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Nord Stream Delivers Gas to Lubmin

Nord Stream Delivers Gas to Lubmin | Energy in Emerging & Developed Countries | Scoop.it
Nov. 10, 2011

 

The landfall facility in Lubmin, Germany is not only the place where the Nord Stream Pipelines exit the Baltic Sea, but also where the gas from the pipelines is transferred into the European gas grid. In an interview, Mikhail Sarakhan, Site Supervisor Landfall Facilities Germany, Nord Stream explains just what takes place at the facility.

 

What function does the landfall facility in Lubmin, Germany fulfil?


Mikhail Sarakhan: Let me start by explaining that the landfall facility in Lubmin actually consists of two complexes: Nord Stream's landfall facility in Germany in the offshore and onshore areas, and the actual receiving terminal of the the connecting natural gas pipelines, OPAL and NEL. The Nord Stream complex transfers the gas that travels 1,224 kilometres through the Baltic Sea to OPAL and NEL. The Pipeline Inspection Gauges (PIGs) are also received here in the PIG traps as part of the inspection process.


Are there any Nord Stream representatives on site, and what duties and responsibilities do they have?


Two people represent Nord Stream AG on site. We are the interface between the Nord Stream operations unit in Zug, the landfall facility in Lubmin, and the operators of the connecting OPAL and NEL pipelines. Together we operate our facility in a safe, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective manner that is in line with all rules and regulations.

 

What was the greatest challenge in constructing the landfall area?
On the Nord Stream side, it was installing the huge shut down valves and the double gate valves. For OPAL and NEL it was the construction of a micro tunnel under the Lubmin harbour, through which the OPAL and NEL gas pipelines had to be fitted to the millimetre.

 

What occurs if a fire breaks out or a leak is discovered in the landfall area?


There are numerous gas and fire detect-ors installed for this eventuality. For example, if the gas or fire alarm is raised from two detectors in different zones of the landfall facility, our intake valves will automatically be closed, and the relief valves opened in order to clear the facilities of natural gas. If a fire alarm is triggered, the on-site fire department will also be summoned. Additionally, all responsible parties will be notified by our dispatching centres in order for us to be on site as quickly as possible.

 

How does Nord Stream ensure that it never delivers more gas than can be processed at the landfall facility?


We employ several systems to take care of that. The Nord Stream landfall facility is designed for an operating pressure of 177.5 bar. If, despite the monitoring system, this pressure level is exceeded, our intake valves will close in order to protect our facility.

 

What are the most important safety measures for operating the landfall facility?


Adhering to the safety regulations for natural gas facilities, which would include, for example, smoking bans. Safety measures also include securing the infrastructure that transports the natural gas, and the entire landfall facility. The gas transportation facilities can be shut down manually and remotely.

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Un pétrole au «prix parfait»

Un pétrole au «prix parfait» | Energy in Emerging & Developed Countries | Scoop.it

Par Marine Rabreau | publié le 17/03/2010

 

L'Opep ne modifie pas ses quotas de production. A 80 dollars le baril, le marché du pétrole semble à l'équilibre. Mais la reprise économique devrait influer la demande d'or noir à la hausse.

 

Pourquoi changer quoi que ce soit quand tout va bien ? A 80 dollars le baril de Pétrole, «la demande est bonne, l'offre fiable, le prix parfait», a assuré le ministre saoudien du pétrole Ali Al-Nouaïmi, également chef de file de l'Opep (Organisation des pays exportateurs de pétrole), un cartel qui pompe environ 40% du pétrole mondial.

 

Dans un marché jugé à l'équilibre, les membres du cartel ont en effet eu tout intérêt à «laisser les choses telles qu'elles sont», à savoir un niveau de quotas de production de brut de 24,84 millions de barils par jour (mbj). Un chiffre qui n'a pas bougé, pour la cinquième fois de suite, depuis le 1er janvier 2009.

 

A l'époque, la situation de l'or noir était bien différente. Durant l'hiver 2008-2009, le baril (environ 159 litres de brut) a dégrindolé à près de 30 dollars, après s'être envolé à plus de 140 dollars. Depuis début 2009, le brut a repris des couleurs, pour se stabiliser entre 70 et 80 dollars - avec de légers débordements - depuis juin 2009.

 

Respect des quotas


Plusieurs ministres ont cependant réclamé à leur arrivée à Vienne un meilleur respect des quotas de production. Un appel à la discipline pourrait ainsi figurer dans le communiqué final de la réunion (plus tard dans l'après-midi), comme l'a indiqué le chef de la délégation libyenne, Choukri Ghanem.

 

Selon l'Agence internationale de l'énergie, le cartel produit 7,5% de plus que son objectif officiel. En février, la production des onze pays membres soumis aux quotas, excluant l'Irak, a atteint soit 26,7 millions de barils par jour.

 

Les prix soutenus

 

Juste après l'annonce de la décision, les prix du pétrole sont montés à l'ouverture des échanges à New York, le baril gagnant 87 cents à 82,57 dollars.

 

Pour John Kilduff, de Round Earth Capital, l'attitude de l'Organisation «soutient les prix». «Avec un baril de brut à plus de 80 dollars, l'Opep devrait parler d'une hausse de production. En évitant de le faire, elle pousse le marché vers le haut», a-t-il expliqué.

 

Selon l'analyste, les cours étaient surtout soutenus par le repli du dollar, «qui renforce l'attrait des actifs tangibles, comme le brut ou plus généralement les matières premières».

 

La demande va croître


Le représentant de l'Arabie saoudite, pays qui respecte à la lettre son quota de 8 mbj, a toutefois semblé considérer que la question de la discipline était sans importance.

 

«S'il n'y avait pas de demande (pour ce pétrole), il n'y aurait pas de dépassements» de quotas, a-t-il estimé. IL a en outre indiqué qu'il s'attendait à ce que la demande continue de progresser, «surtout en provenance d'Asie», et particulièrement de Chine. La demande mondiale de pétrole devrait augmenter d'environ un million de barils par jour au second semestre, d'après lui.

 

«L'Opep ne risquerait pas grand chose» à aligner ses quotas sur ses niveaux réels de production, et «elle pourrait même profiter d'une publicité positive si elle prenait une mesure encourageant la reprise économique», mais «il s'agit d'une organisation conservatrice et prudente», qui préfère agir en coulisses, concluent les analystes du cabinet viennois JBC Energy.

 

Les membres de l'Opep rappellent la faiblesse persistante de la consommation pétrolière, soulignant que le marché était engorgé par un excès de production, avec des stocks toujours trop élevés. Avec la reprise économique, la demande devrait en effet progresser et éponger l'excédent.

 

Changement de cap en septembre ?


