Milhares de milhões de anos... a mesma Terra !
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Milhares de milhões de anos... a mesma Terra !
Antes de Nós, decorreram (milhares de) milhões de anos de criaturas magníficas testemunhando outras épocas em que a Terra nem sempre foi como é hoje.
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Tardigrades Kept In Deep Freeze For 30 Years Brought Back To Life

Tardigrades Kept In Deep Freeze For 30 Years Brought Back To Life | Milhares de milhões de anos... a mesma Terra ! | Scoop.it

Tardigrades kept frozen for more than three decades have been successfully brought back to life. The 1mm long tardigrades were collected from a frozen moss sample in Antarctica in 1983, according to a new paper published in the journal Cryobiology. 

 

Japan’s National Institute of Polar Research stored the 8 legged, segmented critters at -4F for just over 30 years. They thawed and revived two of the animals, which are also known as water bears or moss piglets, in early 2014.

 

One of them died 20 days into the experiment, reports the BBC. But its companion survived and managed to reproduce with a third tardigrade that had been hatched from a frozen egg. It went on to lay 19 eggs, of which 14 survived.

 

Tardigrades, found living in water across the world, are renowned for being tough and have previously survived several days after being blasted into space.

 

According to Japan’s The Asahi Shimbun newspaper, their metabolism shuts down and they enter a cryptobiotic state when faced with low temperatures.  The previous record for tardigrades surviving extreme cold was eight years. “The present study extends the known length of long-term survival in tardigrade species considerably,” researchers wrote in the newly released paper.

 

Lead researcher Megumu Tsujimoto said the team now wants to “unravel the mechanism for long-term survival by looking into damage to tardigrades’ DNA and their ability to repair it.”

 

The tardigrade has some way to go beat the record for surviving in a frozen state, however, which is currently held by the nematode worm - which managed 39 years in deep freeze before being revived.

 

 


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Samuel Viana's insight:
Será possível os tardígrados serem usados para colonizar novos planetas ?
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'Vovô jacaré' de 250 milhões de anos do RS pode dar pistas sobre evolução

'Vovô jacaré' de 250 milhões de anos do RS pode dar pistas sobre evolução | Milhares de milhões de anos... a mesma Terra ! | Scoop.it
Há 252 milhões de anos, a Terra começava a se recuperar de uma extinção em massa que aniquilou 90% das espécies do planeta, bem antes daquela que acabou com os dinossauros.
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Beetle saved in amber had helicopter wings

Beetle saved in amber had helicopter wings | Milhares de milhões de anos... a mesma Terra ! | Scoop.it

Uma carocha conservada em âmbar datada do período Eocénico (cerca de 10 milhões de anos após a extinção dos dinossauros até há cerca de 37 milhões de anos) e encontrada na Alemanha tinha asas com configuração nunca vista: em helicóptero !


Via Kim Frye
Samuel Viana's insight:
Carocha conservada em âmbas tinha asas de helicóptero
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26-million-year-old fossil ear reveals the origin of dolphin hearing and communication

26-million-year-old fossil ear reveals the origin of dolphin hearing and communication | Milhares de milhões de anos... a mesma Terra ! | Scoop.it
Scientists have known for decades that modern-day dolphins are some of the most intelligent and social animals on earth. Demonstrating complex behaviour and communication dolphins remind us of ourselves while living in
Samuel Viana's insight:
A ecolocação é um meio utilizado por morcegos e cetáceos para se orientarem, comunicarem e encontrarem as suas presas. No caso dos mamíferos marinhos, também assume especial importância em virtude de ser usado na comunicação entre indivíduos. Um fóssil de 26 de mihões de ano  da zona do ouvido interno de um cetáceo foi encontrado revelando o elo perdido.
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The Evolution of Cooperation — or Why Organisms Work Together

The Evolution of Cooperation — or Why Organisms Work Together | Milhares de milhões de anos... a mesma Terra ! | Scoop.it

When and why individual organisms work together at the game of life, and what keeps cheaters in check.

 

Evolution by natural selection, Darwin wrote, mainly depends on “success in leaving progeny.”1 He also recognized that such success may be achieved by “dependence of one being on another.” When are individuals most successful living on their own, and when can they benefit from working with others?


