Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology
20.5K views | +1 today
Follow
 
Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plants and Microbes
onto Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology
Scoop.it!

Scientific Reports: Mammalian cell entry genes in Streptomyces may provide clues to the evolution of bacterial virulence (2013)

Scientific Reports: Mammalian cell entry genes in Streptomyces may provide clues to the evolution of bacterial virulence (2013) | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Understanding the evolution of virulence is key to appreciating the role specific loci play in pathogenicity. Streptomyces species are generally non-pathogenic soil saprophytes, yet within their genome we can find homologues of virulence loci. One example of this is the mammalian cell entry (mce) locus, which has been characterised in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To investigate the role in Streptomyces we deleted the mce locus and studied its impact on cell survival, morphology and interaction with other soil organisms. Disruption of the mce cluster resulted in virulence towards amoebae (Acanthamoeba polyphaga) and reduced colonization of plant (Arabidopsis) models, indicating these genes may play an important role in Streptomyces survival in the environment. Our data suggest that loss of mce in Streptomyces spp. may have profound effects on survival in a competitive soil environment, and provides insight in to the evolution and selection of these genes as virulence factors in related pathogenic organisms.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
more...
No comment yet.
Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology
A science editor's take on what's new and interesting in the plant kingdom.
Curated by Jennifer Mach
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Publications from The Sainsbury Laboratory
Scoop.it!

Nature Biotech: Rapid cloning of disease-resistance genes in plants using mutagenesis and sequence capture (2016)

Nature Biotech: Rapid cloning of disease-resistance genes in plants using mutagenesis and sequence capture (2016) | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Wild relatives of domesticated crop species harbor multiple, diverse, disease resistance (R) genes that could be used to engineer sustainable disease control. However, breeding R genes into crop lines often requires long breeding timelines of 5–15 years to break linkage between R genes and deleterious alleles (linkage drag). Further, when R genes are bred one at a time into crop lines, the protection that they confer is often overcome within a few seasons by pathogen evolution1. If several cloned R genes were available, it would be possible to pyramid R genes2 in a crop, which might provide more durable resistance1. We describe a three-step method (MutRenSeq)-that combines chemical mutagenesis with exome capture and sequencing for rapid R gene cloning. We applied MutRenSeq to clone stem rust resistance genes Sr22 and Sr45 from hexaploid bread wheat. MutRenSeq can be applied to other commercially relevant crops and their relatives, including, for example, pea, bean, barley, oat, rye, rice and maize.

Via The Sainsbury Lab
more...
The Sainsbury Lab's curator insight, April 26, 9:14 AM
Wild relatives of domesticated crop species harbor multiple, diverse, disease resistance (R) genes that could be used to engineer sustainable disease control. However, breeding R genes into crop lines often requires long breeding timelines of 5–15 years to break linkage between R genes and deleterious alleles (linkage drag). Further, when R genes are bred one at a time into crop lines, the protection that they confer is often overcome within a few seasons by pathogen evolution1. If several cloned R genes were available, it would be possible to pyramid R genes2 in a crop, which might provide more durable resistance1. We describe a three-step method (MutRenSeq)-that combines chemical mutagenesis with exome capture and sequencing for rapid R gene cloning. We applied MutRenSeq to clone stem rust resistance genes Sr22 and Sr45 from hexaploid bread wheat. MutRenSeq can be applied to other commercially relevant crops and their relatives, including, for example, pea, bean, barley, oat, rye, rice and maize.
Neelam Redekar's curator insight, April 29, 1:19 PM
Share your insight
Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant-microbe interaction
Scoop.it!

Decoy engineering: the next step in resistance breeding: Trends in Plant Science

Decoy engineering: the next step in resistance breeding: Trends in Plant Science | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

.Until recently it was not possible to engineer novel recognition specificities of classical plant immune receptors to completely unrelated effectors. In a recent publication, Kim et al. engineered a plant effector target to increase novel recognition specificities by trapping unrelated pathogen-derived proteases in their act [1].

