Empathy and HealthCare
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Empathy and HealthCare
- CultureOfEmpathy.com
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Study: Clarifying changes in student empathy throughout medical school: a scoping review

Study: Clarifying changes in student empathy throughout medical school: a scoping review | Empathy and HealthCare | Scoop.it

Despite the increasing awareness of the relevance of empathy in patient care, some findings suggest that medical schools may be contributing to the deterioration of students’ empathy. Therefore, it is important to clarify the magnitude and direction of changes in empathy during medical school.

 

We employed a scoping review to elucidate trends in students’ empathy changes/differences throughout medical school and examine potential bias associated with research design.

 

The literature published in English, Spanish, Portuguese and French from 2009 to 2016 was searched. Two-hundred and nine potentially relevant citations were identified. Twenty articles met the inclusion criteria. Effect sizes of empathy scores variations were calculated to assess the practical significance of results.

 

Our results demonstrate that scoped studies differed considerably in their design, measures used, sample sizes and results. Most studies (12 out of 20 studies) reported either positive or non-statistically significant changes/differences in empathy regardless of the measure used.

 

 

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(Empathhic Healthcare)  Chasing Empathy

(Empathhic Healthcare)  Chasing Empathy | Empathy and HealthCare | Scoop.it
Empathy doesn’t take more time to convey than indifference.

But first, a doctor has to feel it. During the last two decades, researchers have sought to understand the causes and remedies for the widely acknowledged dearth of empathy — what has informally been filed under the heading “bedside manners” — in the medical profession.

 

Until fairly recently, medical students were trained to respond with “detached concern,” an approach that would guard them from becoming emotionally affected by a patient’s struggle.

 

The rationale for detached concern was that resonating too deeply with a patient would cloud the doctor’s ability to diagnose and treat him with clinical objectivity. Recent research has debunked the benefits of detached concern, demonstrating that emotional empathy not only improves doctor-patient relationships and patient outcomes, but also is correlated with higher job satisfaction among medical practitioners.

 

Catherine Armsden

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Top ten scientific reasons why compassion is great medicine

Top ten scientific reasons why compassion is great medicine | Empathy and HealthCare | Scoop.it

References

1. Kemper KJ, Shaltout HA. Non-verbal communication of compassion: measuring psychophysiologic effects. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011;11:132.

 

Pereira L, Figueiredo-Braga M, Carvalho IP. Preoperative anxiety in ambulatory surgery: The impact of an empathic patient-centered approach on psychological and clinical outcomes. Patient Educ Couns. 2016;99(5):733-8.

 

2. Egbert LD, Battit GE, Welch CE, Bartlett MK. Reduction of Postoperative Pain by Encouragement and Instruction of Patients. A Study of Doctor-Patient Rapport. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1964;270:825-7.

 

3. Redelmeier DA, Molin JP, Tibshirani RJ. A randomised trial of compassionate care for the homeless in an emergency department. Lancet. 1995;345(8958):1131-4.

 

4. Dahlin CM, Kelley JM, Jackson VA, Temel JS. Early palliative care for lung cancer: improving quality of life and increasing survival. Int J Palliat Nurs. 2010;16(9):420-3.

 

5. Kelley JM, Kraft-Todd G, Schapira L, Kossowsky J, Riess H. The influence of the patient-clinician relationship on healthcare outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS One. 2014;9(4):e94207.

 

...

 

Download the Compassion infographic here and feel free to share it.

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Dr. Theresa Kauffman's curator insight, July 11, 2016 9:36 AM
Compassion is an important element in teaching the whole child. These are great reminders about why it is important to encourage compassion among our students.
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Empathy Vision LLC provides empathy training for healthcare providers and hospitals

Empathy Vision LLC provides empathy training for healthcare providers and hospitals | Empathy and HealthCare | Scoop.it

Empathy Vision LLC provides empathy training for healthcare providers and hospitals. Empathy Vision LLC is the leader in innovative empathy training.

 

Empathy 101

As an introductory or a refresher course, Empathy 101 provides an in-depth survey of the eight basic dimensions of empathic experience and the three habits of empathy for personal and/or organizational growth...