It’s not always an easy question to answer. For parasites living in or on other organisms, for example, maximizing reproduction is a tricky proposition. Using more host resources lets parasites produce more offspring, but overexploitation shortens host life span, reducing the amount of time the parasites have to reproduce. So it may make sense for parasites to avoid harming their hosts, and parasites that increase host life span may fare even better. As British evolutionary biologist and  geneticist John Maynard Smithnoted more than 100 years after Darwin’s musings on reproduction and cooperation, you shouldn’t kill the goose that lays the golden eggs.2


But Maynard Smith recognized that this strategy is based on a critical assumption: that if you do not kill the golden goose, no one else will either. In other words, limiting host exploitation will only benefit a parasite if the host isn’t also inhabited by other, more virulent strains or species. If another parasite is using so many resources that it kills the host anyway, why should any organisms on the same host limit their own reproduction by using fewer host resources? This “tragedy of the commons” type of dilemma, in which individuals benefit from activities that undermine shared benefits, is a major reason why cooperation is not universal.


Via Neelima Sinha, Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Samuel Viana's insight:

A cooperação entre espécies pode ser um factor por vezes determinante para benefício de algumas dessas espécies, mas também poderá dar azo a que algumas espécies oportunistas tomem conta do negócio.

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Asteroid impact helped create the birds we know today

Asteroid impact helped create the birds we know today | Milhares de milhões de anos... a mesma Terra ! | Scoop.it

By Sid Perkins 11 December 2015 2:00 pm


Every bird alive today can trace its ancestry to creatures that lived about 95 million years ago on a chunk of land that split off from the supercontinent Gondwana, a new study suggests. The new family tree, compiled using information from fossils and from genetic analyses of modern birds, also reveals that this lineage underwent a major burst of evolution after an asteroid slammed into Earth about 66 million years ago and killed off the rest of their dinosaurian kin.

“This is one of the most comprehensive studies that attempts to date when these evolutionary divergences happened,” says Luis Chiappe, a vertebrate paleontologist at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California, who wasn’t involved in the new research.

Modern birds, a group called Neornithes (a name that combines neo and a variant of ornis, the Greek words for “new” and “bird,” respectively) are the most diverse and widespread vertebrates on Earth today. Previous studies that used only information from genetic analyses of current species have suggested that birds arose anywhere from 72 million to 170 million years ago. But the new study, which includes anatomical data extinct species preserved in the fossil record, narrows that window considerably, says Joel Cracraft, an ornithologist at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City.

He and museum colleague Santiago Claramunt, also an ornithologist, didn’t include well-known ancient birds such as Archaeopteryx and Confuciusornis, which belonged to lineages that eventually died out. They only looked at species that belonged to the three major groups of birds alive today: Palaeognathae (ostriches and their close relatives), Galloanseres (waterfowl, pheasants, and their close kin), and Neoaves (all other birds).

The team’s genetic information came from analyses of two particular genes from 230 species representing all major subgroups of modern birds. (Mutations in those genes, which are related to basic biochemical processes that take place in all cells, helped the researchers estimate when those groups arose or diverged from their closest relatives, Cracraft says.) Anatomical data from 130 extinct species that had once lived worldwide helped the team figure out when and where those groups originated, as well as how quickly they evolved.

The results suggest that the last common ancestor of all modern birds—in other words, the species at the base of the evolutionary family tree that includes all living bird species—lived in West Gondwana, a landmass that included what are now fragments of South America and large portions of Antarctica, about 95 million years ago. What’s more, all three major groups—Palaeognathae, Galloanseres, and Neoaves—had already arisen by the time the dino-killing asteroid smacked our planet 66 million years ago, the researchers report online today in Science Advances. So although the resulting die-offs may not have triggered the original diversification of birds, by eliminating many ecological competitors, the extinction provided opportunities for survivors to diversify and spread, Cracraft says.

The team’s results are “reasonably convincing, and their new insights make sense,” says Edward Braun, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Florida in Gainesville.

Among those new insights is a notion of how birds spread throughout the ancient world. Whereas some groups spread southward through the fragments of Gondwana to reach what are now Australia and New Zealand, others spread north to what is now North America. From there, some species spread eastward into Eurasia and Africa and others moved westward, across occasional land bridges exposed when global sea levels were low, to eastern Asia. In particular, the new data “better match the origins of certain groups of birds once thought to have arisen in Africa,” Braun says.