«Je m'attends à ce que les cours se maintiennent assez bien jusqu'à la fin de l'année malgré le surplus de production», notamment grâce à «la reprise, à l'affaiblissement du dollar américain» et aux incertitudes géopolitiques, explique le ministre algérien du Pétrole et des Mines, Chakib Khelil.

 

Alors que l'issue de la réunion de mercredi semble déjà réglée, les attentes se tournent déjà vers la prochaine échéance : la réunion a été fixée ce mercredi au 14 octobre 2010 également à Vienne. Chabib Khelil estime en effet à 50% la probabilité que l'Opep relève ses quotas dans six mois.

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France | Gaz de schiste: Bruxelles sous pression

France | Gaz de schiste: Bruxelles sous pression | Energy in Emerging & Developed Countries | Scoop.it

MARDI 28 FéVRIER 2012 | Gilles Labarthe

 

ENJEUX • Les collectifs «Non au gaz de schiste» dénoncent le lobbying mené au parlement européen, avant la remise d’un rapport qui doit servir de référence au sein de l’UE en matière de gaz et huiles «non conventionnels».

 

«Gaz de schiste à nos portes! Si nous ne faisons rien, l’hydrofracturation c’est pour demain!» C’est un nouveau message d’alerte que vient de lancer en France le collectif «Non au gaz de schiste» de Villeneuve-de-Berg. La bourgade ardéchoise fêtait avant-hier le premier anniversaire de la manifestation nationale qui avait vu affluer à ses portes le 26 février 2011 plus de 15 000 manifestants. Un an après, l’opposition aux projets d’extraction menés par des groupes gaziers et pétroliers qui entendent recourir à la technique de «fracturation hydraulique» (fracking, en anglais) reste de mise.


Pour la juriste Danièle Favari, il faut même sonner l’état d’alerte maximal: l’avenir se joue à Bruxelles. C’est en effet aujourd’hui, 28 février, que l’eurodéputé conservateur polonais Boguslaw Sonik présentera sous l’égide du département politique du parlement européen, une étude intitulée: «Extraction des gaz et huiles de schiste: impacts sur l’environnement et la santé humaine». Il y a lieu de craindre une nouvelle opération de greenwashing1 menée par le gouvernement polonais, premier pays d’Europe à être entré en phase d’exploration-exploitation en ce domaine, avec des réserves estimées par l’Agence américaine de l’énergie (IEA) à 5300 milliards mètres cubes de gaz de schiste. Le programme du jour2 mettra surtout en scène des ingénieurs et géologues travaillant au service de l’industrie extractive, des responsables d’associations patronales et des acteurs de l’exploitation de gaz de schiste en Pologne – dont la multinationale canadienne Talisman Energy, confrontée à des mobilisations anti-gaz de schiste sur ses propres terres, au Québec.


Boguslaw Sonik, vice-président de la commission de l’environnement, de la santé publique et de la sécurité alimentaire (ENVI), est un fervent défenseur de l’exploitation du gaz de schiste en Europe, censée, selon lui, libérer les pays de l’Union de l’influence des Russes et de leur géant énergétique, Gazprom. Il a déjà utilisé le même argument pour jeter le discrédit sur un rapport demandant des régulations contraignantes pour l’extraction, présenté par le gouvernement allemand à l’Union européenne en juillet 2011. Régulations qui, si elles étaient appliquées à la lettre, rendraient le fracking des schistes «non rentable».

 

Le lobby des industries minières


Pour Boguslaw Sonik, ce rapport allemand «ne peut être fiable, puisqu’il a été commandé et réalisé par un seul pays membre». En guise de contre-attaque, une délégation polonaise du Parti populaire européen (PPE, centre-droit) organisait le 20 septembre 2011 une rencontre au parlement européen avec un «groupe d’experts» vantant les mérites de l’exploitation des gaz et huiles de schiste. Le 22 octobre, à l’issue d’une conférence internationale sur le même sujet organisée à Cracovie sous les auspices de la puissante Association européenne des industries minières, il signait une «déclaration» visant à introduire la question de la production et consommation de ces ressources dans l’agenda de l’Union européenne.


On le sait: derrière chaque eurodéputé, il y a en moyenne sept lobbies de l’industrie et de la finance qui s’activent à Bruxelles – dont le groupe ExxonMobil n’est pas des moindres. Entre-temps, Boguslaw Sonik a été nommé par la commission ENVI responsable du prochain rapport sur l’impact environnemental de l’extraction du gaz de schiste destiné au parlement européen.

 

«Aucune nuisance»


Ce document doit être rendu en avril 2012. Boguslaw Sonik ne cache pas ses intentions: «Ce rapport doit être une réponse à l’analyse préparée par les experts allemands l’an dernier. Bien que non contraignant légalement, il représentera la position officielle des membres du parlement européen, qui recommanderont des solutions [pour l’extraction] appropriées devant la Commission européenne.»


Fustigeant ses collègues allemands qui, selon lui, auraient produit des textes sans quitter leurs bureaux, Boguslaw Sonik entend écrire un rapport «objectif», fruit de ses expériences sur le terrain. Aussi s’est-il rendu sur le site polonais de Horodusk, près de Lesniowice, exploité par la compagnie américaine Chevron. Il n’aurait constaté «aucune nuisance» sur place, et n’en a pensé que du bien. «Ma visite à Horodusk m’en a convaincu: nous devons croire que la clef pour la maximisation des bénéfices de l’exploitation du gaz de schiste, c’est de créer la plus grande transparence en matière de réglementation, et un environnement de transparence concernant les opérations menées par les compagnies engagées dans le processus d’extraction.»
Il y a trois semaines, pourtant, une équipe de reporters de l’agence Reuters livrait une vision plus nuancée de l’extraction à Lesniowice, avec «sa tête de forage où l’équipage fait tout ce qu’il peut pour produire. L’emplacement est une véritable ruche avec des camions de Halliburton, et tout le matériel répandu par terre, avec le grondement des foreuses à l’arrière-plan».

 

Les Verts genevois déterminés


Contactés à Strasbourg et à Bruxelles, des eurodéputés écologistes promettent de veiller au grain. Du côté des Verts genevois, Anne Mahrer souligne «la dimension transfrontalière des dossiers concernant l’extraction des gaz de schiste», et le fait que les projets d’extraction actuels «bafouent plusieurs conventions, dont la convention d’Aarhus» sur l’accès à l’information, la participation du public au processus décisionnel et l’accès à la justice en matière d’environnement. Elle dénonce des parlementaires européens «inféodés aux lobbies pétroliers et gaziers. Ils ne vont pas nous lâcher avec le gaz de schiste. Nous non plus, nous n’allons pas les lâcher.» DATAS

 

1. Greenwashing est un terme anglophone qui peut être traduit par «verdissement d'image». Il est utilisé par les groupes de pression environnementaux pour désigner les efforts de communication des entreprises sur leurs avancées en termes de développement durable, avancées qui ne s’accompagnent pas de véritables actions pour l’environnement (source:dictionnaire-environnement.com/).


