The amino acid content recorded in fermented beans ranged from 515 to 1812 mg/100 g, with a prevalence of the hydrophobic amino acids, important precursors of cocoa aroma. Among non-protein amino acids, relevant contents of GABA, ranging from a minimum of 31.7 mg/100 g for Grenada beans to a maximum of 101.2 mg/100 g for Ecuador beans, were detected.
The bottom line? Cocoa beans can be considered an important natural source of this inhibitory neurotransmitter amino acid, even comparable with contents recorded in some enriched foods.
Foodstuff should never be considered as fully safe, a priori. For example they could be a vector for naturally occurring and/or unwanted dangerous substances that can act as endocrine disruptors either as they are or after their bioactivation. The scientific community agrees that the metabolic activity of chemicals should be taken into account for proper risk assessment. Unfortunately, the in vitro evaluation of a metabolic panel and analytical/biochemical detection in food-safety assessment are very expensive and challenging because of the abundance of data to analyze.
Results showed that rose-scented Pelargonium capitatum and Aniba rosaeodora essential oils are potential natural herbicides endowed with very strong activities against Solanum lycopersicum both in pre and post-emergence stages, with potency greater or comparable to those of other renewed phytotoxic essential oils already used in commercial natural herbicides.
"It's complicated": The convoluted family tree of wheat. AA = T. urartu, BB = Ae. speltoides, and DD = Ae. tauschii. AABB = emmer/durum wheat (T. turgidum), and AABBDD= modern bread wheat, T. aestivum. The first speciation event is homoploid hybrid, the second two are polyploid (as seen by chromosome copy increase). Images show extant wheat closely related to respective species. The circ
Plants underpin all life, yet botany fails to capture our imagination. Tom Chivers hopes a BBC radio series will change that view A billion years ago, a primitive single-celled organism ended up inside another, slightly less primitive organism, and something strange happened: it didn’t die. Now, a billion years later, the descendants of that hybrid [...]
Cocoa beans, from the fruit of the cocoa tree (Theobroma cacao L.), are transformed into chocolate and other cocoa products by a complex process involving fermentation, drying and roasting. Fermentation is carried out by different methods in the countries of origin, and represents a crucial stage in the development of the aromatic precursors and bioactive compounds characteristic of chocolate and cocoa products. Proteins are the cocoa fraction that undergoes the most intensive modification during fermentation, where microbiological and enzymatic reactions lead to extensive breakdown of cocoa seed proteins, yielding peptides and amino acids which are the important flavour precursors
Results showed that fumonisin amounts decreased significantly after cleaning and corn-flaking processes, achieving a final reduction of about 40% in the cornmeal semolina, while higher level of contamination in corn flour (fumetto) and middlings were detected. Furthermore, in order to better understand the influence of the different treatments on fumonisin distribution, the occurrence of their free and masked forms during this industrial processing was investigated. Results for masked fumonisins showed that they were not detected probably due to different climatic and technological factors.
A study of soil, water and rice grown around a metals smelter in Hunan Province shows high levels of toxic pollutants, adding to a growing body of evidence that China’s soil is badly degraded in many areas.