Although the new study answers many questions, it poses many more, Chiappe says. Among them: Why did a large class of now-extinct birds called Enantiornithines (which were superficially similar to modern birds) die out? That’s especially mysterious because Enantiornithines were exceptionally abundant (they apparently outnumbered the ancestors of modern birds before the asteroid struck) and had presumably played the same ecological roles as the ancestors of modern birds, which survived the mass extinctions.

Posted in Plants & Animals


Via Kim Frye
Samuel Viana's insight:

As aves, enquanto descendentes directos dos dinossauros conheceram uma grande explosão de diversidade precisamente no final do domínio dos seus originadores, na fronteira K/T, a partir da América do Sul, é o que dizem investigadores a partir de evidências geográficas do passado.

 

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Scientists discover spiky little sea ‘monster’ that thrived a half billion years ago

Scientists discover spiky little sea ‘monster’ that  thrived a half billion years ago | Milhares de milhões de anos... a mesma Terra ! | Scoop.it
The creature, lived during Cambrian Period, a time of evolutionary experimentation when many unusual animals appeared, vanished
Samuel Viana's insight:

Revelada mais uma criatura duma época em que a Natureza era pródiga em conceber semelhantes criaturas. Que mais surpresas os mares do Câmbrico revelarão ?

 

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How Dinosaurs Shrank and Became Birds

How Dinosaurs Shrank and Became Birds | Milhares de milhões de anos... a mesma Terra ! | Scoop.it
While most other dinosaur lineages were growing, the line that gave rise to birds began to shrink nearly 200 million years ago.

 

Modern birds descended from a group of two-legged dinosaurs known as theropods, whose members include the towering Tyrannosaurus rex and the smaller velociraptors.

 

“A bird didn’t just evolve from a T. rex overnight, but rather the classic features of birds evolved one by one; first bipedal locomotion, then feathers, then a wishbone, then more complex feathers that look like quill-pen feathers, then wings,” Brusatte said. “The end result is a relatively seamless transition between dinosaurs and birds, so much so that you can’t just draw an easy line between these two groups.”

 

Yet once those avian features were in place, birds took off. Brusatte’s study of coelurosaurs found that once archaeopteryx and other ancient birds emerged, they began evolving much more rapidly than other dinosaurs. The hopeful monster theory had it almost exactly backwards: A burst of evolution didn’t produce birds. Rather, birds produced a burst of evolution. “It seems like birds had happened upon a very successful new body plan and new type of ecology—flying at small size—and this led to an evolutionary explosion,” Brusatte said.

 

Though most people might name feathers or wings as a key characteristic distinguishing birds from dinosaurs, the group’s small stature is also extremely important. New research suggests that bird ancestors shrank fast, indicating that the diminutive size was an important and advantageous trait, quite possibly an essential component in bird evolution.

 

Like other bird features, diminishing body size likely began long before the birds themselves evolved. A study published in Science last year found that theminiaturization process began much earlier than scientists had expected. Some coelurosaurs started shrinking as far back as 200 million years ago—50 million years before archaeopteryx emerged. At that time, most other dinosaur lineages were growing larger. “Miniaturization is unusual, especially among dinosaurs,” Benton said.

 

That shrinkage sped up once bird ancestors grew wings and began experimenting with gliding flight. Last year, Benton’s team showed that this dinosaur lineage, known as paraves, was shrinking 160 times faster than other dinosaur lineages were growing. “Other dinosaurs were getting bigger and uglier while this line was quietly getting smaller and smaller,” Benton said. “We believe that marked an event of intense selection going on at that point.”

 


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald, Pablo Vicente Munuera
Samuel Viana's insight:

Parece incrível mas é verdade... os dinossauros do grupo dos terópodes começaram a encolher há quase 200 milhões de anos. Uma vez que alcançaram uma estatura diminuída a determinado nível, isso deu-lhes vantagem para começar a explorar o voo. Pode-se dizer que ocorreu uma "explosão evolutiva".

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Evolution Is Unpredictable and Irreversible, Penn Biologists Show

Evolution Is Unpredictable and Irreversible, Penn Biologists Show | Milhares de milhões de anos... a mesma Terra ! | Scoop.it

Evolutionary theorist Stephen Jay Gould is famous for describing the evolution of humans and other conscious beings as a chance accident of history. If we could go back millions of years and “run the tape of life again,” he mused, evolution would follow a different path. 