2. Voir: http://ddata.over-blog.com/xxxyyy/4/93/27/41/EUROPE/28-2-2012BRUXELLES.p...

 

 

«Pas de prise de position» à l’OMS


Au sujet de l’extraction industrielle des gaz et huiles de schiste, quelle est la position des agences onusiennes? Deux grandes organisations sont concernées en premier lieu: le programme des Nations Unies pour l’environnement (PNUE) et l’Organisation mondiale de la santé (OMS), qui a son siège à Genève. Malgré plusieurs demandes répétées, aucune réponse audible ni lisible ne nous est parvenue du PNUE à ce jour.


Du côté de l’OMS, une responsable de communication nous a finalement fait parvenir ce bref message: «l’OMS est attentive à l’intérêt croissant» autour de ce sujet, et «à l’importance de disposer de plus d’informations sur les impacts sanitaires résultant du fracking. Mais à ce stade, l’OMS n’a aucune position formelle en la matière, puisque cela nécessiterait des recherches et des évaluations plus poussées démontrant l’évidence de risques sanitaires».


Une réponse consternante: les cas avérés de pollution et de contamination résultant du fracking sont légion, ne serait-ce qu’aux Etats-Unis et au Canada. D’autre part, c’est une publication coéditée par l’OMS elle-même il y a presque trente ans qui avançait cette mise en garde: «Un certain nombre de technologies en cours de développement, comme (...) l’extraction des huiles de schiste, risquent de contribuer de façon significative à la quantité de déchets organiques rejetés [dans la nature]1.»

 

Nous avons joint par téléphone un de ses deux auteurs: le toxicologue hollandais Jan W. Huismans. «Il s’agissait d’une recherche scientifique sur la gestion des déchets toxiques, organisée par les secrétariats de l’OMS et du PNUE. Nous avions proposé avec mon collègue [du bureau régional européen de l’OMS, Michael J. Suess] des lignes directrices et un code de pratiques concernant la gestion des déchets résultant d’activités industrielles. Nos recommandations ont été laissées sans suite.»
Que faudrait-il faire pour que l’OMS et le PNUE s’emparent vraiment de ce dossier, et prennent position? «Il faudrait pour cela qu’un des pays membres fasse une demande d’étude, et mette le sujet à l’agenda. Cela n’a visiblement jamais été le cas.» En bref, ni les Etats-Unis, ni le Canada, principaux exploitants historiques de ces ressources dites «non conventionnelles», ni plus récemment la France ou la Pologne, n’ont fait de pas déterminant en ce sens dans l’enceinte des deux agences onusiennes. «Ces Etats sont plus enclins à pointer la gestion des déchets dans les pays du Sud, plutôt que de proposer des recherches sur ce qui se passe chez eux», conclut l’expert.

 

Aux Etats-Unis, la méthode de la fracturation hydraulique est utilisée depuis au moins cinquante ans. Elle a certes évolué techniquement, mais dans l’ensemble, ses impacts nocifs restent les mêmes. GLE avec Rayane Ben Amor

 

1«Management of Hazardous Waste. Policy Guidelines and Code of Practice», in: WHO Regional Publications, European Series, n°14, Copenhague, 1983.


Bientôt pollués par des investisseurs suisses? Le 11 février dernier, plus de 2000 personnes ont encore manifesté en France voisine, à Saint-Julien-en-Genevois, pour rappeler leur opposition aux projets d’exploration des sous-sols de la région en vue de l’exploitation de gaz et huiles dits «non conventionnels», car piégés dans des couches de schiste, à plus de 2 km de profondeur. De nombreux experts et géologues le répètent: le fracking entraîne des risques environnementaux et sanitaires majeurs. Parallèlement, des conseillers en investissement proposent actuellement à certains de leurs clients suisses de placer une partie de leurs avoirs dans des portefeuilles «énergie», favorisant indirectement les projets d’extraction en cours, en Pologne comme en France voisine. Rappelons que le permis de recherche de Gex M615, entourant la frontière cantonale genevoise, est attribué à un consortium d’entreprises anglo-canadiennes dont une entité, Eagle Energy, a un siège à Zoug.

 

GLE/datas

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"EU United on Additional Energy Supply Routes" - Nord Stream AG

"EU United on Additional Energy Supply Routes" - Nord Stream AG | Energy in Emerging & Developed Countries | Scoop.it
March 7, 2009

 

The European Union (EU) is in favour of the diversification of energy supply routes and Russia remains the most important energy partner for the EU, European Commission President José Manuel Barroso said at a press conference in Moscow in February 2009 after a plenary meeting of the Russian government and the European Commission (EC).

 

Barroso added that he never expected the pipelines from Russia to the EU to become as important as they are now. He also said that unlike Nabucco, Nord Stream and South Stream are private projects that are not seeking financial support from the EU.

 

EC delegates confirmed that the security of the EU's energy supply depends on the implementation of additional supply routes from Russia. The EU also supports geographical diversification of energy sources.

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"Finalisation of Transboundary Environmental Report" - Nord Stream AG

"Finalisation of Transboundary Environmental Report" - Nord Stream AG | Energy in Emerging & Developed Countries | Scoop.it
Jan. 26, 2009

 

Nord Stream’s transboundary environmental report (Espoo Report) is to be submitted to national authorities in the Baltic Sea states and published in early 2009.


The document describes the environmental impact of the planned natural gas pipeline along the whole route. The report will form the basis for public consultations in each country. The process ensures that all countries are sufficiently informed on possible transboundary environmental impacts associated with the pipeline construction and operation.

 

Draft Submitted


In November 2008, Nord Stream has submitted a draft of the Espoo Report for an informal review by authorities in all the Baltic Sea states. This version of the report is the first complete compilation of the results of 100 million Euros worth of detailed environmental studies of the Baltic Sea and planning for the infrastructure project conducted over many years. Nord Stream discussed the draft with the representatives of the countries concerned. The company will now finalise the Espoo Report in close cooperation with all relevant countries and incorporate the feedback received.

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Nord Stream Delivers Gas to Lubmin

Nord Stream Delivers Gas to Lubmin | Energy in Emerging & Developed Countries | Scoop.it
Nov. 10, 2011

 

The landfall facility in Lubmin, Germany is not only the place where the Nord Stream Pipelines exit the Baltic Sea, but also where the gas from the pipelines is transferred into the European gas grid. In an interview, Mikhail Sarakhan, Site Supervisor Landfall Facilities Germany, Nord Stream explains just what takes place at the facility.