 

Empathy and the HCAHPS
Addressing our current environment where improving value for patients is the top priority, this course explores the importance of patient centered care giving and helps organizations collectively raise their HCAHPS scores in order to exceed bottom line goals....

 

Virtual Empathy: Adopting the Perspective of the Patient
Drawing from common interactions between patients, doctors, and nurses, this course gives health care professionals the chance to adopt the perspective of a patient within multiple embodied VR experiences.  ..

 

Two or Four Hour Empathy Seminar...

Eight Hour Empathy Workshop...

Long Term Empathy Training....

Individualized Empathy Coaching Sessions...

 

 

 
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(Empathic Healthcare) Enhancing compassion in general practice: it’s not all about the doctor

(Empathic Healthcare) Enhancing compassion in general practice: it’s not all about the doctor | Empathy and HealthCare | Scoop.it
‘Patients were left lying in soiled sheets or sitting on commodes for hours. Some patients needing pain relief got it late or not at all.’1

 

Such were the findings from the Mid Staffordshire Inquiry with recommendations for recruiting compassionate staff and having clinician compassion training.2 However, this call for compassion is not new. Medical codes of practice require us to practise with compassion.

 

Compassionate care should be routine, a daily motivation and practice not unlike antisepsis and hand washing.

The crisis of compassion in medicine is multifaceted in origin and no universal panacea is likely to be found. Many of us cannot define compassion or articulate the differences between compassion and empathy.

 

Others might argue that compassion training is redundant as doctors are either compassionate or not. We remain remarkably ignorant about compassion, unsure of what it is, where it comes from, or what might influence compassion in our practices.

 

by 

Antonio T Fernando,

Bruce Arroll,

Nathan S Consedine

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Levels of Resilience Are Correlated With Distress and Empathy in Resident Physicians

Levels of Resilience Are Correlated With Distress and Empathy in Resident Physicians | Empathy and HealthCare | Scoop.it

For the study, resilience and distress were measured with the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale and Impact of Events Scale – Revised, respectively, at the end of a routine hematology-oncology rotation. Rotation-specific information such as number of death encounters, death stress, and meaning were also obtained. Empathy was measured with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index before and after the rotation.

These researchers achieved a 58% overall response rate. Their findings demonstrated that distress had a negative impact on resilience but empathy did not , nor did change in empathy during the rotation. Resilience among male residents was negatively correlated with distress, but resilience among female residents was not.

Distress levels for residents were in the clinically significant (76%) or posttraumatic stress disorder (17%) range. In addition, resident empathy during the rotation decreased (P = .018).

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GSW to Explore Virtual Reality's Role in Empathy as Presenter at Cannes Lions 2016

GSW to Explore Virtual Reality's Role in Empathy as Presenter at Cannes Lions 2016 | Empathy and HealthCare | Scoop.it

 2016 Cannes Lions International Festival of Creativity. GSW will present "The Science and Art of Empathy"

 

Dave Sonderman, GSW Chief Creative Officer, will moderate a conversation between Jane Gauntlett, writer, producer and founder of the In My Shoes project, an internationally recognized empathy project, and Dr. Helen Riess, a psychiatrist, professor, entrepreneur and highly respected voice for healthcare transformation through empathy. Together, they will explore what future health content may look like.

 

 

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Showing empathy 2: How far should doctors express empathy?

How far should doctors express empathy? Here the doctor does not use classical active listening skills as much as she could - is she being appropriately selective in the level of empathy that she is demonstrating?

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The Empathy Project: Lantern Theater Company: introduction to drama, acting, and playwriting for students of health professions

The Empathy Project: Lantern Theater Company: introduction to drama, acting, and playwriting for students of health professions | Empathy and HealthCare | Scoop.it

Lantern Theater Company is partnering with the Sidney Kimmel Medical College (SKMC) of Thomas Jefferson University to create an introduction to drama, acting, and playwriting for students of health professions, residents, and Jefferson faculty.

Conceived by Salvatore Mangione, M.D., pulmonologist and director of physical diagnosis-clinical skills at SKMC, and the Lantern's artistic director, Charles McMahon, the goal of this program is for the students to develop skills, like empathy and tolerance for ambiguity, which will assist them in their future careers and help prevent burnout.