RESISTANCE TO PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE 5 (RPS5) is a plant immune receptor of the Nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (NLR) type which perceives the Pseudomonas syringae Type-III effector AvrPphB, a papain-like cysteine protease belonging to the Peptidase C58 family [2]. The perception of AvrPphB by RPS5 requires one additional host-derived factor known as AVRPPHB SUSCEPTIBLE 1 (PBS1), which belongs to Subfamily VII of Receptor-like Cytoplasmic Kinases (RLCK VII). Upon bacterial infection, PBS1, which binds to RPS5 in its pre-activation state, is cleaved by AvrPphB. PBS1 cleavage exposes a five amino acid loop in PBS1 that is believed to activate RPS5, triggering an immune response characterized by the hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed cell death [3]. Interestingly, RPS5-mediated immune signaling requires both PBS1 fragments, and the conformational change induced by cleavage can be mimicked by insertion of five amino acids in the AvrPphB cleavage site [4]. Therefore, perception of AvrPphB follows a mouse-trap mechanism where cleavage of PBS1 (bait) sets off the trap and activates RPS5, triggering immune responses..


Via Christophe Jacquet, Suayib Üstün
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jennifer Mach
Scoop.it!

Plant artificial chromosome technology and its potential application in genetic engineering 

Plant artificial chromosome technology and its potential application in genetic engineering  | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Genetic engineering with just a few genes has changed agriculture in the last 20 years. The most frequently used transgenes are the herbicide resistance genes for efficient weed control and the Bt toxin genes for insect resistance. The adoption of the first-generation genetically engineered crops has been very successful in improving farming practices, reducing the application of pesticides that are harmful to both human health and the environment, and producing more profit for farmers. However, there is more potential for genetic engineering to be realized by technical advances. The recent development of plant artificial chromosome technology provides a super vector platform, which allows the management of a large number of genes for the next generation of genetic engineering. With the development of other tools such as gene assembly, genome editing, gene targeting and chromosome delivery systems, it should become possible to engineer crops with multiple genes to produce more agricultural products with less input of natural resources to meet future demands.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jennifer Mach
Scoop.it!

Dynamic network modelling to understanding flowering transition and floral patterning

Dynamic network modelling to understanding flowering transition and floral patterning | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Differentiation and morphogenetic processes during plant development are particularly robust. At the cellular level, however, plants also show great plasticity in response to environmental conditions, and can even reverse apparently terminal differentiated states with remarkable ease. Can we understand and predict both robust and plastic systemic responses as a general consequence of the non-trivial interplay between intracellular regulatory networks, extrinsic environmental signalling, and tissue-level mechanical constraints? Flower development has become an ideal model system to study these general questions of developmental biology, which are especially relevant to understanding stem cell patterning in plants, animals, and human disease. Decades of detailed study of molecular developmental genetics, as well as novel experimental techniques for in vivo assays in both wild-type and mutant plants, enable the postulation and testing of experimentally grounded mathematical and computational network dynamical models. Research in our group aims to explain the emergence of robust transitions that occur at the shoot apical meristem, as well as flower development, as the result of the collective action of key molecular components in regulatory networks subjected to intra-organismal signalling and extracellular constraints. Here we present a brief overview of recent work from our group, and that of others, focusing on the use of simple dynamical models to address cell-fate specification and cell-state stochastic dynamics during flowering transition and cell-state transitions at the shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana. We also focus on how our work fits within the general field of plant developmental modelling, which is being developed by many others.
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant hormones
Scoop.it!

Salt Stress and Ethylene Antagonistically Regulate Nucleocytoplasmic Partitioning of COP1 to Control Seed Germination

