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This is the Scoop.it! for the Étoile Platform. For more about it please go to our website http://www.etoileplatform.net
Curated by Jorge Louçã
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Computational Social Science - 2 June 2015, Zaragoza

Computational Social Science - 2 June 2015, Zaragoza | Étoile Platform | Scoop.it

The interest of physicists in economic and social questions is not new: for over four decades, we have witnessed the emergence of social simulation, a fast expanding research field inside the wider domain of Interdisciplinary Physics. With tools borrowed from Network Science and Complexity, this new area of study have already made important contributions, which in turn have fostered the development of novel theoretical foundations in Social Science and Economics, via mathematical approaches, agent-based modelling and numerical simulations.

At the turn of the century, however, it was clear that huge challenges –and new opportunities– lied ahead: the digital communication technologies, and their associated data deluge, began to nurture those models with empirical significance. Only a decade later, the advent of the Web 2.0, the Internet of Things and a general adoption of mobile technologies have convinced researchers that theories can be mapped to real scenarios and put into empirical test, closing in this way the experiment-theory cycle in the best tradition of Physics.

We are nowadays at a crossroads, at which different approaches converge. We name such crossroads Computational Social Science (CSS): a new discipline that can offer abstracted (simplified, idealized) models and methods (mainly from Statistical Physics and Network Science), large storage, algorithms and computational power (Computer and Data Science), and a conceptual framework for the results to be interpreted (Social Science).<span "font-family:"times="" roman";="" color:black"="">

This Satellite event aims to grasp how CSS spreads out in many interwoven fronts, each of which is a challenge per se. We are thus interested in any of the following topics:

  • Social simulation: cultural, opinion, and normative dynamics
  • Social influence, public attention and popularity dynamics
  • Structure and dynamics of multiplexed social systems
  • Interdependent social contagion process: models and mechanisms
  • Online communication: Temporal and geographical patterns of information diffusion
  • Online socio-political mobilisations, collective action, social movements.
  • Event modelling, tracking and forecasting in social media
  • Peer-production and collaborative knowledge creation
  • Crowd-sourcing; herding behaviour vs. wisdom of crowds
  • E-democracy and online government-citizen interaction
  • User-information interplay: information ecosystems
  • Group formation, community detection and dynamic community structure analysis.
  • Empirical calibration and validation of agent-based social models
  • Science of science and scientometric modelling
  • Online experiments and data-driven models of social phenomena

2 JUNE 2015
ZARAGOZA , SPAIN

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Lorentz Center - Socio-Economic Complexity from 23 Mar 2015 through 27 Mar 2015

Lorentz Center - Socio-Economic Complexity from 23 Mar 2015 through 27 Mar 2015 | Étoile Platform | Scoop.it

Lorentz Center Workshop on Socio-Economic Complexity

organized by Stefano Battiston, Andreas Flache, Diego Garlaschelli, Hans Heesterbeek and Cars Hommes.

The workshop starts on 23 May 2015. For further information, please visit the workshop website:

http://www.lorentzcenter.nl/lc/web/2015/710/info.php3?wsid=710&venue=Oort

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The CORE Project - a teaser

Why should you study economics? And why should you study using our free ebook, The Economy? Sam Bowles of the Santa Fe Institute and member of The CORE Proje...

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Talks from Complexity Centre event – The Nexus Network

Talks from Complexity Centre event – The Nexus Network | Étoile Platform | Scoop.it

The six funders of the Centre for Evaluating Complexity across the Energy-Environment-Food Nexus held a ‘bidders launch event‘ on 11 February 2015 in London, for people with an interest in bidding to run the centre.

The Centre will pioneer, test and promote innovative and inclusive methods to analyse evaluations across the energy-environment-food nexus where complexity presents an integral challenge to policy interventions.


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How I Taught My Computer to Write Its Own Music

How I Taught My Computer to Write Its Own Music | Étoile Platform | Scoop.it

I was sitting in a friend’s kitchen in Paris, trying to engineer serendipity. I was trying to get my computer to write music on its own. I wanted to be able to turn it on and have it spit out not just any goofy little algorithmic tune but beautiful, compelling, mysterious music; something I’d be proud to have written myself. The kitchen window was open, and as I listened to the sounds of children playing in the courtyard below, I thought about how the melodies of their voices made serendipitous counterpoint with the songs of nearby birds and the intermittent drone of traffic on the rue d’Alésia.

In response to these daydreams, I was making a few tweaks to my software—a chaotic, seat-of-the-pants affair that betrayed my intuitive, self-taught approach to programming—when I saw that Bill Seaman had just uploaded a new batch of audio files to our shared Dropbox folder. I had been collaborating with Bill, a media artist, on various aspects of computational creativity over the past few years. I loaded Bill’s folder of sound files along with some of my own into the software and set it rolling.

