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Study: How Narrative Relationships Overcome Empathic Bias: Elizabeth Gaskell's Empathy across Social Difference

Study: How Narrative Relationships Overcome Empathic Bias: Elizabeth Gaskell's Empathy across Social Difference | Empathy and Compassion | Scoop.it

Modern and historical scholarship on empathy has consistently demonstrated that people are more likely to empathize with those who are similar to themselves. This empathic bias for similarity means that the affective bonds and ethical motivations that accompany empathy are significantly diminished in relationships with outgroups, as defined by sociological difference. I argue that narrative empathy is uniquely capable of circumventing the similarity bias through compositional strategies related to foregrounding and perspective.

 

Turning to modern research on reading as well as to accounts of reading in the nineteenth century, I propose a two-part argument: first, that the act of reading can overcome the bias that scholars have observed in relationships between people and, second, that narrative empathy has the potential to prevent future cases of bias by reconfiguring readers' criteria for similarity.

 

Mary-Catherine Harrison

 

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Empathy and Compassion
The Empathy Movement Magazine: The latest news about empathy and compassion from around the world - CultureOfEmpathy.com
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The Empathy Movement Magazine: Front Page

The Empathy Movement Magazine: Front Page | Empathy and Compassion | Scoop.it

Visit the individual magazines specifically for empathy and;

*   Front Page (this page)
*   Animals
*   Art
*   Compassion

*   Compassionate Communications (NVC)

*   Curriculums
*   Education
*   Empaths

*   Empathy Quotes

*   Empathic Design - Empathy in Human-Centered Design (New!)
*   Health Care

*   Justice

*   Self-Empathy & Self-Compassion
*   Teaching - Learning
*   Work 

*   etc.



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Our Website CultureOfEmpathy.com

Join us on Facebook Center for Building a Culture of Empathy

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The Case for Radical Compassion | Fellowship of Reconciliation

The Case for Radical Compassion | Fellowship of Reconciliation | Empathy and Compassion | Scoop.it
The biggest problem in our world today is not global warming, hunger, racism, the rise of Islamic fundamentalism, or even nuclear proliferation.


The biggest problem in our world is lack of compassion. If we cultivate compassion towards ourselves, each other, and all other animals then these other problems will be solvable.


 ...This compassion should not be confused for acceptance. In King’s wise estimation violence always signified a major failure of religious and political creativity rather than an inevitable and sometimes therapeutic eruption of psychological duress..


George Payne 

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8 Effective Methods for Building Empathy

8 Effective Methods for Building Empathy | Empathy and Compassion | Scoop.it

For some reason this hit me hard when I woke up this morning and I felt a little compelled to offer a few tips on actually building empathy between one another. Fortunately I was a consumer researcher in another life, so I actually know a little bit about what things help bridge the gap of understanding and experience. In no particular order of importance…


Research: You have to start somewhere. Why not begin by actually reading MODERN things about whatever group of people you’re trying to better understand? And don’t just read things ABOUT the people, read thing written BY the people. Are you trying to see how Native Americans view the world? Read things written by a Native American writer. Want to know what police decision making out on the field is really like? I’m sure more than one police officer has written opinions floating our there in the world.


Try doing the things they REALLY do:.....

Make some new friends: ...

Try surviving on what your subject spends: A ...

Read reality-based fiction: ...

Actually speak to people: ...


 Johnnie Weathers

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(Empathic Leadership) 6 Reasons Empathy Will Make You A Powerful Leader

(Empathic Leadership) 6 Reasons Empathy Will Make You A Powerful Leader | Empathy and Compassion | Scoop.it
Empathy used to sound to me like a weak word associated with touchy-feely concepts.  But in recent years, I have come to understand that it is actually an incredibly powerful concept. If there is any one secret of success, it lies in the ability to get the other person’s point of view and see things …


