition In Planta: Cell Host & Microbe | Exocytosis | Scoop.it

The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a widespread molecular weapon deployed by many Proteobacteria to target effectors/toxins into both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. We report that Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a soil bacterium that triggers tumorigenesis in plants, produces a family of type VI DNase effectors (Tde) that are distinct from previously known polymorphic toxins and nucleases. Tde exhibits an antibacterial DNase activity that relies on a conserved HxxD motif and can be counteracted by a cognate immunity protein, Tdi. In vitro, A. tumefaciens T6SS could kill Escherichia coli but triggered a lethal counterattack by Pseudomonas aeruginosa upon injection of the Tde toxins. However, in an in planta coinfection assay, A. tumefaciens used Tde effectors to attack both siblings cells and P. aeruginosa to ultimately gain a competitive advantage. Such acquired T6SS-dependent fitness in vivo and conservation of Tde-Tdi couples in bacteria highlights a widespread antibacterial weapon beneficial for niche colonization


Via Suayib Üstün
Rakesh Yashroy's insight:

Similar host-intoxication is achieved via bacterial outer membrane vesicles released by gram-negative pathogens against animal host or other target cells. See more at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/230793514_Eukaryotic_cell_intoxication_by_Gram-negative_pathogens_A_novel_bacterial_outermembrane-bound_nanovesicular_exocytosis_model_for_Type-III_secretion_system._Toxicology_International_vol._10_No._1_pages_1-9_year_2003?ev=prf_pub

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Abdou H's curator insight, July 16, 8:26 AM

T6SS helps finding a niche

Rescooped by Rakesh Yashroy from Mass spectrometry
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Scientists Take Snapshots of Photosynthetic Water Oxidation

Scientists Take Snapshots of Photosynthetic Water Oxidation | Exocytosis | Scoop.it
Scientists take detailed snapshots of the 4 photon-step cycle for water oxidation in photosystem II, a large protein complex in green plants

Via Edwin De Pauw
Rakesh Yashroy's insight:

Learning from nature - photosynthetic oxygen production in thylakoid lipid bilayers  @ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225688482_Magnetic_resonance_studies_of_dynamic_organisation_of_lipids_in_chloroplast_membranes?ev=prf_pub  to futuristic oxygen producing solar cells for taking life to other planets etc.

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Rescooped by Rakesh Yashroy from Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca
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Quantitative Temporal Viromics: An Approach to Investigate Host-Pathogen Interaction: Cell

Quantitative Temporal Viromics: An Approach to Investigate Host-Pathogen Interaction: Cell | Exocytosis | Scoop.it

A systematic quantitative analysis of temporal changes in host and viral proteins throughout the course of a productive infection could provide dynamic insights into virus-host interaction. We developed a proteomic technique called “quantitative temporal viromics” (QTV), which employs multiplexed tandem-mass-tag-based mass spectrometry. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is not only an important pathogen but a paradigm of viral immune evasion. QTV detailed how HCMV orchestrates the expression of >8,000 cellular proteins, including 1,200 cell-surface proteins to manipulate signaling pathways and counterintrinsic, innate, and adaptive immune defenses. QTV predicted natural killer and T cell ligands, as well as 29 viral proteins present at the cell surface, potential therapeutic targets. Temporal profiles of >80% of HCMV canonical genes and 14 noncanonical HCMV open reading frames were defined. QTV is a powerful method that can yield important insights into viral infection and is applicable to any virus with a robust in vitro model.


Via burkesquires
Rakesh Yashroy's insight:

As such, host-pathogen signaling is fast becoming the field of immense interest @ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Membrane_vesicle_trafficking

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Rescooped by Rakesh Yashroy from Plants and Microbes
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Plant J: The powdery mildew resistance protein RPW8.2 is carried on VAMP721/722 vesicles to the extrahaustorial membrane of haustorial complexes (2014)

Plant J: The powdery mildew resistance protein RPW8.2 is carried on VAMP721/722 vesicles to the extrahaustorial membrane of haustorial complexes (2014) | Exocytosis | Scoop.it