 

What function does the landfall facility in Lubmin, Germany fulfil?


Mikhail Sarakhan: Let me start by explaining that the landfall facility in Lubmin actually consists of two complexes: Nord Stream's landfall facility in Germany in the offshore and onshore areas, and the actual receiving terminal of the the connecting natural gas pipelines, OPAL and NEL. The Nord Stream complex transfers the gas that travels 1,224 kilometres through the Baltic Sea to OPAL and NEL. The Pipeline Inspection Gauges (PIGs) are also received here in the PIG traps as part of the inspection process.


Are there any Nord Stream representatives on site, and what duties and responsibilities do they have?


Two people represent Nord Stream AG on site. We are the interface between the Nord Stream operations unit in Zug, the landfall facility in Lubmin, and the operators of the connecting OPAL and NEL pipelines. Together we operate our facility in a safe, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective manner that is in line with all rules and regulations.

 

What was the greatest challenge in constructing the landfall area?
On the Nord Stream side, it was installing the huge shut down valves and the double gate valves. For OPAL and NEL it was the construction of a micro tunnel under the Lubmin harbour, through which the OPAL and NEL gas pipelines had to be fitted to the millimetre.

 

What occurs if a fire breaks out or a leak is discovered in the landfall area?


There are numerous gas and fire detect-ors installed for this eventuality. For example, if the gas or fire alarm is raised from two detectors in different zones of the landfall facility, our intake valves will automatically be closed, and the relief valves opened in order to clear the facilities of natural gas. If a fire alarm is triggered, the on-site fire department will also be summoned. Additionally, all responsible parties will be notified by our dispatching centres in order for us to be on site as quickly as possible.

 

How does Nord Stream ensure that it never delivers more gas than can be processed at the landfall facility?


We employ several systems to take care of that. The Nord Stream landfall facility is designed for an operating pressure of 177.5 bar. If, despite the monitoring system, this pressure level is exceeded, our intake valves will close in order to protect our facility.

 

What are the most important safety measures for operating the landfall facility?


Adhering to the safety regulations for natural gas facilities, which would include, for example, smoking bans. Safety measures also include securing the infrastructure that transports the natural gas, and the entire landfall facility. The gas transportation facilities can be shut down manually and remotely.

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A Connecting Hub on the German Coast

A Connecting Hub on the German Coast | Energy in Emerging & Developed Countries | Scoop.it
The Lubmin landfall facility is the logistical link between the Nord Stream Pipeline and the European gas distribution grid. The natural gas that arrives here from Siberia is prepared by OPAL and NEL before it is further transported to users throughout Europe.

 

The landfall facility in Lubmin, Germany is a hub of sorts, the actual switching point of a cross-border project that will contribute toward a secure energy supply to Europe for decades. At the same time, the landfall facility is only a small part of the puzzle in the entire framework. Where does the gas that is prepared here come from, and where does it flow thereafter?

 

The Gas Comes from Siberia

 

The Russian city of Novy Urengoy is situated in Western Siberia, 2,500 kilometres from Moscow, and only 60 kilometres from the Arctic Circle. Some 74 percent of all Russian natural gas comes from this region – it is no wonder that the location is sometimes also called "Russia's unofficial gas capital."

 

Much of the natural gas that will flow through Nord Stream’s twin pipelines also comes from the region where the Yuzhno-Russkoye gas field is located. It is the biggest natural gas field developed in Russia to date. Nord Stream shareholders Gazprom, E.ON and Wintershall have a stake in this gas field, where reserves are estimated at 600 billion cubic metres (bcm). There is enough gas in this source alone to guarantee all Russian gas exports to Germany for the next six years. From 142 drill holes, spread around an area of 1,100 square kilometres, the lines lead to an ultra-modern preparation facility. A total of 75 million cubic metres is handled there every day. The raw gas is heated, stripped of water content, purified, re-cooled, compressed and then sent on its way through Gazprom’s gas pipeline system.

 

Transport by Nord Stream

 

The gas flows 2,500 kilometres from West Siberia to Vyborg. There, in the landfall facility in Portovaya Bay, 1.5 kilometres from the Baltic Sea, the natural gas is fed from the Gryazovets-Vyborg pipeline into the Nord Stream Pipeline. As operator, Nord Stream provides transport capacities through its pipeline system. Nord Stream has entered into a gas transportation agreement with OOO Gazprom Export to book up to 55 bcm capacity annually. The pipelines will transport gas from the entry point in Russia to the exit point in Germany, where the gas will be received by the connecting OPAL (Baltic Sea Pipeline Link) and NEL (North European Gas Pipeline) overland pipelines. In total, it takes the gas almost 10 days to make the journey from Siberia to Germany.

 

On the Way to Europe


At the OPAL and NEL receiving station, the incoming and outgoing gas streams are checked for quality, subjected to official measurement, and adjusted in terms of pressure and volume as well as temperature, before being transported further.

 

The OPAL pipeline links Nord Stream with the existing European natural gas transport systems. In future, up to 35 bcm of gas will flow through the OPAL pipeline annually. This amount is enough to supply a third of Germany with natural gas for a year. The pipeline was completed in summer 2011, and runs south from Lubmin to Brandov, in the Czech Republic. Along its 470-kilometre route, the pipeline runs through three German federal states, and crosses a total of 172 roads, four highways, 27 rail lines, and 39 bodies of water. Since the gas loses pressure over the long route, it is repressurised at a compressor station in Baruth, south of Berlin.

 

The second pipeline that links the Nord Stream system with the European gas market is NEL. Construction of the pipeline began in spring 2011, with completion expected in autumn 2012. The NEL pipeline is 440 kilometres long, and runs westward across northern Germany from Lubmin to Rehden, in Lower Saxony. The pipeline has a capacity of over 20 bcm each year, which roughly corresponds to one-fifth of Germany’s annual consumption.

 

The gas from the OPAL and NEL pipelines will be transported onward to Belgium, Denmark, France, the Netherlands, and the UK, along with other countries.

 

Gas flow through Line 1 of the Nord Stream Pipeline system began in November 2011. Construction of Line 2 commenced in May 2011. The second line will be operational in the fourth quarter of 2012. Together, the twin pipelines will have the capacity to transport a combined total of about 55 bcm of gas a year – that is enough to satisfy the energy demand of more than 26 million European households.