Salt Stress and Ethylene Antagonistically Regulate Nucleocytoplasmic Partitioning of COP1 to Control Seed Germination | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Seed germination, a critical stage initiating the life cycle of a plant, is severely affected by salt stress. However, the underlying mechanism of salt inhibition of seed germination (SSG) is unclear. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS1 (COP1) counteracts SSG. Genetic assays provide evidence that SSG in loss of function of the COP1 mutant was stronger than this in the wild type. A GUS-COP1 fusion was constitutively localized to the nucleus in radicle cells. Salt treatment caused COP1 to be retained in the cytosol, but the addition of ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate had the reverse effect on the translocation of COP1 to the nucleus, revealing that ethylene and salt exert opposite regulatory effects on the localization of COP1 in germinating seeds. However, loss of function of the ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) mutant impaired the ethylene-mediated rescue of the salt restriction of COP1 to the nucleus. Further research showed that the interaction between COP1 and LONG HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) had a role in SSG. Correspondingly, SSG in loss of function of HY5 was suppressed. Biochemical detection showed that salt promoted the stabilization of HY5, whereas ethylene restricted its accumulation. Furthermore, salt treatment stimulated and ethylene suppressed transcription of ABA INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), which was directly transcriptionally regulated by HY5. Together, our results reveal that salt stress and ethylene antagonistically regulate nucleocytoplasmic partitioning of COP1, thereby controlling Arabidopsis seed germination via the COP1-mediated down-regulation of HY5 and ABI5. These findings enhance our understanding of the stress response and have great potential for application in agricultural production.

Via Christophe Jacquet
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant roots and rhizosphere
Scoop.it!

The secretion of the bacterial phytase PHY-US417 by Arabidopsis roots reveals its potential for increasing phosphate acquisition and biomass production during co-growth -

The secretion of the bacterial phytase PHY-US417 by Arabidopsis roots reveals its potential for increasing phosphate acquisition and biomass production during co-growth - | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Phytic acid (PA) is a major source of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in the soil; however, the plant lacks the capacity to utilize it for Pi nutrition and growth. Microbial phytases constitute a group of enzymes that are able to remobilize Pi from PA. Thus, the use of these phytases to increase the capacity of higher plants to remobilize Pi from PA is of agronomical interest. In the current study, we generate transgenic Arabidopsis lines (ePHY) overexpressing an extracellular form of the phytase PHY-US417 of Bacillus subtilis, which are characterized by high levels of secreted phytase activity. In the presence of PA as sole source of Pi, while the wild-type plants show hallmark of Pi deficiency phenotypes, including the induction of the expression of Pi starvation-induced genes (PSI, e.g. PHT1;4) and the inhibition of growth capacity, the ePHY overexpressing lines show a higher biomass production and no PSI induction. Interestingly, when co-cultured with ePHY overexpressors, wild-type Arabidopsis plants (or tobacco) show repression of the PSI genes, improvement of Pi content and increases in biomass production. In line with these results, mutants in the high-affinity Pi transporters, namely pht1;1 and pht1;1-1;4, both fail to accumulate Pi and to grow when co-cultured with ePHY overexpressors. Taken together, these data demonstrate the potential of secreted phytases in improving the Pi content and enhancing growth of not only the transgenic lines but also the neighbouring plants.

Via Christophe Jacquet
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant pathogenic fungi
Scoop.it!

Frontiers | Emerging Trends in Molecular Interactions between Plants and the Broad Host Range Fungal Pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum | Plant Biotic Interactions

Frontiers | Emerging Trends in Molecular Interactions between Plants and the Broad Host Range Fungal Pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum | Plant Biotic Interactions | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Fungal plant pathogens are major threats to food security worldwide. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are closely related Ascomycete plant pathogens causing mold diseases on hundreds of plant species. There is no genetic source of complete plant resistance to these broad host range pathogens known to date. Instead, natural plant populations show a continuum of resistance levels controlled by multiple genes, a phenotype designated as quantitative disease resistance. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling the interaction between plants and S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea but significant advances were made on this topic in the last years. This minireview highlights a selection of nine themes that emerged in recent research reports on the molecular bases of plant-S. sclerotiorum and plant-B. cinerea interactions. On the fungal side, this includes progress on understanding the role of oxalic acid, on the study of fungal small secreted proteins. Next, we discuss the exchanges of small RNA between organisms and the control of cell death in plant and fungi during pathogenic interactions. Finally on the plant side, we highlight defense priming by mechanical signals, the characterization of plant Receptor-like proteins and the hormone abscisic acid in the response to B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum, the role of plant general transcription machinery and plant small bioactive peptides. These represent nine trends we selected as remarkable in our understanding of fungal molecules causing disease and plant mechanisms associated with disease resistance to two devastating broad host range fungi.