6 Reasons Empathetic Thinking Is Powerful for Leaders
  1. It puts you into “Seek First to Understand” mode....
  2. Most people never listen, so people will notice the difference if you do. Ernest Hemingway said it well. ....
  3. It allows people to connect emotionally, so they can actually listen to your logic. “We are not thinking machines,” George Washington University neurology professor Richard Restak argues. ....
  4. Empathy kicks you out of self-absorption. .... Relating with empathy involves recognizing and treating others as equals, and to validate that they are people, too, fully experiencing events in their own way.
  5. Your empathetic thinking makes your audience more receptive to being influenced by you. Mirror neurons cause your audience to have the same brain activity based on your actions, thoughts, and feelings. ....
  6. Empathy moves you toward mutuality. Research psychologist David Burnham says that mutuality leads to actions that demonstrate emotional intelligence, which leads to higher levels of employee engagement and morale.


by JESSE LAHEY 

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(Empathic Leadership) How to Use the Two Tools of Powerful Empathy to Engage People

(Empathic Leadership) How to Use the Two Tools of Powerful Empathy to Engage People | Empathy and Compassion | Scoop.it

by JESSE LAHE

As you probably already know, yawns are contagious. Right now, the image below is causing many of you to feel the need to yawn. This even works with animals. A study by the University of London observed that 21 of 29 dogs yawned when a stranger yawned in front of them.


Why? The answer is in what science refers to as “mirror neurons” or “empathy neurons.”


As a result of mirror neurons, we literally mirror each other in corresponding regions of our brain. If a scientist hooked the two of us up to a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machine, when I yawn, the same regions of the brain would light up in both of us.


Mirror neurons don’t just involve actions like yawning. They affect thoughts and feelings as well.


For leaders, this is huge. Understanding this is one of the keys that separate a traditional leader from a 21st century engager.

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Why Nice Doctors Are Better Doctors: It’s All About Empathy - US News

Why Nice Doctors Are Better Doctors:  It’s All About Empathy - US News | Empathy and Compassion | Scoop.it


In looking at bedside manner, modern practitioners are zeroing in on empathy. 


A paper in the International Journal of Caring Sciences describes empathy as “the ‘capacity’ to share and understand another’s ‘state of mind’ or emotion” and a “powerful communication skill” that uses active listening and deepens understanding. This skill allows some doctors to fully grasp your apprehensions, concerns and the true weight of your questions when you’re in the examining room or hospital.

Your doctor’s empathy, or the ability to stand in your shoes, not only deepens the relationship between the two of you and makes you feel more satisfied with your visit, but also has measurable effects on your health.


By Elizabeth Renter

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(Empathic Design) The dangers of empathy

(Empathic Design) The dangers of empathy | Empathy and Compassion | Scoop.it

KEDRON RHODES 

Empathy isn't enough to propel you forward, and it may be holding you back!


The word empathy is having a moment in the sun right now, in large part due to the insightful work of Tom Kelley and Tim Brown of IDEO. Empathy, as an approach, is being taught in disciplines ranging from design, to leadership, teaching, hospitality, medicine and the list goes on. Having empathy is key to understanding someone else's point of view, which means that if you’re in the business of connecting with people, you need to employ some empathy.


Empathy may be holding you back.

...


This is the danger with cognitive empathy, it doesn’t require you to take action.



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Are Empathetic Teenagers More Likely To Be Intentionally Successful?

Are Empathetic Teenagers More Likely To Be Intentionally Successful? | Empathy and Compassion | Scoop.it
Is There A Positive Correlation Between Empathy And Success?
by Ugo Uche 
Teenagers who are more empathetic do a much better job in embracing failure, because there is little ego involved in their tasks, and setbacks while disappointing are rarely seen as a failures, but rather as a learning experience about an approach that does not work for the task at hand.

The process of teaching or guiding teenagers towards being more empathetic, is a two fold and creative process.


The first portion of the process is to help students recognize and understand the continuum of how their seemingly ordinary everyday behaviors influence others near and far. The second portion is to help teenagers recognize their ability to become empowered to help themselves and others. As for techniques, that is a creative process entirely up to parents, guardians, clinicians and educators.

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Embodying Empathy: Dance/Movement Therapy after Unthinkable Trauma

Learn Embodying Empathy:
Dance/Movement Therapy after Unthinkable Trauma

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How do the empathy circles work?

How do the empathy circles work? | Empathy and Compassion | Scoop.it
The Empathy Circle process I am following are inspired by Sarah Peytons's work (www.empathybrain.com) and if you enjoy the process give Sarah credit and if you don't enjoy it let me know :).


