Epigenetics
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Rescooped by Rodrigo Hasbun from TAL effector science
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Synthetic epigenetics—towards intelligent control of epigenetic states and cell identity - Clinical Epigenetics

Synthetic epigenetics—towards intelligent control of epigenetic states and cell identity - Clinical Epigenetics | Epigenetics | Scoop.it

Jurkowski et al, 2015

Epigenetics is currently one of the hottest topics in basic and biomedical research. However, to date, most of the studies have been descriptive in nature, designed to investigate static distribution of various epigenetic modifications in cells. Even though tremendous amount of information has been collected, we are still far from the complete understanding of epigenetic processes, their dynamics or even their direct effects on local chromatin and we still do not comprehend whether these epigenetic states are the cause or the consequence of the transcriptional profile of the cell. In this review, we try to define the concept of synthetic epigenetics and outline the available genome targeting technologies, which are used for locus-specific editing of epigenetic signals. We report early success stories and the lessons we have learned from them, and provide a guide for their application. Finally, we discuss existing limitations of the available technologies and indicate possible areas for further development.


Via dromius
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Rescooped by Rodrigo Hasbun from Plants and Microbes
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Annual Review of Phytopathology: Susceptibility Genes 101: How to Be a Good Host (2014)

Annual Review of Phytopathology: Susceptibility Genes 101: How to Be a Good Host (2014) | Epigenetics | Scoop.it

To confer resistance against pathogens and pests in plants, typically dominant resistance genes are deployed. However, because resistance is based on recognition of a single pathogen-derived molecular pattern these narrowspectrum genes are usually readily overcome. Disease arises from a compatible interaction between plant and pathogen. Hence, altering a plant gene that critically facilitates compatibility could provide a more broad-spectrum and durable type of resistance. Here, such susceptibility (S) genes are reviewed with a focus on the mechanisms underlying loss of compatibility. We distinguish three groups of S genes acting during different stages of infection: early pathogen establishment, modulation of host defenses, and pathogen sustenance. The many examples reviewed here show that S genes have the potential to be used in resistance breeding. However, because S genes have a function other than being a compatibility factor for the pathogen, the side effects caused by their mutation demands a one-by-one assessment of their usefulness for application.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Rescooped by Rodrigo Hasbun from TAL effector science
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Artificial transcription factor-mediated regulation of gene expression

Artificial transcription factor-mediated regulation of gene expression | Epigenetics | Scoop.it

Tol & van der Zaal, 2014

The transcriptional regulation of endogenous genes with artificial transcription factors (TFs) can offer new tools for plant biotechnology. Three systems are available for mediating site-specific DNA recognition of artificial TFs: those based on zinc fingers, TALEs, and on the CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Artificial TFs require an effector domain that controls the frequency of transcription initiation at endogenous target genes. These effector domains can be transcriptional activators or repressors, but can also have enzymatic activities involved in chromatin remodeling or epigenetic regulation. Artificial TFs are able to regulate gene expression in trans, thus allowing them to evoke dominant mutant phenotypes. Large scale changes in transcriptional activity are induced when the DNA binding domain is deliberately designed to have lower binding specificity. This technique, known as genome interrogation, is a powerful tool for generating novel mutant phenotypes. Genome interrogation has clear mechanistic and practical advantages over activation tagging, which is the technique most closely resembling it. Most notably, genome interrogation can lead to the discovery of mutant phenotypes that are unlikely to be found when using more conventional single gene-based approaches.


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Rescooped by Rodrigo Hasbun from Plant & Evolution
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Multiple FLC haplotypes defined by independent cis-regulatory variation underpin life history diversity in Arabidopsis thaliana

Multiple FLC haplotypes defined by independent cis-regulatory variation underpin life history diversity in Arabidopsis thaliana | Epigenetics | Scoop.it

Abstract

Relating molecular variation to phenotypic diversity is a central goal in evolutionary biology. In Arabidopsis thaliana, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is a major determinant of variation in vernalization—the acceleration of flowering by prolonged cold. Here, through analysis of 1307 A. thaliana accessions, we identify five predominant FLC haplotypes defined by noncoding sequence variation. Genetic and transgenic experiments show that they are functionally distinct, varying in FLC expression level and rate of epigenetic silencing. Allelic heterogeneity at this single locus accounts for a large proportion of natural variation in vernalization that contributes to adaptation of A. thaliana.


Via Pierre-Marc Delaux
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