Via Steve Marek
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plants and Microbes
Scoop.it!

PLOS Pathogens: Cooperation and Conflict in the Plant Immune System (2016)

PLOS Pathogens: Cooperation and Conflict in the Plant Immune System (2016) | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Plants have a sophisticated innate immune system with which they defend themselves against a myriad of pathogens. During the past two decades, work in a range of species has advanced our knowledge of the molecular and biochemical details of plant immunity. Many of these studies have focused on the action of nucleotide-binding domain/leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR or NLR) immune receptors. NLR genes constitute the most diverse gene family in plants, reflecting their role in perceiving a very diverse set of molecules that are released by pathogens. There has also been progress in unraveling the forces that drive diversification of NLR and non-NLR immune receptors in wild species. A major recent insight from mechanistic and evolutionary studies is that there is both cooperation and conflict in the plant immune system. Here, we propose that these two antagonistic forces are inherently entangled, and that they are potentially fundamental to our understanding of growth-defense trade-offs.

Via Elsa Ballini, Kamoun Lab @ TSL
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jennifer Mach
Scoop.it!

Chloroplasts at work during plant innate immunity

Chloroplasts at work during plant innate immunity | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
The major role played by chloroplasts during light harvesting, energy production, redox homeostasis, and retrograde signalling processes has been extensively characterized. Beyond the obvious link between chloroplast functions in primary metabolism and as providers of photosynthesis-derived carbon sources and energy, a growing body of evidence supports a central role for chloroplasts as integrators of environmental signals and, more particularly, as key defence organelles. Here, we review the importance of these organelles as primary sites for the biosynthesis and transmission of pro-defence signals during plant immune responses. In addition, we highlight interorganellar communication as a crucial process for amplification of the immune response. Finally, molecular strategies used by microbes to manipulate, directly or indirectly, the production/function of defence-related signalling molecules and subvert chloroplast-based defences are also discussed.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jennifer Mach
Scoop.it!

Silencing in sperm cells is directed by RNA movement from the surrounding nurse cell

Plant small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) communicate from cell to cell and travel long distances through the vasculature. However, siRNA movement into germ cells has remained controversial, and has gained interest because the terminally differentiated pollen vegetative nurse cell surrounding the sperm cells undergoes a programmed heterochromatin decondensation and transcriptional reactivation of transposable elements (TEs). Transcription of TEs leads to their post-transcriptional degradation into siRNAs, and it has been proposed that the purpose of this TE reactivation is to generate and load TE siRNAs into the sperm cells. Here, we identify the molecular pathway of TE siRNA production in the pollen grain and demonstrate that siRNAs produced from pollen vegetative cell transcripts can silence TE reporters in the sperm cells. Our data demonstrates that TE siRNAs act non-cell-autonomously, inhibiting TE activity in the germ cells and potentially the next generation.Silencing in sperm cells is directed by RNA movement from the surrounding nurse cell
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
Scoop.it!

The plant cell wall as a site for molecular contacts in fungal pathogenesis

The plant cell wall as a site for molecular contacts in fungal pathogenesis | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it



The plant cell wall, the most external layer of the plant surface, is the site where most pathogenic fungi first make contact with host cells. A plant–fungus interaction therefore commences at the interface between the plant and the spore. Our current research focusing on the plant cell wall has discovered an extracellular ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (ecto-NTPDase/apyrase; EC3.6.1.15) as a key player in plant defense before the onset of PTI (PAMP-triggered immunity). This review focuses on our recent findings, especially the role of the plant cell wall in the extracellular defense against fungi as well as fungal strategies resulting in successful infection.


Via Christophe Jacquet, Francis Martin
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education)
Scoop.it!

