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Energy-from-Waste in Middle East

Energy-from-Waste in Middle East | Energy Blog | Scoop.it

There are several energy-from-waste initiatives already underway in the region. Qatar was the first GCC country to implement a EfW programme and currently generates over 30MW of electricity from its Domestic Solid Waste Management Center (DSWMC) located at Messeid (Doha). Saudi Arabia and the UAE have both stated that they have WtE production capacity targets of 100MW. Bahrain, Kuwait and Oman are also seriously considering energy-from-waste as a means to tackle the worsening waste management problem.

Salman Zafar's insight:

New technologies naturally take time to become established as their efficiency versus cost ratios are analysed. However, it is becoming increasingly clearer that energy-from-wastes is a viable and efficient method for solid waste management and generation of alternative energy in the Middle East.

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Energy-Efficient Fuel Standards in KSA

Energy-Efficient Fuel Standards in KSA | Energy Blog | Scoop.it

Saudi Arabia has one of the world’s highest per capita fuel consumption in the transportation sector. This is primarily due to lack of efficient public transportation and current fuel subsidy policy. The country is witnessing an escalating demand on its domestic energy needs and it is imperative on policymakers to devise policies for conservation of energy resources and reduction of GHGs emissions in the transportation sector.

Salman Zafar's insight:

Saudi Arabia’s CAFE standard is a means to stimulate energy efficiency and encourage resource conservation and contribute to the environment. This will enable consumers to save money, reduce fossil fuel consumption and strengthen the Kingdom’s role in the fight against climate change.

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Roadblocks in Waste-to-Energy Implementation

Roadblocks in Waste-to-Energy Implementation | Energy Blog | Scoop.it
The biggest obstacle to the implementation of Waste-to-Energy (or WTE) lies not in the technology itself but in the acceptance of citizens.
Salman Zafar's insight:

Waste-to-Energy or recycling has kept public discourse from questioning whether there may not be intermediate or case specific solutions. This polarization serves to move the conversation nowhere. For now it can be agreed that landfills are devastating in their contribution to Climate Change and must be done away with. 

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Waste-to-Energy Industry Trends

Waste-to-Energy Industry Trends | Energy Blog | Scoop.it

The global market for biological and thermochemical waste-to-energy technologies is expected to reach USD 7.4 billion in 2013 and grow to USD 29.2 billion by 2022. Incineration, with energy recovery, is the most common waste-to-energy method employed worldwide. 

Salman Zafar's insight:

Currently, the European nations are recognized as global leaders of waste-to-energy movement. They are followed behind by the Asia Pacific region and North America respectively.

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Jatropha in the Middle East

Jatropha in the Middle East | Energy Blog | Scoop.it

Jatropha can be successfully grown in arid regions of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) for biodiesel production. These energy crops are highly useful in preventing soil erosion and shifting of sand-dunes. 

Salman Zafar's insight:

Jatropha is already grown at limited scale in some Middle East countries, especially Egypt,  and tremendous potential exists for its commercial exploitation.

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Bioenergy in Thailand

Bioenergy in Thailand | Energy Blog | Scoop.it
Thailand has tremendous biomass energy potential  with some studies projecting that biomass wastes can cover up to 15 % of the energy demand in Thailand. These estimations are primarily made from b...
Salman Zafar's insight:
Thailand’s vast biomass potential has been partially exploited through the use of traditional as well as more advanced conversion technologies for biogas, power generation, and biofuels. Rice, sugar, palm oil, and wood-related industries are the major potential biomass energy sources.
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Butanol as a Biofuel

Butanol as a Biofuel | Energy Blog | Scoop.it
The major technical and commercial limitations of existing biofuels has catalyzed the development of advanced biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol, biobutanol and mixed alcohols. Biobutanol is gener...
Salman Zafar's insight:

Biobutanol is produced by microbial fermentation, similar to bioethanol, and can be made from the same range of sugar, starch or cellulosic feedstocks. The most commonly used microorganisms are strains of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii. In addition to butanol, these organisms also produce acetone and ethanol, so the process is often referred to as the “ABE fermentation”.

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Energy Outlook for Jordan

The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is an emerging and stable economy in the Middle East. Jordan has almost no indigenous energy resources as domestic natural gas covers merely 3% of the Kingdom’...
Salman Zafar's insight:

The country is dependent on oil imports from neighbouring countries to meet its energy requirements. Energy import costs create a financial burden on the national economy and Jordan had to spend almost 20% of its GDP on the purchase of energy in 2008.

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Pelletizing Municipal Solid Wastes

Pelletizing Municipal Solid Wastes | Energy Blog | Scoop.it
MSW is a poor-quality fuel and its pre-processing is necessary to prepare fuel pellets to improve its consistency, storage and handling characteristics, combustion behaviour and calorific value.
Salman Zafar's insight:

RDF production line consists of several unit operations in series in order to separate unwanted components and condition the combustible matter to obtain the required characteristics. The main unit operations are screening, shredding, size reduction, classification, separation either metal, glass or wet organic materials, drying and densification. These unit operations can be arranged in different sequences depending on raw MSW composition and the required RDF quality.

