environment science
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solar panel

homework for environment science

 

yoshiya's insight:

Solar panel

 

In the United States today, large "utility-scale" solar power projects account for more than 4,700 megawatts of electricity-generating capacity. Another 27,000 megawatts of large-scale solar are under development, which means that the industrial-solar sector is on its way to providing

 

Some renewable energy experts say the future of utility-scale solar is far from assured

Other analysts say that both distributed solar and utility-scale solar will play an important role in U.S. electricity generation.

The first is the rapidly declining cost and increasing efficiency of photovoltaic and other solar technologies.

The second is  a major federal tax incentive will be extended or expanded.

building big solar is tough — projects face significant regulatory hurdles — and expensive.

Solar power can secure financing. It can be sold for another country.

 

Rooftop solar faces fewer uncertainties and is expanding rapidly, with 488 megawatts installed in 2012, 62 percent more than the previous year.

 

But developers of utility-scale solar say they aren't particularly worried, citing both dropping costs of solar and optimism that state and federal incentives will continue.

 

utility-scale solar will become ever more competitive,.

Eventually it will be so obviously the option, both economically and environmentally.

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Rising water level

the homework for environment science

 

 

yoshiya's insight:

Rising sea levels

As the quote by Nicola Jones, predicting sea level rise far into the future is a very tricky task.

 

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) release their report about sea level

 

researchers' understanding of the ice sheets was so uncertain.  "Some things had to be neglected, because of that, the projections were on the low side.

 

IPCC finally gives the number for ice flow from the poles. However, it more than 50%  higher than the 2007 prediction. There are tons of small factors.

Sea level doesn’t rise steadily.

 

The sea level have risen about 19cm in the last century. And rate of rise  has speed up.

 

it is thought that about 40 to 50 percent of sea level rise was caused by 'thermal expansion' — the fact that water increase its volume as it get warmer;

35 percent by melting glaciers;

5 percent because people have been extracting groundwater, using it, and pouring it into the ocean;

and the remaining amount probably from melting ice at the poles.

the biggest question remains how fast and far the polar ice sheets will melt.

 

In Greenland, researchers have seen the rate of ice melt double since the 1990s, and warm water licking at the edge of the island has increased glacier calving into the sea. More snow is falling, but overall the island is losing weight and is expected to continue to do so.


IPCC expects there is some global threshold — as low as 1 degree C, or as high as 4 degrees C above pre-industrial temperatures We’re already 0.85 degrees C warmer than 1880.

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