The circle works like this, one person is invited to receive empathy around something that is alive in him or her. The person then shares the observation (like if it was filmed by a camera) and then describes what happens in his or her body and you can also name what you feel. Then the people in the circle offer needs guesses (or feelings and needs guesses) and the person receiving the empathy takes the guesses in with a "Thank you".


I do want to say that people who for some reason do not feel like they can offer a needs guess can always skip so please don't feel too much pressure about participating in such a circle.


After the circle has offered the needs guesses the receiver checks back in with the stimulus and the bodily sensations in order to see if a shift has happened. If not another round of needs guesses can be offered.


If a shift has ocurred the person who received the empathy might want to share something or come up with a request.



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(Empathic Parenting) Kidsinthehouse.com -Robert Brooks, PhD

(Empathic Parenting) Kidsinthehouse.com -Robert Brooks, PhD | Empathy and Compassion | Scoop.it
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(Empathic Parenting) Organizing an active listening partnership with another adult

(Empathic Parenting) Organizing an active listening partnership with another adult | Empathy and Compassion | Scoop.it
Counselling or organized active listening with another parent differs from chatting with friends in that it gives you the chance to really drop into exploring where the related feelings are held in your body, and help you to experience relief and release as you share your vulnerable feelings.  


You'll experience a lot more patience and space for you to deepen into your thoughts and feelings when the space is dedicated to you feeling heard.  This process often brings gems of clarity and insight into the origins or the core beliefs of our most painful patterns.


Often in talking about one’s problems with friends, a person doesn’t necessarily gain a sense of relief, release or resolution because many of the responses that friends and family offer are often at a more intellectual level and may lack true emotional connection. 


When you feel that which is raw and vulnerable for you, you need and deserve to feel truly met, heard, understood and empathized with.


by Genevieve


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What Is Empathy, and Can Empathy Be Taught?

What Is Empathy, and Can Empathy Be Taught? | Empathy and Compassion | Scoop.it
Empathy is a commonly used, but poorly understood, concept. It is often confused with related concepts such as sympathy, pity, identification, and self-transposal. The purposes of this article are to clearly distinguish empathy from related terms and to suggest that the act of empathizing cannot be taught.


According to Edith Stein, a German phenomenologist, empathy can be facilitated. It also can be interrupted and blocked, but it cannot be forced to occur.


What makes empathy unique, according to Stein, is that it happens to us; it is indirectly given to us, “nonprimordially.” When empathy occurs, we find ourselves experiencing it, rather than directly causing it to happen.


This is the characteristic that makes the act of empathy unteachable. Instead, promoting attitudes and behaviors such as self-awareness, nonjudgmental positive regard for others, good listening skills, and self-confidence are suggested as important in the development of clinicians who will demonstrate an empathic willingness.


by Carol M Davis


paper http://www.physicaltherapyjournal.com/content/70/11/707.full.pdf


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Barbara Kerr's curator insight, May 3, 11:42 AM

Self-awareness is a necessary ingredient for the occurrence of empathy. 

Betty Skeet's curator insight, May 3, 1:20 PM

Can empathy be taught?

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(Empathic Parenting) Landscapes of the Soul

(Empathic Parenting)  Landscapes of the Soul | Empathy and Compassion | Scoop.it
The empathic parenting style is based on very different ethics of child raring to the dominant punitive authoritarian parenting of the pre WWII generations, and different again from the permissive parenting style that grew out of Dr. Benjamin Spock’s work post WWII (Grille, 2005, p79, p85).


Both these latter styles of parenting are still the dominant child-raring practices in our society.


The authoritarian style of parenting aims to, ‘train the child to conform to cultural norms…

Where the parent, while (perhaps) not lacking affection, tends to view the child through a moral lens that dichotomises behaviour into ‘good’ and ‘bad’’ (Grille, 2005, p69).


This style of child raring enforces discipline and control in order to bend the child to fit parental and social expectations, which limit self-expression and tries to create the ‘good child’...

The opposite of authoritarian ‘control’ parenting is permissive ‘out-of-control’ parenting, where you, as the parent, allow your child to control you, the parent, through your own compliance, indulgence, or indifference (Paul, 2007, web page).By Gary Caganoff


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Do Dogs Have Empathy for Human Stress and Discomfort?