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Unlocking Scrolls Preserved in Eruption of Vesuvius, Using X-Ray Beams

Unlocking Scrolls Preserved in Eruption of Vesuvius, Using X-Ray Beams | Étoile Platform | Scoop.it

Researchers have found a key that may unlock the only library of classical antiquity to survive along with its documents, raising at least a possibility of recovering vanished works of ancient Greek and Roman authors such as the lost books of Livy’s history of Rome.

The library is that of a villa in Herculaneum, a town that was destroyed in A.D. 79 by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius that obliterated nearby Pompeii. Herculaneum, like Pompeii, was engulfed by mixtures of superhot gases and ash, which preserved the documents in a grand villa that probably belonged to the family of Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, the father-in-law of Julius Caesar.

Though the hot gases did not burn the many papyrus rolls in the villa’s library, they turned them into cylinders of carbonized plant material. Many attempts have been made to unroll the carbonized scrolls since they were excavated in 1752.

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The Critical Few

The Critical Few | Étoile Platform | Scoop.it

To maintain stability yet retain the flexibility to adapt to changing circumstances, social systems must strike a balance between the maintenance of a shared reality and the survival of minority opinion. A computational model is presented that investigates the interplay of two basic, oppositional social processes—conformity and anticonformity—in promoting the emergence of this balance. Computer simulations employing a cellular automata platform tested hypotheses concerning the survival of minority opinion and the maintenance of system stability for different proportions of anticonformity. Results revealed that a relatively small proportion of anticonformists facilitated the survival of a minority opinion held by a larger number of conformists who would otherwise succumb to pressures for social consensus. Beyond a critical threshold, however, increased proportions of anticonformists undermined social stability. Understanding the adaptive benefits of balanced oppositional forces has implications for optimal functioning in psychological and social processes in general.


The Critical Few: Anticonformists at the Crossroads of Minority Opinion Survival and Collapse
by Matthew Jarman, Andrzej Nowak, Wojciech Borkowski, David Serfass, Alexander Wong and Robin Vallacher
http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/18/1/6.html


Via Complexity Digest
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To Be More Creative, Cheer Up

To Be More Creative, Cheer Up | Étoile Platform | Scoop.it

I pour a cup of coffee, sharpen my pencil, and get ready to create. I’ve dusted off a half-conceived novel outline I abandoned three years ago, but this time I’m not waiting for my muse to intervene. Instead I hit the play button on the Creative Thinker’s Toolkit, an audio lecture series from The Great Courses that I’ve downloaded on my computer.

Gerard Puccio, a psychologist who heads the International Center for Studies in Creativity at SUNY Buffalo State, and the voice of the toolkit, tells me to engage in “forced relationships.” Choose a random object, he instructs. I scan my office and settle on a bag of Skittles left over from Halloween. Next, he says, describe the object’s attributes. “Sweet, round, colorful, chewy,” I write. I start to draw more fruitful connections. The word “small” leads me to think about making the main character isolated, reacting against a life that has become too constrained.

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Coupling Human Mobility and Social Ties

Studies using massive, passively data collected from communication technologies have revealed many ubiquitous aspects of social networks, helping us understand and model social media, information diffusion, and organizational dynamics. More recently, these data have come tagged with geographic information, enabling studies of human mobility patterns and the science of cities. We combine these two pursuits and uncover reproducible mobility patterns amongst social contacts. First, we introduce measures of mobility similarity and predictability and measure them for populations of users in three large urban areas. We find individuals' visitations patterns are far more similar to and predictable by social contacts than strangers and that these measures are positively correlated with tie strength. Unsupervised clustering of hourly variations in mobility similarity identifies three categories of social ties and suggests geography is an important feature to contextualize social relationships. We find that the composition of a user's ego network in terms of the type of contacts they keep is correlated with mobility behavior. Finally, we extend a popular mobility model to include movement choices based on social contacts and compare it's ability to reproduce empirical measurements with two additional models of mobility.


by Jameson L. Toole, Carlos Herrera-Yague, Christian M. Schneider, Marta C. Gonzalez


arXiv:1502.00690 [physics.soc-ph]

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Safecracking the Brain

Safecracking the Brain | Étoile Platform | Scoop.it

It’s hard to imagine an encryption machine more sophisticated than the human brain. This three-pound blob of tissue holds an estimated 86 billion neurons, cells that rapidly fire electrical pulses in split-second response to whatever stimuli our bodies encounter in the external environment. Each neuron, in turn, has thousands of spindly branches that reach out to nodes, called synapses, which transmit those electrical messages to other cells. Somehow the brain interprets this impossibly noisy code, allowing us to effectively respond to an ever-changing world.

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Breach of trust

Breach of trust | Étoile Platform | Scoop.it

After the Snowden revelations, U.S. mathematicians are questioning their long-standing ties with the secretive National Security Agency.