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China trumpets completion of 'world's largest battery energy storage station'

China trumpets completion of 'world's largest battery energy storage station' | Energy in Emerging & Developed Countries | Scoop.it
See that above? That's the world's largest battery energy storage station, or so says the State Grid Corporation of China and BYD. The two entities have just wrapped up construction on the Zhangbei-based project, which marries 40 Mega-Watts of renewable energy generation (both wind and solar), 36 Mega-Watt-Hours (MWh) of energy storage and a smart power transmission system. The goal? To provide a "stable solution for transferring vast amounts of renewable electricity safely to the grid on an unprecedented scale." As it stands, BYD products 1GW of solar panels annually, and with China's population still rising, it's solutions like these that'll help it grow while keeping efficiencies high. Soaking up rays for solar energy is all fine and well, but having a facility to capture and store it is where the equation really comes together; something tells us a few other nations will be scrambling to snatch the record in short order.

 

By Darren Murph posted Jan 7th 2012

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Tight oil a revolution in energy

Claudia Catraneo, Financial Post · Jul. 21, 2012 

 

The quick rise of tight oil in the United States and Canada is dominating oil patch chatter as players take stock of what it could all mean: Are we on the verge of a global energy revolution, or on a trend that is encouraging but unlikely to meet lofty expectations?

 

With production in the U.S. gushing out of the Bakken and a lot of potential in the Eagle Ford and 20 other plays, Canada barely getting warmed up and other countries looking to copy the North American experience, optimists envisage the biggest game changer for the energy sector in decades.

 

By offering North America a shot at energy independence, there's talk of vast political implications, including a new U.S. foreign policy free of Middle East strings and less urgency to find and subsidize alternative fuels. Some argue the growing importance of tight oil could even shine a new light on Canada's oil sands in the eyes of Americans because they make energy independence achievable.

 

Robin West, chairman and chief executive of PFC Energy, a global consulting firm that specializes in oil and gas, has gone as far as branding the shift as the energy equivalent of the fall of the Berlin Wall.

 

Companies of all sizes are repositioning themselves, learning how to produce it or buying up those who know how. Investors love the possibilities. New hot spots are emerging and old ones are being revived. Centres such as Calgary are seeing an influx of foreign operators, from the Chinese to the Russians, wanting to get in on the secrets.

 

But as more is known about tight oil, whose track record as a mainstream movement spans barely a couple of years, skeptics are emerging, too. They question the new resource's staying power and whether the North American experience can be easily translated elsewhere.

 

It wouldn't be the first time that aggressive forecasts turn into disappointment. Remember coalbed methane? How about Russia's energy promise? We are still waiting for the next big thing from Canada's East Coast offshore, and energy from the Canadian Beaufort Sea remains a mirage.

 

So far, tight oil has added about 700,000 barrels per day of production in the U.S. In Canada, it's making up for declining conventional production.

 

A new study by the Belfer Center at the Harvard Kennedy School reflects the bullish view. Author Leonardo Maugeri estimates tight oil fields in the U.S. could push out 3.5 million barrels a day by 2020, raising overall U.S. production to 11.6 million barrels a day, which would put it second to Saudi Arabia as a top world producer.

 

"The initial American shale play, Bakken/Three Forks in North Dakota and Montana, could become a big Persian Gulf producing country within the United States. But the country has more than 20 big shale oil formations, especially the Eagle Ford shale, where the recent boom is revealing a hydrocarbon endowment comparable to that of the Bakken shale," he writes in a paper titled Oil: The Next Revolution, the unprecedented upsurge of oil production capacity and what it means for the world.

 

With most tight oil plays profitable at oil prices in the US$50-to-US$60-perbarrel range, Mr. Maugeri argues they are resilient to a significant downturn in oil prices. As technology develops, costs will come down, turning today's expensive oil into tomorrow's cheap oil.

Moreover, he believes other countries will emulate the U.S. experience, uncover new tight oil fields and boost recoveries from old ones by applying the same technologies - a combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing.

 

"Oil is not in short supply," he writes. "From a purely physical point of view, there are huge volumes of conventional and unconventional oils still to be developed, with no 'peak oil' in sight. The real problems concerning future oil production are above the surface, not beneath it, and relate to political decisions and geopolitical instability."

 

The study, which involved a field-by-field analysis of most oil exploration and development projects around the world, says an unparalleled investment cycle in the industry that started in 2003 increased production capacity almost everywhere, resulting in a "deconventionalization" of oil supplies. Four countries show the highest potential for production growth: Iraq, the U.S., Canada and Brazil.

 

With only one, Iraq, located in the Middle East, Mr. Maugeri says the western hemisphere is on its way to becoming the new centre of gravity of oil exploration and production.

 

But many others urge caution before jumping to conclusions.

Research by the BlackRock Investment Institute argues the U.S. shale boom is unlikely to spill to other countries or affect world energy supply in the near future.

 

"Shale reserves abound around the world, with vast deposits in countries such as China, Argentina and Poland," the institute, a unit of BlackRock, the world's largest asset management firm, says in the paper U.S. Shale Boom: A Case of (Temporary) Indigestion.

 

"But the scale and speed of the U.S. boom is unique and cannot be easily replicated elsewhere," the paper says. "Reasons include well-documented and co-operating geology, an experienced and competitive exploration industry, and well-established ownership and property rights."

 

In an interview, co-author Ahmad Atwan, a senior member of BlackRock's global private-equity team, said boosters are overlooking that there is little knowledge about tight oil outside North America and it takes a long time to figure out the geology and how to produce it.

 

"People forget that shale gas and shale oil were pioneered by Mitchell Energy, which got acquired by Devon Energy in the 1980s, and people even knew about it in the 1970s," he said from New York. "So even in the U.S., it took us 30 years to get to where we are. And we can assume that it can be more rapid in other places, because people can learn from what happened in the U.S. and Canada, but it's not going to be a threeor four-year learning curve."

 

Mr. Atwan said it's telling that even as everyone is talking about tight oil, the oil majors (BP, Chevron, ConocoPhillips, Exxon Mobil, Shell and Total) are spending 47% of their capital in 2010 to 2013 on offshore and deep-water fields in such places as Brazil, West Africa and the U.S., because that's where they see possibilities for discoveries. (By comparison, Canada's oil sands are capturing 5% and onshore North America is getting 15% of their investment.)

Tight oil, while significant, will help make up for declines from conventional fields, rather than result in a boom in world oil production, he said.

 

The other overlooked aspect is that tight oil is capital-intensive and initial production declines rapidly.

 

Michael Tims, chairman of Calgary based energy investment bank Peters & Co., has crunched the numbers and doubts some of the very optimistic projections for North American oil production growth.

 

In Canada, and in many U.S. fields, production from tight oil fields declines by 65% the first year and by a total of 75% within two years, he said. With such steep declines, producers have to invest in new wells every two to three years just to keep production levels flat.