Plants employ multiple cell-autonomous defense mechanisms to impede pathogenesis of microbial intruders. Previously we identified an exocytosis defense mechanism in Arabidopsis against pathogenic powdery mildew fungi. This pre-invasive defense mechanism depends on the formation of ternary protein complexes consisting of the plasma membrane-localized PEN1 syntaxin, the adaptor protein SNAP33, and closely sequence-related vesicle-resident VAMP721 or VAMP722 proteins. The Arabidopsis thaliana resistance to powdery mildew 8.2 protein (RPW8.2) confers disease resistance against powdery mildews upon fungal entry into host cells and is specifically targeted to the extrahaustorial membrane (EHM), which envelops the haustorial complex of the fungus. However, the secretory machinery involved in trafficking RPW8.2 to the EHM is unknown. Here we report that RPW8.2 is transiently located on VAMP721/722 vesicles, and later incorporated into the EHM of mature haustoria. RPW8.2 resistance activity against the powdery mildew Golovinomyces orontii is greatly diminished in the absence of VAMP721 but only slightly in the absence of VAMP722. Consistent with this result, trafficking of RPW8.2 to the EHM is delayed in the absence of VAMP721. These findings implicate VAMP721/722 vesicles as key components of the secretory machinery for carrying RPW8.2 to the plant-fungal interface. Quantitative fluorescence recovery after photobleaching suggests that vesicle-mediated trafficking of RPW8.2-YFP to the EHM occurs transiently during early haustorial development and that RPW8.2-YFP lateral diffusion within the EHM exceeds vesicle-mediated RPW8.2-YFP replenishment in mature haustoria. Our findings imply the engagement of VAMP721/722 in a bifurcated trafficking pathway for pre-invasive defense at the cell periphery and post-invasive defense at the EHM.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
Rakesh Yashroy's insight:

Membrane vesicle trafficking - the 2013 Nobel winning eukaryote cell phenomenon -  is now turning out to be universal, including bacteria @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Membrane_vesicle_trafficking

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Rescooped by Rakesh Yashroy from Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca
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Crossing the Interspecies Barrier: Opening the Door to Zoonotic Pathogens

Crossing the Interspecies Barrier: Opening the Door to Zoonotic Pathogens | Exocytosis | Scoop.it

The number of pathogens known to infect humans is ever increasing. Whether such increase reflects improved surveillance and detection or actual emergence of novel pathogens is unclear. Nonetheless, infectious diseases are the second leading cause of human mortality and disability-adjusted life years lost worldwide [1], [2]. On average, three to four new pathogen species are detected in the human population every year [3]. Most of these emerging pathogens originate from nonhuman animal species.


Via Chris Upton + helpers
Rakesh Yashroy's insight:

There are multi-niche pathogens infecting humans, cattle and birds like Salmonella (3,10:r:-) @ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/5632834_Mechanism_of_infection_of_a_human_isolate_Salmonella_%28310r-%29_in_chicken_ileum_ultrastructural_study?ev=prf_pub

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Rescooped by Rakesh Yashroy from Synthetic Biology
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Tiny Bacteria Provide Genetics to Save Food

Tiny Bacteria Provide Genetics to Save Food | Exocytosis | Scoop.it

Plants are often thought of as the masters of photosynthesis, the process by which sunlight, carbon dioxide and water are converted into usable energy, but when it comes to efficiency, they are beaten out by a rather surprising rival: bacteria.


Via idtdna
Rakesh Yashroy's insight:

Awsome twosome - sharing genes between plants and bacterial for higher crop productivity.

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Rescooped by Rakesh Yashroy from Mass spectrometry
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Polymorphism (biophysics)

Polymorphism (biophysics) | Exocytosis | Scoop.it
Polymorphism in biophysics is the aspect of the behaviour of lipids that influences their long-range order, i.e. how they aggregate. This can be in the form of...

Via Edwin De Pauw
Rakesh Yashroy's insight:

Unique lipids of plant photosynthetic thylakoid membranes.

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Rakesh Yashroy's curator insight, June 26, 12:45 PM

Earth's most abundant biological membranes are phospholipid-defficient . Strange but true, plant chloroplast thylakoid membranes are galactolipid-based. The most abundant of these is monogalactosyl diglyceride (MGDG) forms form long cylinders (H) of reverse hexagonal H-II phase in aqueous dispersions. Nonetheless, put together, aqueous lipid dispersions of total lipids extracted from thylakoid membranes do form conventional lipid bilayer or lamellar organization http://www.researchgate.net/publication/225688482_Magnetic_resonance_studies_of_dynamic_organisation_of_lipids_in_chloroplast_membranes?ev=prf_pub .