Root Endophyte Colletotrichum tofieldiae Confers Plant Fitness Benefits that Are Phosphate Status Dependent: Cell

Root Endophyte Colletotrichum tofieldiae Confers Plant Fitness Benefits that Are Phosphate Status Dependent: Cell | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Via Mary Williams
Jennifer Mach's insight:

This is cool - Arabidopsis is one of a small number of plants that do not form myocorrhizal symbioses. A new study finds that an endophytic fungus that is normally pathogenic enhances P uptake in Arabidopsis. The paper also explores the molecular interactions between host and pathogenic / beneficial fungus

more...
Mary Williams's curator insight, March 18, 7:29 AM

This is cool - Arabidopsis is one of a small number of plants that do not form myocorrhizal symbioses. A new study finds that an endophytic fungus that is normally pathogenic enhances P uptake in Arabidopsis. The paper also explores the molecular interactions between host and pathogenic / beneficial fungus

Scooped by Jennifer Mach
Scoop.it!

Frontiers | Editorial: Salicylic Acid Signaling Networks | Plant Biotic Interactions

Editorial: Salicylic Acid Signaling Networks
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jennifer Mach
Scoop.it!

Control of eukaryotic phosphate homeostasis by inositol polyphosphate sensor domains

Control of eukaryotic phosphate homeostasis by inositol polyphosphate sensor domains | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Phosphorus is a macronutrient taken up by cells as inorganic phosphate (Pi). How cells sense cellular Pi levels is poorly characterized. Here we report that SPX domains, which are found in eukaryotic phosphate transporters, signaling proteins and inorganic polyphosphate polymerases, provide a basic binding surface for inositol polyphosphate signaling molecules (InsPs), whose concentrations change in response to Pi availability. Substitutions of critical binding surface residues impair InsP binding in vitro, inorganic polyphosphate synthesis in yeast and Pi transport in Arabidopsis. In plants, InsPs trigger the association of SPX proteins with transcription factors to regulate Pi starvation responses. We propose that InsPs communicate cytosolic Pi levels to SPX domains and enable them to interact with a multitude of proteins to regulate Pi uptake, transport and storage in fungi, plants and animals.
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant Gene Seeker -PGS
Scoop.it!

Lipid signalling in plant responses to abiotic stress

Lipid signalling in plant responses to abiotic stress | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Lipids are one of the major components of biological membranes including the plasma membrane, which is the interface between the cell and the environment. It has become clear that membrane lipids also serve as substrates for the generation of numerous signalling lipids such as phosphatidic acid, phosphoinositides, sphingolipids, lysophospholipids, oxylipins, N-acylethanolamines, free fatty acids and others. The enzymatic production and metabolism of these signalling molecules are tightly regulated and can rapidly be activated upon abiotic stress signals. Abiotic stress like water deficit and temperature stress triggers lipid-dependent signalling cascades, which control the expression of gene clusters and activate plant adaptation processes. Signalling lipids are able to recruit protein targets transiently to the membrane and thus affect conformation and activity of intracellular proteins and metabolites. In plants, knowledge is still scarce of lipid signalling targets and their physiological consequences. This review focuses on the generation of signalling lipids and their involvement in response to abiotic stress. We describe lipid-binding proteins in the context of changing environmental conditions and compare different approaches to determine lipid–protein interactions, crucial for deciphering the signalling cascades.

Via Andres Zurita
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant-microbe interaction
Scoop.it!

Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G proteins regulate immunity by directly coupling to the FLS2 receptor

Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G proteins regulate immunity by directly coupling to the FLS2 receptor | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
The Arabidopsis immune receptor FLS2 perceives bacterial flagellin epitope flg22 to activate defenses through the central cytoplasmic kinase BIK1. The heterotrimeric G proteins composed of the non-canonical Gα protein XLG2, the Gβ protein AGB1, and the Gγ proteins AGG1 and AGG2 are required for FLS2-mediated immune responses through an unknown mechanism. Here we show that in the pre-activation state, XLG2 directly interacts with FLS2 and BIK1, and it functions together with AGB1 and AGG1/2 to attenuate proteasome-mediated degradation of BIK1, allowing optimum immune activation. Following the activation by flg22, XLG2 dissociates from AGB1 and is phosphorylated by BIK1 in the N terminus. The phosphorylated XLG2 enhances the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) likely by modulating the NADPH oxidase RbohD. The study demonstrates that the G proteins are directly coupled to the FLS2 receptor complex and regulate immune signaling through both pre-activation and post-activation mechanisms.