Each year, recruiters from the National Security Agency (NSA), said to be the largest employer of mathematicians in the United States, visit a few dozen universities across the country in search of new talent. It used to be an easy sell. “One of the appealing aspects that they pitch is that you'll be working on incredibly hard and interesting puzzles all day,” says one mathematician who requested anonymity. In the wake of the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, he adds, “I felt that if there was any way I could use my mathematical ability to prevent such a thing from ever happening again, I was morally obligated to do it.” Several times over the past decade, he has set aside his university research to work for the agency. (...)

by 

John Bohannon

Science 30 January 2015: 

Vol. 347 no. 6221 pp. 495-497 


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Google Search Will Be Your Next Brain

Google Search Will Be Your Next Brain - Backchannel - Medium
Inside Google’s massive effort in Deep Learning, which could make already-smart search into scary-smart search
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It's Only the Beginning: The Internet R.I.P. (Mikko Hypponen)

It's only the beginning - Security expert Mikko Hypponen warns about the monster we have created with our connected world.

Via Gust MEES
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Chris Carter's curator insight, January 21, 9:35 PM

Chilling.

Allan Shaw's curator insight, January 22, 5:05 PM

I'm not sure how to react to this YouTube clip. It is worth watching and reflecting. Perhaps all I can do is be more careful, read user agreements, not use 'free' services where my privacy and data are traded and influence others to do the same.

Polly A. Sheppard's curator insight, January 23, 6:00 PM

This really gives you something to think about!

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Mobile Phone Data Reveals Humanity's Reproductive Strategies | MIT Technology Review

Mobile Phone Data Reveals Humanity's Reproductive Strategies | MIT Technology Review | Étoile Platform | Scoop.it
Combining old fashioned questionnaires with data mining techniques reveals increasingly detailed insights into the way young men and women allocate their time and resources.
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Advances in Artificial Economics

Advances in Artificial Economics | Étoile Platform | Scoop.it

The interactions between Computer Science and the Social Sciences have grown fruitfully along the past 20 years. The mutual benefits of such a cross-fertilization stand as well at a conceptual, technological or methodological level. Economics in particular benefited from innovations in multi-agent systems in Computer Science leading to agent-based computational economics and in return the multi-agent systems benefited for instance of economic researches related to mechanisms of incentives and regulation to design self-organized systems. Created 10 years ago, in 2005 in Lille (France) by Philippe Matthieu and his team, the Artificial Economics conference series reveals the liveliness of the collaborations and exchanges among computer scientists and economists in particular. The excellent quality of this conference has been recognized since its inception and its proceedings have been regularly published in Springer’s Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems series. At about the same period, the European Social Simulation Association was created and decided to support an annual conference dedicated to computational approaches of the social sciences. Both communities kept going alongside for the past ten years presenting evident overlaps concerning either their approaches or their members. This year, both conferences have decided to join their efforts and hold a common conference, Social Simulation Conference, in Barcelona, Spain, 1st to 5th September 2014 which will host the 10th edition of the Artificial Economics Conference. In this edition, 32 submissions from 11 countries were received, from which we selected 20 for presentation (near 60 % acceptance). The papers have then been revised and extended and 19 papers were selected in order to make part of this volume.

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Is AI Dangerous? That Depends…

Is AI Dangerous? That Depends… | Étoile Platform | Scoop.it
Somewhere in the long list of topics that are relevant to astrobiology is the question of 'intelligence'. Is human-like, technological intelligence likely to be common across ...
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Steven Weinberg on the history of science - podcast

Steven Weinberg on the history of science - podcast | Étoile Platform | Scoop.it
Theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate Prof Weinberg talks about his new book, To Explain The World, and explains how we learn to learn about the world
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ECCS is Going Global in 2015

ECCS is Going Global in 2015 | Étoile Platform | Scoop.it

The annual European Conferences on Complex Systems (ECCS) have become a major venue for the Complex Systems Community since they were started in 2003. For the first time, this year, the conference will be held in North America to foster and multiply contacts between the European, North American and Asian communities working in this domain.  CCS’15 will be a major international conference and event in the area of complex systems and interdisciplinary science in general.

The conference will offer unique opportunities to study novel scientific approaches in a multitude of application areas, as reflected by the conference tracks:

Conference Main Tracks

  • Foundations of Complex Systems (complex networks, self-organization, nonlinear dynamics, statistical physics, mathematical modeling, simulation)
  • Information and Communication Technologies (Internet, WWW, search, semantic web)
  • Language, Linguistics, Cognition and Social Systems (evolution of language, social consensus, artificial intelligence, cognitive processes)
  • Economics and Finance (social networks, game theory, stock market, crises)
  • Infrastructure, Planning and Environment (critical infrastructures, urban planning, mobility, transport, energy)
  • Biological Complexity (biological networks, systems biology, evolution, natural science, medicine and physiology)
  • Social Ecological Systems (global environmental change, green growth, sustainability, resilience)

Contact us:  info@ccs2015.org

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Growth

Growth | Étoile Platform | Scoop.it
Global economic growth was exceptionally rapid in the past half century. This series examines the importance of maintaining strong growth and where countries and companies can find it.