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Time-lapse movie of predator bacteria attacking prey bacteria

Bacteria compete for resources in the natural environment and can even inject toxins into prey as part of this competition. The movie visualizes E. coli usin...
Rakesh Yashroy's insight:

Struggle for existence has to be fought by all living beings including bacteria from their peers, predators and evolved humans

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Protein Trafficking

Rakesh Yashroy's insight:

Note a similar parallel mechanism working at host-pathogen interface for protein vesicular trafficking from gram-negative microbes to their host or target cells at link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Host-pathogen_interface

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Rakesh Yashroy's curator insight, May 29, 7:52 AM

This beautiful depiction of protein trafficking via membrane vesicles released from eukaryotic cell organelle, Golgi complex, has a parallel in prokaryotic gram negative bacteria, which secrete specific signal proteins at the microbe-host, microbe-microbe, microbe-environment interface - packed into vesicles bounded by bacterial outer membrane, and called outer membrane vesicles - as given here http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Host-pathogen_interface

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3D animation of cellular membrane trafficking

3D animation of cellular membrane trafficking, showing the endocytic and secretory pathways An HMA production for the Centre for Membrane Interactions and Dy...
Rakesh Yashroy's insight:

Golgi is the source of generation of membrane vesicles for trafficking cell signals to other cells in eukaryotic living beings.  This role is played by periplasm for membrane vesicle trafficking from prokaryotic gram negative microbes as signals to other cells - see how http://www.researchgate.net/publication/230793514_Eukaryotic_cell_intoxication_by_Gram-negative_pathogens_A_novel_bacterial_outermembrane-bound_nanovesicular_exocytosis_model_for_Type-III_secretion_system._Toxicology_International_vol._10_No._1_pages_1-9_year_2003?ev=prf_pub

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Rescooped by Rakesh Yashroy from Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)
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Bacteria: A day in the life

Bacteria: A day in the life | Exocytosis | Scoop.it

MIT study finds ocean bacteria follow predictable patterns of daily activity.


Via idtdna
Rakesh Yashroy's insight:

Bacteria can outdo any other living form https://www.academia.edu/7394574/ICAR_News_Vol_4_1999_pg_18_EXOCYTOSIS_in_PROKARYOTES

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Rescooped by Rakesh Yashroy from Genetic engineering and Human genetics, background reading and resources for IB
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X marks the spot

X marks the spot | Exocytosis | Scoop.it

KILL the mosquito and you kill the disease. That is the usual approach to controlling malaria. And if done properly, it works. The problem is that the insecticides...


Via Jynto
Rakesh Yashroy's insight:

Man and nature can both cross their limits. Let us see, how it works in the long-run - eliminating females from malarial mosquito.

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Rescooped by Rakesh Yashroy from Plants and Microbes
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Curr Opin Plant Biol: Filamentous pathogen effector functions: of pathogens, hosts and microbiomes (2014)

Curr Opin Plant Biol: Filamentous pathogen effector functions: of pathogens, hosts and microbiomes (2014) | Exocytosis | Scoop.it

Microorganisms play essential roles in almost every environment on earth. For instance, microbes decompose organic material, or establish symbiotic relationships that range from pathogenic to mutualistic. Symbiotic relationships have been particularly well studied for microbial plant pathogens and have emphasized the role of effectors; secreted molecules that support host colonization. Most effectors characterized thus far play roles in deregulation of host immunity. Arguably, however, pathogens not only deal with immune responses during host colonization, but also encounter other microbes including competitors, (myco)parasites and even potential co-operators. Thus, part of the effector catalog may target microbiome co-inhabitants rather than host physiology.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
Rakesh Yashroy's insight:

Host-pathogen interface is the 'kurukshetra' or battlefield of life @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Host-pathogen_interface

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Rescooped by Rakesh Yashroy from Plants and Microbes
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Curr Opin Plant Biol: Cross-interference of plant development and plant–microbe interactions (2014)

Curr Opin Plant Biol: Cross-interference of plant development and plant–microbe interactions (2014) | Exocytosis | Scoop.it

Plant roots are host to a multitude of filamentous microorganisms. Among these, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi provide benefits to plants, while pathogens trigger diseases resulting in significant crop yield losses. It is therefore imperative to study processes which allow plants to discriminate detrimental and beneficial interactions in order to protect crops from diseases while retaining the ability for sustainable bio-fertilisation strategies. Accumulating evidence suggests that some symbiosis processes also affect plant–pathogen interactions. A large part of this overlap likely constitutes plant developmental processes. Moreover, microbes utilise effector proteins to interfere with plant development. Here we list relevant recent findings on how plant–microbe interactions intersect with plant development and highlight future research leads.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
Rakesh Yashroy's insight:

Microbe-macrobe or host-pathogen interface determines the cell-cell interactions largely @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Host-pathogen_interface

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Rescooped by Rakesh Yashroy from Exocytosis
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Polymorphism (biophysics)

Polymorphism (biophysics) | Exocytosis | Scoop.it
Polymorphism in biophysics is the aspect of the behaviour of lipids that influences their long-range order, i.e. how they aggregate. This can be in the form of...

Via Edwin De Pauw, Rakesh Yashroy
Rakesh Yashroy's insight:

Earth's most abundant biological membranes are phospholipid-defficient . Strange but true, plant chloroplast thylakoid membranes are galactolipid-based. The most abundant of these is monogalactosyl diglyceride (MGDG) forms form long cylinders (H) of reverse hexagonal H-II phase in aqueous dispersions. Nonetheless, put together, aqueous lipid dispersions of total lipids extracted from thylakoid membranes do form conventional lipid bilayer or lamellar organization http://www.researchgate.net/publication/225688482_Magnetic_resonance_studies_of_dynamic_organisation_of_lipids_in_chloroplast_membranes?ev=prf_pub .

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Rakesh Yashroy's curator insight, June 17, 6:31 AM

Unique lipids of plant photosynthetic thylakoid membranes.

Rescooped by Rakesh Yashroy from Genetic engineering and Human genetics, background reading and resources for IB
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GM Wheat May Damage Human Genetics Permanently | RAW FOR BEAUTY

GM Wheat May Damage Human Genetics Permanently | RAW FOR BEAUTY | Exocytosis | Scoop.it

GM Wheat May Damage Human Genetics Permanently | RAW FOR BEAUTY http://t.co/2AC6lSMykq


Via Jynto
Rakesh Yashroy's insight:

GM foods are being marketed and accepted without detailed  understanding of the possible long term effects on health and disease.

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Jynto's curator insight, June 10, 3:47 AM
needs to be read with the reply to the work of Heinemann from the Australian government food standards agency
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Tit-for-Tat: Type VI Secretion System Counterattack during Bacterial Cell-Cell Interactions

John Mekalanos and colleagues describe their surprising findings of the bacterial swordplay that occurs when P. aeruginosa is attacked by a type VI secretion...
Rakesh Yashroy's insight:

Inter-bacterial or host-bacterial fights can also be accomplished via membrane vesicle trafficking from gram-negative microbes as at link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Host-pathogen_interface

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Salmonella pathogenesis

Movie showing salmonella pathogenesis.
Rakesh Yashroy's insight:

Good movie on Salmonella involved in 'traveller's diarrhoea'. Compare modus operandi with a more virulent human Salmonella 3,10:r:- deploying outer MEMBRANE VESICLE TRAFFICKING for injecting virulence signals into host epithelial and macrophage cells in vivo and virtually accomplishing similar infection results at link http://icmr.nic.in/ijmr/2007/december/1211.pdf

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Protein Trafficking

Rakesh Yashroy's insight:

This beautiful depiction of protein trafficking via membrane vesicles released from eukaryotic cell organelle, Golgi complex, has a parallel in prokaryotic gram negative bacteria, which secrete specific signal proteins at the microbe-host, microbe-microbe, microbe-environment interface - packed into vesicles bounded by bacterial outer membrane, and called outer membrane vesicles - as given here http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Host-pathogen_interface

more...
Rakesh Yashroy's curator insight, May 29, 7:58 AM

Note a similar parallel mechanism working at host-pathogen interface for protein vesicular trafficking from gram-negative microbes to their host or target cells at link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Host-pathogen_interface

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Vesicle maturation

For more information, log on to- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html This ...
Rakesh Yashroy's insight:

Membrane vesicle trafficking (Golgi to cell membrane and exocytosis of vesicular contents) is no longer considered a prerogative of eukaryotes. Gram negative bacteria also secrete outer membrane bound vesicles (OMVs) containing virulence proteins, DNA and other enzymes, which diffuse to host or target cells for various purposes of cell-to-cell signaling http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Host-pathogen_interface

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