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Energy Issues in the Middle East

Energy Issues in the Middle East | Energy Blog | Scoop.it
There are several problems confronting the world with respect to its fossil fuels-based energy supply. The first problem relates to the ever-increasing use of fast-depleting conventional sources of...
Salman Zafar's insight:

Due to the rising share of GHG emissions from the Middle East, it is imperative on all regional countries to promote sustainable energy to significantly reduce GHGs emissions and foster dynamic economic growth. Rising proportion of greenhouse gas emissions from the region’s energy consumption is causing ecological degradation which may further deteriorate environmental sustainability in the region and globally.

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Low Pressure Storage of Biogas

Low Pressure Storage of Biogas | Energy Blog | Scoop.it
Selection of an appropriate biogas storage system makes a significant contribution to the efficiency and safety of a biogas plant.  A biogas storage system compensates fluctuations in the productio...
Salman Zafar's insight:

The simplest and least expensive storage systems for on-site applications and intermediate storage of biogas are low-pressure systems. Floating gas holders on the digester form a low-pressure storage option for biogas systems. These systems typically operate at pressures below 2 psi. Floating gas holders can be made of steel, fiberglass, or a flexible fabric.

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Biomass Gasfication Power Systems

Biomass Gasfication Power Systems | Energy Blog | Scoop.it
Biomass power systems using biomass gasification has followed two divergent pathways, which are a function of the scale of operations.
Salman Zafar's insight:

The most attractive means of utilising a biomass gasifier for power generation is to integrate the gasification process into a gas turbine combined cycle power plant. This will normally require a gasifier capable of producing a gas with heat content close to 19 MJ/Nm3.

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Resource Base for Biogas Production in Middle East

Resource Base for Biogas Production in Middle East | Energy Blog | Scoop.it
Anaerobic digestion (or biogas technology) is the natural biological process which stabilizes organic waste in the absence of air and transforms it into biofertilizer and biogas. It is a reliable t...
Salman Zafar's insight:

A wide range of organic substances are anaerobically easily degradable without major pretreatment. Among these are leachates, slops, sludges, oils, fats or whey. Some wastes can form inhibiting metabolites (e.g.NH3) during anaerobic digestion which require higher dilutions with substrates like manure or sewage sludge.

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Consequences of CO2-Caused Ocean Acidification

Consequences of CO2-Caused Ocean Acidification | Energy Blog | Scoop.it

Ocean acidification involves the ocean’s pH, changes in which make the water become either more alkaline or more acidic. Tests have shown that “for more than 600,000 years the ocean had a pH of approximately 8.2.” But since the industrial revolution, the ocean’s pH has dropped by 0.1 unit.

Salman Zafar's insight:

CO2-caused climate changes have already made the planet’s food shortage worse. Over the next three decades, climate changes will make it still worse. These shortages will be further exacerbated by the reduction of seafood because of CO2-caused ocean acidification.

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Tips for Increasing Your Car’s Fuel Efficiency

Tips for Increasing Your Car’s Fuel Efficiency | Energy Blog | Scoop.it

Owning a vehicle is quite expensive but most people don’t realize it. Not many people sit down and calculate how much fuel, repairs and insurance premiums cost them for a year. 

Salman Zafar's insight:

Larger cars with bigger engines will naturally burn more gas and you should think about it when you are buying them. If you must have them you can probably make your second car a hybrid to even things out. 

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Biogas Production in Tanneries

Biogas Production in Tanneries | Energy Blog | Scoop.it

Anaerobic digestion of tannery wastes is an attractive method to recover energy from tannery wastes. This method degrades a substantial part of the organic matter contained in the sludge and tannery solid wastes, generating valuable biogas, contributing to alleviate the environmental problem, giving time to set-up more sustainable treatment and disposal routes. Digested solid waste is biologically stabilized and can be reused in agriculture.

Salman Zafar's insight:

When the locally available industrial wastewater treatment plant is not provided by anaerobic digester, a large scale digestion can be planned in regions accommodating a big cluster of tanneries, if there is enough waste to make the facility economically attractive. In this circumstance, an anaerobic co-digestion plant based on sludge and tanneries may be a recommendable option

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Pitfalls of Fracking

Pitfalls of Fracking | Energy Blog | Scoop.it
Recent events in the Europe and the United States have propelled fracking up the public and political agenda. Is the case for drilling full of holes? Despite apparent economic benefi...
Salman Zafar's insight:

Public health concerns, environmental issues, geomechanical risks, groundwater contamination, air pollution and waste management are some of the issues that are coming under increasing public scrutiny.  