Via Complexity Digest
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The Man Who Tried to Redeem the World with Logic

The Man Who Tried to Redeem the World with Logic | Étoile Platform | Scoop.it

He’d been born into a tough family in Prohibition-era Detroit, where his father, a boiler-maker, had no trouble raising his fists to get his way. The neighborhood boys weren’t much better. One afternoon in 1935, they chased him through the streets until he ducked into the local library to hide. The library was familiar ground, where he had taught himself Greek, Latin, logic, and mathematics—better than home, where his father insisted he drop out of school and go to work. Outside, the world was messy. Inside, it all made sense.

Not wanting to risk another run-in that night, Pitts stayed hidden until the library closed for the evening. Alone, he wandered through the stacks of books until he came across Principia Mathematica, a three-volume tome written by Bertrand Russell and Alfred Whitehead between 1910 and 1913, which attempted to reduce all of mathematics to pure logic. Pitts sat down and began to read. For three days he remained in the library until he had read each volume cover to cover—nearly 2,000 pages in all—and had identified several mistakes. Deciding that Bertrand Russell himself needed to know about these, the boy drafted a letter to Russell detailing the errors. Not only did Russell write back, he was so impressed that he invited Pitts to study with him as a graduate student at Cambridge University in England. Pitts couldn’t oblige him, though—he was only 12 years old. But three years later, when he heard that Russell would be visiting the University of Chicago, the 15-year-old ran away from home and headed for Illinois. He never saw his family again. (...)

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Math Festival

Math Festival | Étoile Platform | Scoop.it

On Saturday, April 18th, experience mathematics like never before, when the first-of-its-kind National Math Festival comes to Washington, D.C. As the country’s first national festival dedicated to discovering the delight and power of mathematics, this free and public celebration will feature dozens of activities for every age—from hands-on magic, a scavenger hunt, and Houdini-like getaways, to lectures with some of the most influential mathematicians of our time.

The National Math Festival is organized by the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI) and the Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) in cooperation with the Smithsonian Institution.

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Many cities

Many cities | Étoile Platform | Scoop.it

Explore the spatio-temporal patterns of mobile phone activity in cities across the world.

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Dynamical Signatures of Collective Quality Grading in a Social Activity: Attendance to Motion Pictures

Dynamical Signatures of Collective Quality Grading in a Social Activity: Attendance to Motion Pictures | Étoile Platform | Scoop.it
We investigate the laws governing people’s decisions and interactions by studying the collective dynamics of a well-documented social activity for which there exist ample records of the perceived quality: the attendance to movie theaters in the US. We picture the flows of attendance as impulses or “shocks” driven by external factors that in turn can create new cascades of attendances through direct recommendations whose effectiveness depends on the perceived quality of the movies. This corresponds to an epidemic branching model comprised of a decaying exponential function determining the time between cause and action, and a cascade of actions triggered by previous ones. We find that the vast majority of the ~3,500 movies studied fit our model remarkably well. From our results, we are able to translate a subjective concept such as movie quality into a probability of the deriving individual activity, and from it we build concrete quantitative predictions. Our analysis opens up the possibility of understanding other collective dynamics for which the perceived quality or appeal of an action is also known.

Via Ashish Umre
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The focus on bibliometrics makes papers less useful

The focus on bibliometrics makes papers less useful | Étoile Platform | Scoop.it
Forcing research to fit the mould of high-impact journals weakens it. Hiring decisions should be based on merit, not impact factor, says Reinhard Werner.
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Reputation drives cooperative behaviour and network formation in human groups

Reputation drives cooperative behaviour and network formation in human groups | Étoile Platform | Scoop.it
Cooperativeness is a defining feature of human nature. Theoreticians have suggested several mechanisms to explain this ubiquitous phenomenon, including reciprocity, reputation, and punishment, but the problem is still unsolved. Here we show, through experiments conducted with groups of people playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma on a dynamic network, that it is reputation what really fosters cooperation. While this mechanism has already been observed in unstructured populations, we find that it acts equally when interactions are given by a network that players can reconfigure dynamically. Furthermore, our observations reveal that memory also drives the network formation process, and cooperators assort more, with longer link lifetimes, the longer the past actions record. Our analysis demonstrates, for the first time, that reputation can be very well quantified as a weighted mean of the fractions of past cooperative acts and the last action performed. This finding has potential applications in collaborative systems and e-commerce.

Via Ashish Umre
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