Via Integrated DNA Technologies
Samuel Viana's insight:

Se voltássemos atrrás alguns milhões de anos e puséssemos outra vez a evolução a funcionar, ir-se-iam repetir os mesmos passos evolutivos que teriam levado ao aparecimento da nossa espécie !?

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Tamanho de pombo e asas de morcego: um dinossauro - Diário de Notícias - Lisboa

Tamanho de pombo e asas de morcego: um dinossauro - Diário de Notícias - Lisboa | Milhares de milhões de anos... a mesma Terra ! | Scoop.it
O pequeno dinossauro, que era do tamanho de um pombo, tinha umas asas semelhantes às dos atuais morcegos.
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Basilosaurus - um mamífero antepassado dos modernos cetáceos, tinha uma potência de mordida impressionante

@PLoS ONE | Bone-Breaking Bite Force of Basilosaurus isis (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the Late Eocene of Egypt Estimated by Finite Element Analysis...
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World's Oldest Prehistoric Snake Discovered

World's Oldest Prehistoric Snake Discovered | Milhares de milhões de anos... a mesma Terra ! | Scoop.it
The findings could help change the way researchers look at how or when modern snakes developed.
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Novos fósseis primatas sugerem antepassado asiático dos humanos

Novos fósseis primatas sugerem antepassado asiático dos humanos | Milhares de milhões de anos... a mesma Terra ! | Scoop.it
Novos fósseis primatas sugerem antepassado asiático dos humanos http://t.co/eKQ7P4h7bs #OLD
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Pela primeira vez... encontrados répteis preservados em âmbar !

Pela primeira vez... encontrados répteis preservados em âmbar ! | Milhares de milhões de anos... a mesma Terra ! | Scoop.it
Até agora... apenas se conheciam insectos preservados em âmbar. Pela primeira vez foram encontrados pequenos répteis.
Samuel Viana's insight:
Répteis em ambar é algo de único que nunca tinha sequer tido conhecido de que seria possível... ! Quanto muito insectos, agora répteis... bem também acho que não vamos ter ainda um T. rex preservado em âmbar, ehehe !
O âmbar como é o resultado da cristalização da resina de plantas, apenas capturas criaturas pequenas que viviam nessas mesmas plantas.
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“Hammerhead” creature was world’s first plant-eating marine reptile

“Hammerhead” creature was world’s first plant-eating marine reptile | Milhares de milhões de anos... a mesma Terra ! | Scoop.it
In 2014, scientists discovered a bizarre fossil—a crocodile-sized sea-dwelling reptile that lived 242 million years ago in what today is southern China. Its head was poorly preserved, but it seemed to have a flamingo-like beak. But in a paper published today in Science Advances, paleontologists reveal what was really going on—that “beak” is actually part of a hammerhead-shaped jaw apparatus, which it used to feed on plants on the ocean floor. It’s the earliest known example of an herbivorous marine reptile.
Samuel Viana's insight:
Uma criatura com mandíbulas  em forma de martelo é o primeiro exemplo conhecido de réptil marinho herbívoro.
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Corrigido lapso de classificação de dinossauro 'emplumado'

Corrigido lapso de classificação de dinossauro 'emplumado' | Milhares de milhões de anos... a mesma Terra ! | Scoop.it
Solving one of the longest cases of mistaken identity, University of Alberta PhD candidate Greg Funston with supervisor Phil Currie recently described a new genus and species of toothless dinosaur from Alberta.
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Ancient DNA and the rewriting of human history: be sparing with Occam’s razor

Ancient DNA and the rewriting of human history: be sparing with Occam’s razor | Milhares de milhões de anos... a mesma Terra ! | Scoop.it

Ancient DNA research is revealing a human history far more complex than that inferred from parsimonious models based on modern DNA. Here, we review some of the key events in the peopling of the world in the light of the findings of work on ancient DNA.


Via Integrated DNA Technologies
Samuel Viana's insight:

Novas investigações envolvendo DNA permitem reconstituir as antigas rotas que os humanos tomaram para colonizar o velho continente a patir de África. Os dados obtidos permitem conjecturam diferentes vagas de migração ao longo da pré-história começando desde há 200 000 anos.

