Do animals have a sense of fairness? Do they empathize with another's pain?
A few decades ago, such questions would have been dismissed as nonsense. Even today, they'd be rejected by many ethicists who argue that moral reasoning is unique to humans.
The Bonobo and the Atheist includes a passionate defense of religion. De Waal insists that, historically, religion has been the best way we have refined our empathy and built viable moral systems.
Although a nonbeliever himself, de Waal says ethicists are still in thrall to a challenge issued more than a century ago, when Friedrich Nietzsche and Sigmund Freud announced the death of God.
More at Culture of Empathy Builder Page: Frans de Waal