Via Christophe Jacquet, Suayib Üstün
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jennifer Mach
Scoop.it!

Evolutionary and Environmental Forces Sculpting Leaf Development

Evolutionary and Environmental Forces Sculpting Leaf Development | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Leaf shape is spectacularly diverse. As a major component of plant architecture and an interface for light capture, gas exchange, and thermoregulation, the potential contributions of leaves to plant fitness are innumerable. Particularly because of their intimate association and interaction with the surrounding environment, both the plasticity of leaf shape during the lifetime of a plant and the evolution of leaf shape over geologic time are revealing with respect to leaf function. Leaf shapes arise within a developmental context that constrains both their evolution and environmental plasticity. Quantitative models capturing genetic diversity, developmental context, and environmental plasticity will be required to fully understand the evolution and development of leaf shape and its response to environmental pressures. In this review, we discuss recent literature demonstrating that distinct molecular pathways are modulated by specific environmental inputs, the output of which regulates leaf dissection. We propose a synthesis explaining both historical patterns in the paleorecord and conserved plastic responses in extant plants. Understanding the potential adaptive value of leaf shape, and how to molecularly manipulate it, will prove to be invaluable in designing crops optimized for future climates.
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from GMOs & Sustainable agriculture
Scoop.it!

Agriculture: Future farming : Nature : Nature Publishing Group

Agriculture: Future farming : Nature : Nature Publishing Group | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
The visible face of intensive agriculture is supermarkets bulging with vegetables, meat and milk. Yet behind the scenes, as Science Gallery Dublin's latest exhibition reveals, factory farming's reliance on energy-intensive fertilizer manufacture and vast amounts of water raises big questions about sustainability. No one solution is on offer in Field Test, which is curated by the Center for Genomic Gastronomy, an artist-led global think tank devoted to imagining a more just, biodiverse food system. But visitors can feast on prototypes, research, revolutionary agronomy manifestos, innovative and imagined farm technologies and speculative cuisines. “We're asking how we can get more from less,” explains acting gallery director Lynn Scarff.

Meat, for instance, is a Western penchant now spreading around the world. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that demand will increase by more than two-thirds over the next 40 years, despite sky-high costs — it takes 15,000 litres of water to produce a kilogram of beef. The curators' Farmstand Forecast looks at alternatives: attractively packaged insect-based foods, and historical 'miracle' crops such as breadfruit and Chlorella algae. An exhibition strand dubbed 'Farm Cyborgs' features animal-husbandry innovations including Silent Herdsman, a smart collar for tracking data on bovine health. Playing With Pigs: Pig Chase is a video game for alleviating porcine boredom, designed by researchers at the HKU University of the Arts Utrecht and the Wageningen University and Research Centre, both in the Netherlands. A pig uses its snout to manipulate a virtual ball on a touch-sensitive display, while a person uses a finger to do the same on a tablet computer. The reward for moving the ball in harmony is colourful 'fireworks'.

Via Christophe Jacquet
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plants and Microbes
Scoop.it!

PLOS Pathogens: The E3 Ligase APIP10 Connects the Effector AvrPiz-t to the NLR Receptor Piz-t in Rice (2016)

PLOS Pathogens: The E3 Ligase APIP10 Connects the Effector AvrPiz-t to the NLR Receptor Piz-t in Rice (2016) | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Although nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins are the major immune receptors in plants, the mechanism that controls their activation and immune signaling remains elusive. Here, we report that the avirulence effector AvrPiz-t from Magnaporthe oryzae targets the rice E3 ligase APIP10 for degradation, but that APIP10, in return, ubiquitinates AvrPiz-t and thereby causes its degradation. Silencing of APIP10 in the non-Piz-t background compromises the basal defense against M. oryzae. Conversely, silencing of APIP10 in the Piz-t background causes cell death, significant accumulation of Piz-t, and enhanced resistance to M. oryzae, suggesting that APIP10 is a negative regulator of Piz-t. We show that APIP10 promotes degradation of Piz-t via the 26S proteasome system. Furthermore, we demonstrate that AvrPiz-t stabilizes Piz-t during M. oryzae infection. Together, our results show that APIP10 is a novel E3 ligase that functionally connects the fungal effector AvrPiz-t to its NLR receptor Piz-t in rice.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jennifer Mach
Scoop.it!