Do Dogs Have Empathy for Human Stress and Discomfort? | Empathy and Compassion | Scoop.it

It is certainly the case that hearing a baby cry can be quite distressing to humans. We respond to the sound with increased attention, namely we get up and check on the crying child. Our body also responds to this sound in another way — specifically by releasing the stress hormone cortisol. This emotionally based stress response happens regardless of our age, parenting experience, or gender. Both the mother and daughter that I observed seemed to assume that dogs are wired to react in the same way that people do when they hear a baby cry, but is this true? A recent study published in the journal Behavioural Processes* suggests that this might in fact that is be the case....


Whether what we are seeing in dogs in this case is true empathy or not, it is another example of the fact that dogs do pay attention to human feelings.


Furthermore these new data tend to confirm other observations that the emotional responses of dogs tends to reflect the moods that they observe in the people around them.  

Stanley Coren

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Dr. Dan Siegel - Explains Mirror Neurons in Depth - YouTube

Dr. Dan Siegel tells us how mirror neurons work and how humans react when mirror neurons are stimulated.
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(Empathic Leadership) (Podcast) Powerful Empathy

(Empathic Leadership) (Podcast) Powerful Empathy | Empathy and Compassion | Scoop.it
Empathy is an important concept that many leaders do not fully understand the significance of. 


In this episode, Jesse discusses why empathy is important in learning to lead and engage people, and he explains key skills to hone your sense of empathy:

  • Curiosity
  • Active Listening
  • Repeating and Paraphrasing
  • Imagination
  • Open-Mindedness
  • Vulnerability
  • Self-Awareness
  • Sensitivity to Others’ Emotions
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(Empathic Parenting) How Empathic Parenting Is the Antithesis of Narcissism: Empathy is the cornerstone for love

(Empathic Parenting) How Empathic Parenting Is the Antithesis of Narcissism: Empathy is the cornerstone for love | Empathy and Compassion | Scoop.it
Lack of empathy is a trademark of narcissistic parents. Empathizing with your children is feeling what they are feeling and acknowledging those feelings. It is the art of compassion and sensitivity, as well as the ability to give moral support in whatever they are experiencing.


You do not have to agree with them but you are there for them. You put aside your own feelings and thoughts for the moment and tune in to their emotional needs to attempt to understand where they are coming from and why. Instead of citing rules or trying to give advice and direction, try this empathy exercise instead...



When we can give empathy to our children or loved ones, we are doing a double good deed




 by Karyl McBride  


image: Echo and Narcissus - Waterhouse http://j.mp/1DKyc2R


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3 Tips for Practicing Empathy With Your Kids.

3 Tips for Practicing Empathy With Your Kids. | Empathy and Compassion | Scoop.it

Roman Krznaric


There’s nothing easy about raising kids. We’re all struggling and looking for new ways to build better relationships with them, help them find their way in the world, or simply deal with the tensions and tears of daily life.


The good news is that there’s a skill we can all develop which can be a big help: empathy. Empathy is the imaginative act of stepping into the shoes of another person and looking at the world through his or her eyes. Ninety-eight percent of us have the ability to empathize wired into our brains. But we’re not always great at putting our latent empathic abilities into practice....


1. Practice empathic listening...

2. Teach them about the Golden Rule and the Platinum Rule...

3. Recognize that we often don’t understand our kids...

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Mirror Neurons, Conscience and the Fallacy of Accountability: What can possibly be wrong with holding bullies accountable?

Mirror Neurons, Conscience and the Fallacy of Accountability: What can possibly be wrong with holding bullies accountable? | Empathy and Compassion | Scoop.it

We want kids to stop being bullies. Bullying, as defined by the academic bullying experts and incorporated into our anti-bully policies, is any intentional act that can cause others physical, psychological or emotional pain. (I wonder, by the way, how they differentiate between psychological and emotional pain.)


In other words, we are expecting kids to be saints. Only absolute saints never commit the kinds of acts the experts define as bullying.


The bullying experts tell us that bullies lack empathy, a necessary component for having aconscience. We need them to develop empathy so they will behave more morally. And we believe that holding them accountable for their behavior will promote their development of empathy.