“The Empathy Project” offers turns med students into playwrights
http://www.phillyvoice.com/operating-theater-when-doctors-write-plays/

 

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Thoughts from the Cleveland Clinic Patient Empathy Summit (Part 1): The Intentionality of Patient Empathy 

Thoughts from the Cleveland Clinic Patient Empathy Summit (Part 1): The Intentionality of Patient Empathy  | Empathy and HealthCare | Scoop.it

Community and powerful connections are the cures.

 

3. Listening is A Most Powerful Medical Tool

What does it mean to really listen? This was a theme which rose up from patients and caregivers alike.

 

Listening means understanding not only the disease or the symptoms of your patients, but understanding where they are that day. Receiving a diagnosis of a chronic condition or challenging disease can be overwhelming one day and “life as the new normal” the next.

 

Listening means understanding the challenges of getting to an appointment – scheduling, parking, navigating through a medical campus – create anxiety for a patient in an already stressful situation. Listening means removing the barriers between doctor and patient.

 

Listening means partnership.

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What can physicians do to increase empathy about the health of populations?

What can physicians do to increase empathy about the health of populations? | Empathy and HealthCare | Scoop.it
As physicians, we are charged with extending empathy to our patients. In addition to a professional responsibility, empathy is also a mechanism for improving patient care and professional satisfaction.

 

It has been associated with better patient satisfaction, clinical outcomes, fewer medical errors and lawsuits, as well as provider happiness. However, while physicians can be expected to pursue the ideal of empathy towards individual patients, that of empathizing with populations is more challenging. As the old saying goes, a single death is a tragedy, a million deaths are a statistic.

LIANG CHEN, MD
SANDRO GALEA, MD, MPH, DP

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The Role of Empathy in Healthcare Real Balance Global Wellness Services, LLC.

The Role of Empathy in Healthcare Real Balance Global Wellness Services, LLC. | Empathy and HealthCare | Scoop.it
Empathy is a powerful, efficient communication tool when used appropriately during a medical interview. Empathy extends understanding of the patient beyond the history and symptoms to include values, ideas, and feelings. Benefits of improved empathetic communication are tangible for both physician and patient.


Adapted from “An Overview of Empathy”  to read the article in its entirety go to: By James T Hardee, MD 

http://www.thepermanentejournal.org/files/Fall2003/cpc.pdf

 

 

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Building relationships is the 'silver bullet' to tackle health inequalities | GPonline

Building relationships is the 'silver bullet' to tackle health inequalities | GPonline | Empathy and HealthCare | Scoop.it

Developing empathy with patients will pave the way to better self-management and health outcomes in patients from poor socio-economic backgrounds, Professor Graham Watt, a professor of general practice and primary care at Glasgow University, told the Londonwide LMCs conference this week.

Studies suggest that patients in more deprived communities tend to show less interest in shared decision making and are more likely to see doctors as less empathetic.

‘Compassion and trust’ is essential to treating these patients and helping them avoid emergency care further down the line, Professor Watt said.

 

By David Millet

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Truth and Empathy The Physician as the Caregiver - CureMed Assist - YouTube

Truth and Empathy The Physician as the Caregiver - CureMed Assist
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Tips for Communicating with Empathy - The Hospitalist

Tips for Communicating with Empathy - The Hospitalist | Empathy and HealthCare | Scoop.it

How I Do It

I start with mindfulness. I sustain eye contact, sit eye to eye, and give the person my undivided attention, listening to their words and nonverbal behavior—without judgment.

Then I draw on several techniques that express empathy. My favorites are these:

Technique/How this might sound

  • Acknowledging feelings: “You sound very worried.”, “You look relieved!”
  • Validating feelings, helping the person feel justified, normal, less alone, and understood:
     “I can certainly understand why you feel that way.”,
     “I’m so sorry this has been so painful for you.” (“blameless apology”)
  • Explaining my positive intent in a way that explains how my actions are for their sake:
    “I want to ease your mind.”,
     “I want to work together to make you more comfortable.”