 

For example, the brokerage estimates that up to $15-billion has been spent by industry to add approximately 500,000 barrels a day of production from the North Dakota Bakken region. To add three million barrels per day of production from fields across the U.S., it would require $75-billion to $100-billion of capital spending every couple of years. Contrast that with the oil sands, which require bigger capital expenditures up front and then a lower level of maintenance capital, but the projects produce for 30 to 50 years.

 

"For those who make very optimistic projections about the additions to productive capacity, are they thinking about the amount of capital that is going to take, especially in light of the decline rates being experienced in the reservoirs now being developed?" Mr. Tims asks.

 

That's not to say tight oil isn't profitable. Many tight oil projects achieve payout of the capital invested quickly because so much of the economic value comes out in the first year, he said. According to Peters & Co. estimates, a median tight oil project is economic, with a 10% rate of return, at around US$52 a barrel.

 

Even the political implications may be far-fetched. While Middle East producers are paying attention to the United States' shrinking call on their oil, they're building oil dependence in Asia, where demand is growing. A North America energy fortress won't insulate it from Middle East politics or the global oil market, argues Bassam Fattouh, director of the Middle East program at the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies. "Even if the U.S. imported no Middle East oil at all, it still has strong interests in protecting against supply disruptions," Mr. Fattouh writes in the Gulf Oil Review. "The U.S. military presence in the Gulf is not only motivated by securing oil supplies but by wider security interests, including Israel's position and counter-terrorism."

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France | Gaz de schiste: des Suisses à la manœuvre

France | Gaz de schiste: des Suisses à la manœuvre | Energy in Emerging & Developed Countries | Scoop.it

MARDI 22 NOVEMBRE 2011 | Gilles Labarthe


FRANCE • Abandonnés, les projets d’extraction de gaz de schiste? Si trois permis d’exploration ont effectivement été abrogés, les opérateurs, dont des Suisses, ont des raisons de garder espoir.

 

26 février 2011. Plus de 15 000 personnes se réunissent à Villeneuve-de-Berg, dans le sud de l’Ardèche. Leur objectif: protester contre les projets d’exploitation des gaz et huiles de schiste, concoctés en catimini par des entreprises énergétiques, et avalisés le 1er mars 2010 par le gouvernement français. «On n’avait jamais vu autant de monde ici à une manifestation depuis celle sur la réforme des retraites», se réjouit Claude Pradal, le maire de cette modeste bourgade de quelque 3000 habitants. Villeneuve-de-Berg est soudain devenu l’épicentre des mouvements de contestation dénonçant, dans le sillage du film documentaire Gasland, de Josh Fox1, les conséquences environnementales et sanitaires catastrophiques de la fracturation hydraulique (lire ci-contre).


En Ardèche, dans la Drôme, dans le Gard comme dans l’Aveyron, élus communaux et habitants sont consternés. Comment les services de l’ancien ministre de l’Environnement, Jean-Louis Borloo, ont-ils pu signer les permis d’exploration de Villeneuve-de-Berg (qui s’étend sur 931 km2 carrés), Montélimar (4327 km2, attribué notamment au groupe Total) et Nant (4414 km2), sans en informer explicitement les maires?

 

Société suisse


A Villeneuve-de-Berg, la population en veut en particulier à la société américano-suisse Schuepbach Energy LLC, détentrice du permis couvrant tout le sud de l’Ardèche, mais aussi celui de Nant. «Les atouts de notre département, c’est la nature préservée, les produits bio, les campings en bord de rivière, les gîtes ruraux pour les estivants. Vous imaginez nos garrigues et les gorges de l’Ardèche avec un derrick tous les 1,5 kilomètre? On n’est pas au Texas, ici!» s’emporte Angélique. Sa maison est située à quelques foulées d’un ancien puits de forage. Le PDG de ladite société énergétique, le géologue suisse Martin Schuepbach, installé à Dallas, a bien tenté une rapide visite de courtoisie à Villeneuve-de-Berg, pour calmer les esprits. «Il est venu ici, il a acheté quelques bouteilles de vin blanc du pays... Mais on ne se laissera pas faire.»

 

Depuis, sur la lancée d’un mouvement citoyen initié fin 2010 dans le Larzac, puis à Villeneuve-de Berg, des dizaines de collectifs locaux «Stop au gaz de schiste»2 ont été créées dans toute la France. Des milliers de pages de pétition signées, envoyées au gouvernement. Avec un succès d’estime: une loi «visant à interdire l’exploration et l’exploitation des mines d’hydrocarbures liquides ou gazeux par fracturation hydraulique et à abroger les permis exclusifs de recherches comportant des projets ayant recours à cette technique» a ainsi été votée par l’Assemblée nationale, puis par le Sénat le 13 juillet 2011. Pendant tout l’été, les collectifs sont restés vigilants: «Les foreurs tentent de contourner la loi», justifie un responsable.

 

Changement de... nom


23 octobre 2011, Barjac (Gard). Malgré un temps pluvieux et maussade, plus de 5000 personnes affluent pour cette seconde plus importante manifestation nationale des «anti-gaz de schiste» de l’année. L’heure est à un premier bilan, mitigé. Oui, la loi a été votée. Mais ne serait-elle pas destinée surtout à rassurer les électeurs, avant l’échéance cruciale de l’élection présidentielle française d’avril 2012? Certains opérateurs privés se sont en effet pressés de trouver une autre appellation à leurs méthodes de forage: «Ils parlent maintenant de ‘stimulation de la roche mère’. C’est beaucoup plus érotique», plaisante Edouard Chaulet, maire de Barjac et conseiller général du Gard. Pourtant la technique est la même: aucune alternative efficace à la fracturation hydraulique n’est connue à l’heure actuelle.


Pour M. Choulet, «pas question de se laisser endormir». Car si les trois permis de Villeneuve-de-Berg, Montélimar et Nant ont été officiellement abrogés (avec possibilité de recours) le 13 octobre 2011, 61 autres permis restent valides. Plusieurs concernant les gaz et huiles de schiste. Par exemple, celui du Bassin d’Alès, attribué à la société suisse MouvOil. Ce permis exclusif de recherche d’hydrocarbures liquides ou gazeux (permis M 626) court sur 215 km2 dans le nord du Gard et l’Ardèche méridionale.

 

Le repaire zougois


«MouvOil, nous voilà!», clame un groupe des manifestants à Barjac, brandissant des pancartes. «Qu’est-ce qu’ils ont, les Suisses, à venir chez nous, polluer nos terres?», s’énerve un autre. Et d’ailleurs, qui dirige vraiment cette MouvOil SA, domiciliée dans le paradis fiscal du canton de Zoug – tout comme une poignée d’autres opérateurs américano et franco-suisses investissant dans l’exploration des gaz de schistes (lire ci-dessous)?