 

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Lusodinos- Dinossauros de Portugal: Espinossauros de Marrocos: estudo confirma a existência de duas espécies

Lusodinos- Dinossauros de Portugal: Espinossauros de Marrocos: estudo confirma a existência de duas espécies | Milhares de milhões de anos... a mesma Terra ! | Scoop.it
Samuel Viana's insight:

A confusão relativamente à morfologia dos espinosauros, o maior dinossauro predador de todos os tempos parece ter sido finalmente resolvida: afinal seriam duas espécies e não apenas uma: uma das espécies estaria apatada à vida nos oceanos enquanto outra teria hábitos mais terrestres. A diferença de comprimentos dos membros parece indicar isso. Finalmente as águas foram separadas.
O estudo foi conduzido por um estudante do prof. Octávio Mateus da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, como ele dá conta no seu blogue.

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520-million-year-old arthropod brains turn paleontology on its head

520-million-year-old arthropod brains turn paleontology on its head | Milhares de milhões de anos... a mesma Terra ! | Scoop.it
Science has long dictated that brains don't fossilize, so when Nicholas Strausfeld co-authored the first ever report of a fossilized brain in a 2012 edition of Nature, it was met with "a lot of flack."
Samuel Viana's insight:

Pensava-se que a massa cinzenta era impossível de fossilizar, mas pelos vistos este artrópode de há 500 000 000 anos é a prova contrária disso

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Key Link in Turtle Evolution discovered

Key Link in Turtle Evolution discovered | Milhares de milhões de anos... a mesma Terra ! | Scoop.it
An international team of researchers from the United States and Germany have discovered a key missing link in the evolutionary history of turtles. The new …
Samuel Viana's insight:

Foi encontrado um ancestral comum que parece ser a "ligação perdida" entre os répteis primitivos e as actuais tartarugas.

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Pesquisadores descobrem no Ceará fóssil da ave mais antiga do Brasil - Globo.com

Pesquisadores descobrem no Ceará fóssil da ave mais antiga do Brasil - Globo.com | Milhares de milhões de anos... a mesma Terra ! | Scoop.it
Pesquisa foi realizada por paleontólogos do Geopark Araripe e da UFRJ.
Ave viveu há 115 milhões de anos e fóssil está em 'qualidade excelente'.
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[Vídeos] Mais Dinossauros em novo comercial de ‘Jurassic World’

[Vídeos] Mais Dinossauros em novo comercial de ‘Jurassic World’ | Milhares de milhões de anos... a mesma Terra ! | Scoop.it
’Jurassic World – O Mundo dos Dinossauros’, a continuação de ‘Jurassic Park‘ (1993), ganhou um novo comercial, que mostra a evolução dos dinossauros da franquia… e de uma espuma de barbear. Assista...
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Yi qi. Dragon of the Daohugou

Yi qi. Dragon of the Daohugou | Milhares de milhões de anos... a mesma Terra ! | Scoop.it
2015, digital, pencils and photography 2015. ca.164 million years ago, Middle-Late Jurassic boundary (Callovian-Oxfordian), Tiaojishan Formation (Daohugou Biota), Hebei, China As dusk approaches,&n...
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Meet Sasha - the world's only baby woolly rhino

Meet Sasha - the world's only baby woolly rhino | Milhares de milhões de anos... a mesma Terra ! | Scoop.it
First pictures of remains at least 10,000 years old found in Siberia's Sakha Republic.
Samuel Viana's insight:

Foi encontrado um corpo de um rinoceronte-lanudo bébé perfeitamente preservado no gelo ! Uma oportunidade única para conhecer uma das criaturas que coabitavam com os nossos antepassados no era do gelo, juntamente com os mamutes.

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Timeline Photos - Prehistoric Life in the Phanerozoic Eon | Facebook

Timeline Photos - Prehistoric Life in the Phanerozoic Eon | Facebook | Milhares de milhões de anos... a mesma Terra ! | Scoop.it
Scoop! The true reason why Jurassic Park IV was delayed via @Dinosaur Comics. *Published by @Holly Maloney.
Samuel Viana's insight:

Bem... parece que desta vamos ter mesmo que ter dinossauros emplumados no próximo filme da série "Parque Jurássico".

 

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