Slice of PLOS: 57 Varieties of Tomato | PLOS Biologue

Slice of PLOS: 57 Varieties of Tomato | PLOS Biologue | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
  Credit: Flickr user photon_de This beautiful berry, domesticated in the Americas more than 2500 years ago, and introduced to the Old World in the 16th century, nowadays forms the basis of a $60bn worldwide industry. Although first treated with the suspicion that it might share the toxicity of its distant cousin the deadly nightshade, the fruit is now eaten raw, sundried, cooked in stews and sauces, or turned into ketchup. We borrowed its English name from the Aztecs (along with "chocolate"), but 500 years later Brits and Americans still can’t agree how to pronounce it ("Tomayto, tomahto? Let’s call the whole thing off"). Although the tomato owes its Linnaean name, Solanum lycopersicum, to Medieval German werewolf myths (the species name means “wolf peach”), some very modern science is being used to study its evolution, manipulate its properties, understand its biology and perfect its agriculture.   2,500,000 years of tomato evolution. Credit:
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant Pathogens
Scoop.it!

Phytophthora infestans Argonaute 1 binds microRNA and small RNAs from effector genes and transposable elements  New Phytologist -

Phytophthora infestans Argonaute 1 binds microRNA and small RNAs from effector genes and transposable elements  New Phytologist - | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Phytophthora spp. encode large sets of effector proteins and distinct populations of small RNAs (sRNAs). Recent evidence has suggested that pathogen-derived sRNAs can modulate the expression of plant defense genes. Here, we studied the sRNA classes and functions associated with Phytophthora infestans Argonaute (Ago) proteins.
sRNAs were co-immunoprecipitated with three PiAgo proteins and deep sequenced.
Twenty- to twenty-two-nucleotide (nt) sRNAs were identified as the main interaction partners of PiAgo1 and high enrichment of 24–26-nt sRNAs was seen in the PiAgo4-bound sample. The frequencies and sizes of transposable element (TE)-derived sRNAs in the different PiAgo libraries suggested diversified roles of the PiAgo proteins in the control of different TE classes. We further provide evidence for the involvement of PiAgo1 in the P. infestans microRNA (miRNA) pathway. Protein-coding genes are probably regulated by the shared action of PiAgo1 and PiAgo5, as demonstrated by analysis of differential expression. An abundance of sRNAs from genes encoding host cell death-inducing Crinkler (CRN) effectors was bound to PiAgo1, implicating this protein in the regulation of the expanded CRN gene family.
The data suggest that PiAgo1 plays an essential role in gene regulation and that at least two RNA silencing pathways regulate TEs in the plant-pathogenic oomycete P. infestans.

Via Christophe Jacquet, Yogesh Gupta
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jennifer Mach
Scoop.it!

Identification of three LRR-RKs involved in perception of root meristem growth factor in Arabidopsis

Identification of three LRR-RKs involved in perception of root meristem growth factor in Arabidopsis | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
A peptide hormone, root meristem growth factor (RGF), regulates root meristem development through the PLETHORA (PLT) stem cell transcription factor pathway, but it remains to be uncovered how extracellular RGF signals are transduced to the nucleus. Here we identified, using a combination of a custom-made receptor kinase (RK) expression library and exhaustive photoaffinity labeling, three leucine-rich repeat RKs (LRR-RKs) that directly interact with RGF peptides in Arabidopsis. These three LRR-RKs, which we named RGFR1, RGFR2, and RGFR3, are expressed in root tissues including the proximal meristem, the elongation zone, and the differentiation zone. The triple rgfr mutant was insensitive to externally applied RGF peptide and displayed a short root phenotype accompanied by a considerable decrease in meristematic cell number. In addition, PLT1 and PLT2 protein gradients, observed as a gradual gradient decreasing toward the elongation zone from the stem cell area in wild type, steeply declined at the root tip in the triple mutant. Because RGF peptides have been shown to create a diffusion-based concentration gradient extending from the stem cell area, our results strongly suggest that RGFRs mediate the transformation of an RGF peptide gradient into a PLT protein gradient in the proximal meristem, thereby acting as key regulators of root meristem development.
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant Pathogens
Scoop.it!