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Peat as Energy Resource

Peat as Energy Resource | Energy Blog | Scoop.it
Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation. One of the most common components is Sphagnum moss, although many other plants can contribute. Peat forms in wetland conditions, where flood...
Salman Zafar's insight:

Peat has industrial importance as a fuel in some countries, such as Ireland and Finland, where it is harvested on an industrial scale. In many countries, including Ireland and Scotland, where trees are often scarce, peat is traditionally used for cooking and domestic heating. In Ireland, large-scale domestic and industrial peat usage is widespread.

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Biogas Upgradation using Pressure Swing Adsorption

Biogas Upgradation using Pressure Swing Adsorption | Energy Blog | Scoop.it
Pressure swing adsorption (PSA), also known as carbon molecular sieves, is the second most commonly used biogas upgrading technology in Europe.
Salman Zafar's insight:

The upgrading takes place over 4 phases: pressure build-up, adsorption, depressurization and regeneration. The pressure buildup is achieved by equilibrating pressure with a vessel that is at depressurization stage. Final pressure build up occurs by injecting raw biogas. During adsorption, CO2 and/or N2 and/or O2 are adsorbed by the media and the gas exits as CH4.

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Environmental Impacts of Fracking

Environmental Impacts of Fracking | Energy Blog | Scoop.it

Fracking has come under widespread international scrutiny, with some countries suspending or banning it due to environmental and public health concerns. These concerns have included geomechanical risks, groundwater contamination, air pollution, migration of gases and chemicals to the surface, waste mismanagement etc.

Salman Zafar's insight:

The process is extremely water-intensive where several million gallons of fluid – typically a mix of water, sand, and chemicals – are injected underground at high pressure to fracture the rock surrounding an oil or gas well. The use of huge amount of water in the fracking process is contentious issues in areas where water supplies are scarce.

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Transportation of Biomass

Transportation of Biomass | Energy Blog | Scoop.it

Transporting biomass fuel to a power plant is an important aspect of any biomass energy project. Because a number of low moisture fuels can be readily collected and transported to a centralized biomass plant location or aggregated to enhance project size, this opportunity should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

Salman Zafar's insight:

Transportation is primarily concerned with loading and unloading operation and transferring biomass from pre-processing sites to the main processing plant or biorefinery. Truck transport and for a few cases train transport may be the only modes of transport. Barge and pipeline transport and often train transport involve truck transport.

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Biological Cleanup of Biogas

Biological Cleanup of Biogas | Energy Blog | Scoop.it
The most valuable component of biogas is methane (CH4) which typically makes up 60%, with the balance being carbon dioxide (CO2) and small percentages of other gases.
Salman Zafar's insight:

Most of the sulphide oxidising micro-organisms belong to the family of Thiobacillus. For the microbiological oxidation of sulphide it is essential to add stoichiometric amounts of oxygen to the biogas. Depending on the concentration of hydrogen sulphide this corresponds to 2 to 6 % air in biogas.

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Biomass Resources from Palm Industry

Biomass Resources from Palm Industry | Energy Blog | Scoop.it
The Palm Oil industry generates large quantity of wastes whose disposal is a challenging task. In the Palm Oil mill, fresh fruit bunches are sterilized after which the oil fruits can be removed from the branches.
Salman Zafar's insight:

In a typical Palm Oil plantation, almost 70% of the fresh fruit bunches are turned into wastes in the form of empty fruit bunches, fibers and shells, as well as liquid effluent. These by-products can be converted to value-added products or energy to generate additional profit for the Palm Oil Industry.

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Analysis of India's Biodiesel Program

Analysis of India's Biodiesel Program | Energy Blog | Scoop.it
The Government of India approved the National Policy on Biofuels in December 2009.
Salman Zafar's insight:

Biodiesel distribution channels are virtually non-existent as most of the biofuel produced is used either by the producing companies for self-use or by certain transport companies on a trial basis. Further, the cost of biodiesel depends substantially on the cost of seeds and the economy of scale at which the processing plant is operating.

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Salman Zafar's comment, May 14, 2013 11:43 PM
Most welcome. Hope you like my articles.
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Biomass Energy Scenario in ASEAN Countries

Biomass Energy Scenario in ASEAN Countries | Energy Blog | Scoop.it

There is immense potential of biomass energy in ASEAN countries due to plentiful supply of diverse forms of wastes such as agricultural residues, woody biomass, animal wastes, municipal solid waste, etc. ASEAN region is a big producer of wood and agricultural products which, when processed in industries, produces large amounts of biomass residues.

Salman Zafar's insight:

According to conservative estimates, the amount of biomass residues generated from sugar, rice and palm oil mills is more than 200-230 million tons per year which corresponds to cogeneration potential of 16-19 GW. Woody biomass is a good energy resource due to presence of large number of forests and wood processing industries in the region.

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