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Enhancing compassion in general practice: it’s not all about the doctor

Enhancing compassion in general practice: it’s not all about the doctor | Empathy and HealthCare | Scoop.it
The crisis of compassion in medicine is multifaceted in origin and no universal panacea is likely to be found. Many of us cannot define compassion or articulate the differences between compassion and empathy.

 

Others might argue that compassion training is redundant as doctors are either compassionate or not. We remain remarkably ignorant about compassion, unsure of what it is, where it comes from, or what might influence compassion in our practices.

 

Antonio T Fernando,

Bruce Arroll,

Nathan S Consedine

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Empathy in Healthcare: Good for the Body and Good for Your Bottom Line.

Empathy in Healthcare: Good for the Body and Good for Your Bottom Line. | Empathy and HealthCare | Scoop.it


Exceeding bottom line goals in healthcare, however, is largely contingent upon an organization's ability to overcome a number of challenges, which include but are not limited to:

1. Low patient satisfaction scores
2. Physician burnout
3. Compassion fatigue
4. Mistakes and lawsuits as consequences of #2 and #3
5. High turnover rates
6. Unhealthy workplace environments; and
7. Poor medical outcomes resulting in excessive readmission.

Creating widespread empathy within an organization, which helps to overcome these challenges, is complicated primarily because “empathy” is defined and understood in many different ways (Fagiano, 2016).

MARK FAGIANO, PHD
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Improve Physician Empathy in 7 Simple Steps

Improve Physician Empathy in 7 Simple Steps | Empathy and HealthCare | Scoop.it
Bedside manner need work? Improving physician empathy can strengthen your patient relationships and impact both patient satisfaction and patient outcomes.

 

Physician empathy is so important in fact, that a wealth of recent studies have tied physician empathy to increased patient satisfaction and outcomes. In one example, patients of physicians with high empathy scores had greater control over their diabetes. This goes to show that kind words and a little emotional support from a doctor can have a measurable impact on patient outcomes.

As a busy doctor, you probably don’t have time to attend an empathy training that gives you the tools you need to improve your patient relationships. Don’t worry – if you follow all 7 steps below, you’ll be on your way to mastering an empathetic approach to patient care.

 

  1. Personal details are key....
  2. Spend an extra minute....
  3. Make eye contact...
  4. Show your support...
  5. Put yourself in your patients’ shoes....
  6. Get patient feedback on how you’re doing....

 

by Teresa Iafolla,

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(Empathic Healthcare) Sympathy vs. Empathy - Daily Nurse

(Empathic Healthcare) Sympathy vs. Empathy - Daily Nurse | Empathy and HealthCare | Scoop.it

For me, in nursing practice, sympathy is easy. It’s an, “Oh, I hope you feel better,” or “I’m sorry you’re hurting.” Empathy, though?  Empathy is hard.

 

It can be very uncomfortable to relate to patients in that way, and it can make it difficult to place boundaries around our work. Ask any nurse—a vocation often characterized by our ability to be caring—this career wouldn’t be possible if we weren’t able to construct empathetic boundaries.


I’m guilty of sympathy—I catch myself of wanting to comfort with an “at least…” or of “silver-lining it,” as Brown describes in the video. Especially in emergency nursing, it’s easy for the cynic within us to put up walls. But just as there is a difference between sympathy and empathy, there’s a difference between a boundary and a wall. Walls keep others out, whereas boundaries are erected to keep parts of us safe.

 

by Laura Kinsella

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A Syllabus For Empathy — Or Why Health Care Workers Should Read Poetry

A Syllabus For Empathy — Or Why Health Care Workers Should Read Poetry | Empathy and HealthCare | Scoop.it

I thought I was being empathic.

 

Empathy — a term we toss around all the time in the medical field — is a tough nut to crack, however. Some of us can draw on the memory of difficult or painful moments in our own lives to try to glean a patient’s experience of living with an illness, but it’s not easy.

 

Often, those raw moments callous over, and we’re left with a memory that’s more intellectual than emotional. We can try to imagine what a patient is going through, but it’s hard to actually feel a similar emotion.

And then I came across Hayden Carruth’s poem “Notes on Emphysema,” which consists of 48 stanzas, most of which are a sentence or two. Each is a quick reflection on how emphysema tinges every tiny moment of daily life.