L’entreprise suisse a prévu de commencer dans les environs de Barjac des relevés d’études sismiques avant l’hiver, en vue de l’exploration. Quelques réunions de mise au point avec des élus locaux ont déjà eu lieu. «Nous voulions dire de vive voix à Max Bordenave, le vice-président de MouvOil, que son entreprise et lui n’étaient pas les bienvenus dans l’Ardèche et le Gard», explique l’écologiste Guillaume Vermorel. Message entendu? DATA

 

Une «filière» Elf dans le gaz de schiste?

 

La presse écrite suisse n’a jamais publié le moindre article sur la jeune société MouvOil SA, active dans le sud de la France. On retrouve son inscription comme «nouvelle entrée» dans le registre du commerce du canton de Zoug, en date du 26 juin 2008, avec un prête-nom: Hans Stuber, originaire de Risch. Trois mois plus tard, apparaissent de nouvelles personnes à la direction et au conseil d’administration, dont Jean-Michel Frautschi, originaire de Neuchâtel, Max Louis Bordenave, de Paris, et les Français Jack et Christophe Sigolet, résidents à Corsier, Genève.


Jean-Michel Frautschi, spécialiste de l’exploration et de la production pétrolière, exerce la fonction de président. Max Louis Bordenave, ingénieur et géochimiste spécialisé dans l’industrie pétrolière, a travaillé dans les années 1970 pour Total au Texas, en Indonésie, puis en France jusqu’en 1993. Il devient vice-président de MouvOil.


Plus intéressant est le parcours de Jack Sigolet, ancien dirigeant de la compagnie pétrolière Elf, ancien bras droit d’André Tarallo, le «Monsieur Afrique» de la société d’Etat. Jack Sigolet, spécialiste des «préfinancements pétroliers» (avance des fonds aux Etats producteurs de pétrole, contre gage de barils de brut), était aussi dans les années 1990 président de la FIBA-Banque française intercontinentale, l’une des banques d’Elf-Aquitaine, gérée avec le clan du dictateur gabonais Omar Bongo. Devenu consultant, il a conseillé des responsables du pétrole angolais – via notamment sa société Crossoil Trading –, ce qui lui a valu dès 2008 l’attention du juge d’instruction genevois Yves Aeschlimann dans les nombreux développements de l’affaire dite «Angolagate».

 

Jack Sigolet a échappé à toutes les poursuites prononcées à son encontre dans le cadre de la retentissante «affaire Elf», plus grand scandale français de détournement de fonds et de financement politique sur les recettes de pétrole africain. Il s’en est mieux sorti que son ex-patron Loïk Le Floch-Prigent, ancien PDG d’Elf, condamné en novembre 2003 à cinq ans de prison.

 

Après avoir purgé une peine réduite «pour raisons de santé», Loïk Le Floch-Prigent a lui aussi entamé une nouvelle carrière de conseiller, entre autres pour une société suisse créée à Zoug en janvier 2006 et devenue principal actionnaire de Pétrolia, groupe québécois actif dans l’exploration de gaz de schistes au Canada (69 permis d’exploration obtenus entre 2005 et 2009).


Combien de ces anciens dirigeants d’Elf se sont ainsi reconvertis en consultants et lobbyistes du gaz de schiste?


GLe/DATAS

 

1) Peut être visionné sur www.dailymotion.com/video/xhfvhy_gasland_news
2) Voir notamment : www.stopaugazdeschiste07.org

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Nord Stream and the Russian-Ukrainian Gas Disputes

Nord Stream and the Russian-Ukrainian Gas Disputes | Energy in Emerging & Developed Countries | Scoop.it
Jan. 30, 2009

 

Russian-Ukrainian gas disputes have fuelled speculation that Nord Stream will replace existing capacities.

 

Nord Stream's purpose is to meet the European Union's growing gas import needs by providing gas in addition to capacities already in use and not to bypass any transit country. It will enable Europe to diversify its gas supply routes.

 

Gas Needs Projected to Grow


The EU's annual natural gas import needs are projected to increase by almost 200 bcm by 2025. New energy import capacities and routes are urgently needed. Nord Stream is one of the projects aimed at filling the gap. Approximately 120 billion cubic metres (bcm) of gas per year crosses Ukrainian territory (80 per cent of Russian gas exports to Europe) on its way to the EU. Nord Stream will annually transport an additional 55 bcm of gas, or more than one quarter of the EU's projected import gap.

 

The pipeline through the Baltic Sea will be the shortest connection to the world's largest gas reserves, but it cannot replace the gas transited through Ukraine. Among the projects for additional pipelines that Europe will need to cover its gas import gap, Nord Stream has progressed the furthest.

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"Progress Made in Swedish Permitting Process" - Nord Stream AG

"Progress Made in Swedish Permitting Process" - Nord Stream AG | Energy in Emerging & Developed Countries | Scoop.it
Jan. 25, 2009

 

The permitting process of the Nord Stream Pipeline in Sweden is progressing. After the project developer filed an application in December 2007 and updated it in October 2008, the project’s administrative round as per the Swedish Environmental Code is now complete.

 

It has become customary that all applications pursuant to Swedish national legislation undergo an administrative round. This procedure is intended for referral authorities to submit their viewpoints and thereby move to next stage of the permitting process. The Swedish Government has collected referral replies from authorities to Nord Stream's updated application. The Swedish Coast Guard and two other institutions stated that the application documentation is sufficient. Replies from other authorities contain requests for further information, which will be carefully addressed.

Nord Stream is also in dialogue with Swedish fisheries and other concerned parties, and is also looking forward to continued dialogue in spring 2009 with the general public in Sweden and other Baltic Sea countries.

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"Last Section of Line 2 Now on the Seabed" - Nord Stream AG

"Last Section of Line 2 Now on the Seabed" - Nord Stream AG | Energy in Emerging & Developed Countries | Scoop.it
April 18, 2012

 

On the morning of April 18, 2012, pipe number 99,953, the last pipe of Line 2, was welded onto pipeline, which was lowered onto the seabed. "Saipem's Castoro Sei has done an excellent job for us. We are very pleased to have completed pipelay for Line 2 well in advance of the planned schedule. It is another major milestone for Nord Stream," said Deputy Project Director Construction, Ruurd Hoekstra.

 

The Castoro Sei Completes Her Job


The Castoro Sei has been working on the Nord Stream project since April 2010, laying 70 percent, or 853.5 kilometres, of each of the two pipelines. "The vessel has been working 24/7 on this project for two years with its crew of 330 persons with only a one month planned maintenance break in May 2011," explains Hoekstra. "Her average lay-rate has been significantly faster than expected, the quality of welds has been exceptionally high and the safety record is outstanding."