But does holding children accountable to adults for the way they make each other feel indeed promote moral development?


by Izzy Kalman

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Study: The Role of Empathy in Burnout, Compassion Satisfaction, and Secondary Traumatic Stress among Social Workers

Study: The Role of Empathy in Burnout, Compassion Satisfaction, and Secondary Traumatic Stress among Social Workers | Empathy and Compassion | Scoop.it
Social workers are at risk for experiencing burnout and secondary traumatic stress (STS) as a result of the nature of their work and the contexts within which they work.


Little attention has been paid to the factors within a social worker’s control that may prevent burnout and STS and increase compassion satisfaction. Empathy, which is a combination of physiological and cognitive processes, may be a tool to help address burnout and STS.


This article reports on the findings of a study of social workers (N = 173) that explored the relationship between the components of empathy, burnout, STS, and compassion satisfaction using the Empathy Assessment Index and the Professional Quality of Life instruments.


It was hypothesized that higher levels of empathy would be associated with lower levels of burnout and STS, and higher levels of compassion satisfaction.


Findings suggest that components of empathy may prevent or reduce burnout and STS while increasing compassion satisfaction, and that empathy should be incorporated into training and education throughout the course of a social worker’s career.

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Med students learn empathy by practicing communication skills,...

Med students learn empathy by practicing communication skills,... | Empathy and Compassion | Scoop.it

By Pamela Knudson 


Empathy is addressed extensively, beginning in the first year of medical school at UND, said Dr. Charles Christianson, associate dean for clinical education.

Empathy is a specific clinical skill, he said. "It shows you are understanding what the person is thinking and feeling. It involves listening not only to what the patient says, but the emotions behind it ... and making empathic statements to show you understand them—or are trying to understand them.

"Something like, 'It sounds like you're really disappointed in the way your life has gone in the last three months,' opens up more conversation. Looking at it that way, empathy definitely can be taught."

Some students are naturally gifted at conveying empathy, Christianson said, "but for the bulk of people, they get better with practice."

Empathy wasn't part of medical curricula decades ago—it was learned by observing other physicians—but it has taken on more importance in the last 20 to 30 years, bolstered by psychology research, said Christianson, who is also a family physician.

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(Empathic Parenting) Kidsinthehouse.com - The power of empathy and listening

(Empathic Parenting) Kidsinthehouse.com - The power of empathy and listening | Empathy and Compassion | Scoop.it

View Chris Fulton, PhD's video on

The power of empathy and listening


also see

Getting kids to open up by active listeningJudy Willis, MD, MEd


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(Empathic Parenting) Kidsinthehouse.com - Meet Roman Krznaric

(Empathic Parenting) Kidsinthehouse.com - Meet Roman Krznaric | Empathy and Compassion | Scoop.it
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Empathy in Action: Snapshots from a DC Classroom

Empathy in Action: Snapshots from a DC Classroom | Empathy and Compassion | Scoop.it

For the teachers at the Inspired Teaching Demonstration School, empathy is a powerful tool. It is fundamental to how they structure their classrooms and how they teach their students. They imagine learning from the student’s perspective, meet their students where they are, and build lessons from there. They find ways to engage their students’ inherent curiosity and guide their discoveries.

But what does that look like in practice?

At a recent Inspired Teaching staff panel, Jon Berg, a first grade Lead Teacher at the Demonstration School and one of the panelists, described the emotional continuums that adorn each classroom.


By Sammy Magnuson

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(Empathic Relationships) Empathy Can Spruce up Your Lovin! - The art of empathy can keep your love from fizzling

(Empathic Relationships)  Empathy Can Spruce up Your Lovin! - The art of empathy can keep your love from fizzling | Empathy and Compassion | Scoop.it

Empathy! If we practice empathy for our partners and ourselves...we have great growth opportunity both personally and in the relationship. Some of the deepest and most loving connections are those where each person in the relationship was able to nurture and show compassion for themselves and their partner to work through past baggage.


Loving another is putting yourself in their shoes and wishing for them to be the best person they can be. It is encouraging their authentic self with all the strengths and weaknesses and being invested in supporting the making of a whole self. Creating interdependent relationships where two whole selves are operating on an adult level is the ultimate. This is hard to do without self-compassion and empathy for your partner.


by Karyl McBride, Ph.D


image Frank Dicksee - Romeo and Juliet. 

http://j.mp/1DKwEWx


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