Open access resources for genome-wide association mapping in rice : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group

Open access resources for genome-wide association mapping in rice : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Increasing food production is essential to meet the demands of a growing human population, with its rising income levels and nutritional expectations. To address the demand, plant breeders seek new sources of genetic variation to enhance the productivity, sustainability and resilience of crop varieties. Here we launch a high-resolution, open-access research platform to facilitate genome-wide association mapping in rice, a staple food crop. The platform provides an immortal collection of diverse germplasm, a high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism data set tailored for gene discovery, well-documented analytical strategies, and a suite of bioinformatics resources to facilitate biological interpretation. Using grain length, we demonstrate the power and resolution of our new high-density rice array, the accompanying genotypic data set, and an expanded diversity panel for detecting major and minor effect QTLs and subpopulation-specific alleles, with immediate implications for rice improvement.

Via Yogesh Gupta
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Jennifer Mach
Scoop.it!

Local auxin metabolism regulates environment-induced hypocotyl elongation

Local auxin metabolism regulates environment-induced hypocotyl elongation | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
A hallmark of plants is their adaptability of size and form in response to widely fluctuating environments. The metabolism and redistribution of the phytohormone auxin play pivotal roles in establishing active auxin gradients and resulting cellular differentiation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, cotyledons and leaves synthesize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) from tryptophan through indole-3-pyruvic acid (3-IPA) in response to vegetational shade. This newly synthesized auxin moves to the hypocotyl where it induces elongation of hypocotyl cells. Here we show that loss of function of VAS2 (IAA-amido synthetase Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3).17) leads to increases in free IAA at the expense of IAA-Glu (IAA-glutamate) in the hypocotyl epidermis. This active IAA elicits shade- and high temperature-induced hypocotyl elongation largely independently of 3-IPA-mediated IAA biosynthesis in cotyledons. Our results reveal an unexpected capacity of local auxin metabolism to modulate the homeostasis and spatial distribution of free auxin in specialized organs such as hypocotyls in response to shade and high temperature.
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plants and Microbes
Scoop.it!

Mycorrhiza: A history of research on arbuscular mycorrhiza (2004)

Mycorrhiza: A history of research on arbuscular mycorrhiza (2004) | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

This is not a review paper in the traditional sense, of which there are many. Three of the most influential reviews that summarized well some of the “older” literature include those by Nicolson (1967), Gerdemann (1968) and Mosse (1973). Instead, in this brief and incomplete work, we attempt to show the historical development of research on arbuscular mycorrhizas. We owe much to those who have written other historical accounts, including Rayner (1926–1927), Trappe and Berch (1985), Mosse (1985), Schenck (1985), Harley (1991) and Allen (1996), but the contents of this work naturally reflect our own ignorance, interests and biases. It was often difficult to distinguish between the historical and the contemporary, and we did not use any specific cutoff date in making this distinction. The degree to which we include “contemporary” literature was determined by our own assessment of its connectedness to older literature. In any case, we hope this will be of some interest to those of you who study the arbuscular mycorrhiza, and that it will serve the purpose of providing what we consider to be an important historical context for current researchers. We wish you good fortune in your research.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
more...
Christophe Jacquet's curator insight, March 24, 8:43 AM

Awesome. I love to hear about the history of research and wisdom that comes from it.

Francis Martin's curator insight, March 24, 7:51 PM

Awesome. I love to hear about the history of research and wisdom that comes from it.

Fabiane Vezzani's curator insight, April 2, 9:24 PM

Awesome. I love to hear about the history of research and wisdom that comes from it.