 

Multiple Vessels Used Throughout the Project


The twin pipelines were laid in three sections. On April 18, the Castoro Sei completed the southern section of Line 2 which runs from Kilometre Point (KP) 675 to the landing point at the German landfall. The pipelines were built in three sections as the pressure at is highest at the start in Russia, and lowest in Germany. As the pressure in the pipeliens reduces, so to does the wall thickness of the of the pipes used. Tapering the wall thickness of pipeline walls saved not only vast amounts of steel, it also enabled Nord Stream to maintain its strict construction schedule, allowing for three lay vessels to work simultaneously work on the pipelines back in 2010. The pipelines were laid along an agreed, carefully-planned route on the seabed of the Baltic Sea by Saipem's Castoro Sei and Castoro Dieci, and the Allseas' Solitaire.

 

"The fact that we were able to complete our complex construction schedule involving three pipelay vessels working simultaneously on different sections of the pipeline was made possible by years of detailed and careful planning. The expertise of our staff and contractors – technical, logistics, safety, environmental and operational – allowed for a smooth-running construction programme that met all environmental and safety considerations," Hoekstra explains.

 

At any one time, a minimum of 12 ships worked on the project in different parts of the Baltic Sea, and everything fitted into place. Nord Stream’s construction plans proved to be resilient enough to cope with periods of enforced downtime due to some very adverse weather conditions in the Baltic Sea. A total fleet of 148 vessels were deployed for Nord Stream for surveys, construction and logistics operations.

 

Almost 200,000 Pipes Were Needed


Nord Stream’s two completed pipelines consist of 199,755, 12-metre concrete-weight-coated steel pipes each weighing about 24 tonnes. Altogether, some 138,850 welds were performed for both lines to join together the pipes laid by the Castoro Sei.

 

The last of the 99,953 steel pipes for Line 2 was made in Germany by Europipe, concrete-weight-coated at EUPEC’s plant in Mukran, shipped to the Slite marshalling yard on the coast of the Swedish Island of Gotland and transported by a pipe-carrying vessel to the Castoro Sei, where it was welded onto the pipeline and lowered to the seabed on April 18.

 

Logistics Activities Completed


This completion of Line 2 also marked also the completion of the logistics activities for the Nord Stream Project. The complex logistics concept was the backbone of the project, and enabled the timely construction of both pipelines. This green logistics concept of short pipe transport distances was first developed in 2006, four years prior to the start of construction of Line 1.

 

Pressure Testing Is Underway


Pre-commissioning activities for Line 2 have already started. Each of the three sections will be flooded with seawater, cleaned and gauged and thoroughly pressure tested. Following the completion of the pressure tests, these three sections will be connected by underwater hyperbaric tie-ins in May and June off the coasts of Finland and Sweden where the design pressure changes from 220 to 200 bar and from 200 to 177.5 bar respectively.

 

After de-watering and drying, the completed pipeline will then be linked to the landfalls in Russia and Germany and put into operation toward the end of the year as part of Nord Stream’s fully-automated twin pipeline system. Line 1 started transporting gas in November, 2011.

 

Line 2 to Transport Gas by Year's End


Following extensive pre-commissioning and commissioning, Line 2 is scheduled to begin transporting gas towards the end of 2012 as part of a fully automated twin-pipeline gas transport system capable of transporting 55 billion cubic metres (bcm) of gas a year from Russia to the European Union, for at least 50 years.

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The Pipeline - Nord Stream AG

The Pipeline - Nord Stream AG | Energy in Emerging & Developed Countries | Scoop.it
Nord Stream is a natural gas pipeline through the Baltic Sea. The pipeline is a key factor in securing energy security in Europe.
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New shareholders from Germany and France join South Stream

16.09.2011

 

Today, under the framework of International investment forum Sochi - 2011 in the presence of Prime Minister of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin was signed shareholders' Agreement on offshore section of the South Stream project.

 

The document was signed by Alexey Miller, Chairman of the Company's Management Committee, Paolo Scaroni, Chief executive officer of ENI, Harald Schwager, Member of the Board of Executive Directors of BASF SE, and Henri Proglio, Chairman and CEO of EDF.

 

In accordance to the Agreement Wintershall Holding and EDF companies obtain 15 per cent participation share each in the offshore section of the South Stream project owing to a reduction in ENI stakes by 30%

 

As a result, offshore section participation shares of the South Stream project are now split in the following way: Gazprom - 50 per cent, ENI - 20 per cent, Wintershall Holding and EDF - 15 per cent each. 

 

«Two new shareholders from Germany and France have joined the South Stream project. Participation of major European energy companies in the project highlights that EU countries admit its timeliness and necessity. No doubt, South Stream will not only create an additional route for secure and uninterrupted supplies of Russian gas to Europe, but also will boost economic development of Central and Southeast Europe,» Alexey Miller said. «Together with Gazprom and other European partners, with the Nord Stream Baltic Sea Pipeline we are already demonstrating how we can increase gas supply security in Europe. We are now working together to improve supply security in the south eastern EU member states, in which Gazprom and Wintershall have been successfully involved in gas trading for many years,» said Harald Schwager.

 

«ENI has long been a partner of Russia and Gazprom, and has extensive experience in the gas sector having already worked with Gazprom on the Blue Stream gas pipeline. The entry of two other European companies into the South Stream project represents a further step in consolidating the partnership strategy between Europe and Russia,» Paolo Scaroni declared. «The signing of this shareholders' agreement marks a milestone for the South Stream project which will fully benefit from the close collaboration of the four major global energy players that are: Gazprom, ENI, Wintershall and EDF. We work together to ensure the success of this project that will play a role in addressing the growing need for gas in Europe,» Henri Proglio said.

 

Background


With a view to diversify the natural gas export routes Gazprom is realizing construction of gas pipeline running under the Black Sea to the countries of Southern and Central Europe - the South Stream project.

 

Intergovernmental agreements were signed with Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Hungary, Serbia and Slovenia in order to implement the onshore gas pipeline section.

At present, the South Stream Consolidated Feasibility Study is elaborated including the studies for the offshore section and for gas pipelines native sites in host countries of Southern and Central Europe.

 

On June 19, 2010 Gazprom, ENI and EDF signed the trilateral Memorandum defining intention of parties towards the French company's entry in the South Stream AG shareholding structure.

 

On March 21, 2011 Gazprom and Wintershall Holding GmbH inked the Memorandum of Understanding on the South Stream project, providing for participation of the German company in constructing the gas pipeline offshore section.

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