 

by Anna Reisman

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Operating Theater: When doctors do drama - The Empathy Project, intended to foster empathy and creativity among healthcare students and professionals.

Operating Theater: When doctors do drama - The Empathy Project, intended to foster empathy and creativity among healthcare students and professionals. | Empathy and HealthCare | Scoop.it

These future doctors aren’t playwrights, but they’ll play them on Tuesday.

That’s when the students of Thomas Jefferson University’s Sidney Kimmel Medical College team up with Lantern Theater Company to present “The Truth Beneath: Five Stories You Haven’t Heard From Your Provider.”

The evening of short plays is the culmination of the second year of “The Empathy Project,” a partnership between Jefferson and Lantern that's intended to foster empathy and creativity among healthcare students and professionals.

Lantern artistic director Charles McMahon refers to the project as “an emotional flight simulator.” By writing and enacting different scenarios in the classroom, he says, medical students who are used to facing incredible stress can “flex their emotional and interpersonal muscles in ways that sharpen them.

 

PATRICK RAPA

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The Role of Compassion in Medicine

Ann Allegre, MD, director of medical programs for Kansas City Hospice and Palliative Care, since 1999, chronicles her personal story as a young physician and survivor of serious illness, culminating in her renowned work in palliative care and hospice.
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Is Compassion Missing From the Medical Curriculum?

Is Compassion Missing From the Medical Curriculum? | Empathy and HealthCare | Scoop.it
As outlined in the Principles of Medical Ethics of the American Medical Association, physicians should demonstrate compassion and respect for human rights.

 

Compassion, empathy, and sympathy are emotions necessary in the delivery of ethical medical care.  However, in a healthcare environment that is moving toward being more technical and business-focused, it is becoming increasingly difficult for clinicians to balance the business of practicing medicine with the humanistic needs of their patients.

 

In addition, the persistent indiscriminate use of insensitive and inappropriate language can undermine the physician/patient relationship.

 

To this end, a team of clinicians from the

  • Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy at Baylor College of Medicine, in Houston, Texas, and
  • Sutter Health/California Pacific Medical Center, in San Francisco, California,

conducted a review of empathy in medical training.  

 

Kathleen Walsh Tulley, Editorial Director

 

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Edwin Rutsch's comment, May 15, 2016 3:05 PM
thanks for the comments Martin
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Medical Students Are Losing Touch With Their Own Empathy

Medical Students Are Losing Touch With Their Own Empathy | Empathy and HealthCare | Scoop.it
Empathy is the cornerstone of compassionate and effective patient care, though the concept is more often seen as an abstract ideal rather than as a definitive principle of patient-physician interaction.  This topic is frequently at the center of discussions surrounding medical ethics, as it is an ever-evolving human concern that affects both doctors and patients, inside hospital walls and during everyday life.

Given the amount of discourse, it is surprising that empathy and compassion are  topics most doctors don’t recall openly discussing since their ethics class in medical school. Holding onto that fundamental human value appears to be the greatest ongoing challenge every medical student faces during their rigorous journey towards becoming the doctors of tomorrow.

 

BY JOSEPH BRYANT

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Join the Empathy Trainers Association - Now Forming

Join the Empathy Trainers Association - Now Forming | Empathy and HealthCare | Scoop.it

The Association For

  1. Empathy Trainers who have similar and common interests, activities and concerns about teaching empathy.
  2. Mutual promotion of the welfare of all it’s members.
  3. Protect and advance mutual interests.
  4. Set and maintain standards.
  5. Promote social, advertising and political action to get communities, organizations, businesses and government to support empathy training programs.
  6. etc


Benefits for Members

  • Access to training curriculum from other members.
  • Share training materials and resources.
  • A directory of empathy trainers that prospective clients can access. For Clients - If you're looking for a trainer you have a place to go 
  • Offer business support and leads to members. 
  • Discussion forums listservs.
  • etc

 

Links
Join us in forming the Empathy Trainers Association.
 

Google Group for Email Discussions 
An ongoing discussion list. 

Facebook Event
Sign up and invite friends. 

Facebook Group 
Group to for  discussions on Facebook

Shared Google Doc
For shared working space.

 


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