Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology
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J Biomol NMR: Solution structure of the Magnaporthe oryzae avirulence protein AvrPiz-t (2013)

J Biomol NMR: Solution structure of the Magnaporthe oryzae avirulence protein AvrPiz-t (2013) | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

The AvrPiz-t gene encodes a small protein predicted to be secreted that shows no homology to known proteins and is 108 amino acids in length. AvrPiz-t can suppress programmed cell death (PCD) induced by BAX in tobacco, suggesting that it might contribute to the pathogenicity of M. oryzae. These data suggested that AvrPiz-t functions primarily as a virulence effector contributing to the pathogenicity of M. oryzae. To further understand the mechanism of the pathogenicity-associated function of AvrPiz-t, we determined its solution structure.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology
A science editor's take on what's new and interesting in the plant kingdom.
Curated by Jennifer Mach
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The Plant Microbiota: Systems-Level Insights and Perspectives - Annual Review of Genetics, 50(1):

The Plant Microbiota: Systems-Level Insights and Perspectives - Annual Review of Genetics, 50(1): | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Via Tatsuya Nobori, Jim Alfano
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COOLAIR Antisense RNAs Form Evolutionarily Conserved Elaborate Secondary Structures

COOLAIR Antisense RNAs Form Evolutionarily Conserved Elaborate Secondary Structures | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
There is considerable debate about the functionality of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Lack of sequence conservation has been used to argue against functional relevance. We investigated antisense lncRNAs, called COOLAIR, at the A. thaliana FLC locus and experimentally determined their secondary structure. The major COOLAIR variants are highly structured, organized by exon. The distally polyadenylated transcript has a complex multi-domain structure, altered by a single non-coding SNP defining a functionally distinct A. thaliana FLC haplotype. The A. thaliana COOLAIR secondary structure was used to predict COOLAIR exons in evolutionarily divergent Brassicaceae species. These predictions were validated through chemical probing and cloning. Despite the relatively low nucleotide sequence identity, the structures, including multi-helix junctions, show remarkable evolutionary conservation. In a number of places, the structure is conserved through covariation of a non-contiguous DNA sequence. This structural conservation supports a functional role for COOLAIR transcripts rather than, or in addition to, antisense transcription.
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant roots and rhizosphere
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Cytokinins influence root gravitropism via differential regulation of auxin transporter expression and localization in Arabidopsis - Pernisova - 2016 - New Phytologist -

Cytokinins influence root gravitropism via differential regulation of auxin transporter expression and localization in Arabidopsis - Pernisova - 2016 - New Phytologist - | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Redirection of intercellular auxin fluxes via relocalization of the PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3) and PIN7 auxin efflux carriers has been suggested to be necessary for the root gravitropic response. Cytokinins have also been proposed to play a role in controlling root gravitropism, but conclusive evidence is lacking.
We present a detailed study of the dynamics of root bending early after gravistimulation, which revealed a delayed gravitropic response in transgenic lines with depleted endogenous cytokinins (Pro35S:AtCKX) and cytokinin signaling mutants. Pro35S:AtCKX lines, as well as a cytokinin receptor mutant ahk3, showed aberrations in the auxin response distribution in columella cells consistent with defects in the auxin transport machinery.
Using in vivo real-time imaging of PIN3-GFP and PIN7-GFP in AtCKX3 overexpression and ahk3 backgrounds, we observed wild-type-like relocalization of PIN proteins in the columella early after gravistimulation, with gravity-induced relocalization of PIN7 faster than that of PIN3. Nonetheless, the cellular distribution of PIN3 and PIN7 and expression of PIN7 and the auxin influx carrier AUX1 was affected in AtCKX overexpression lines.
Based on the retained cytokinin sensitivity in pin3 pin4 pin7 mutant, we propose the AUX1-mediated auxin transport rather than columella-located PIN proteins as a target of endogenous cytokinins in the control of root gravitropism.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Cellulose synthase complexes act in a concerted fashion to synthesize highly aggregated cellulose in secondary cell walls of plants

Cellulose synthase complexes act in a concerted fashion to synthesize highly aggregated cellulose in secondary cell walls of plants | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Cellulose, often touted as the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, is a critical component of the plant cell wall and is synthesized by plasma membrane-spanning cellulose synthase (CESA) enzymes, which in plants are organized into rosette-like CESA complexes (CSCs). Plants construct two types of cell walls, primary cell walls (PCWs) and secondary cell walls (SCWs), which differ in composition, structure, and purpose. Cellulose in PCWs and SCWs is chemically identical but has different physical characteristics. During PCW synthesis, multiple dispersed CSCs move along a shared linear track in opposing directions while synthesizing cellulose microfibrils with low aggregation. In contrast, during SCW synthesis, we observed swaths of densely arranged CSCs that moved in the same direction along tracks while synthesizing cellulose microfibrils that became highly aggregated. Our data support a model in which distinct spatiotemporal features of active CSCs during PCW and SCW synthesis contribute to the formation of cellulose with distinct structure and organization in PCWs and SCWs of Arabidopsis thaliana. This study provides a foundation for understanding differences in the formation, structure, and organization of cellulose in PCWs and SCWs.

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GAD1 Encodes a Secreted Peptide That Regulates Grain Number, Grain Length and Awn Development in Rice Domestication

GAD1 Encodes a Secreted Peptide That Regulates Grain Number, Grain Length and Awn Development in Rice Domestication | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

GAD1 Encodes a Secreted Peptide That Regulates Grain Number, Grain Length and Awn Development in Rice Domestication

Jing Jin, Lei Hua, Zuofeng Zhu, Lubin Tan, Xinhui Zhao, Weifeng Zhang, Fengxia Liu, Yongcai Fu, Hongwei Cai, Xianyou Sun, Ping Gu, Daoxin Xie, and Chuanqing Sun

Plant Cell 2016 tpc.16.00379; Advance Publication September 15, 2016; doi:10.1105/tpc.16.00379 OPEN


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Gα and regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) protein pairs in plant evolution

Gα and regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) protein pairs in plant evolution | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Signaling pathways regulated by heterotrimeric G-proteins exist in all eukaryotes. The regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins are key interactors and critical modulators of the Gα protein of the heterotrimer. However, while G-proteins are widespread in plants, RGS proteins have been reported to be missing from the entire monocot lineage, with two exceptions. A single amino acid substitution-based adaptive coevolution of the Gα:RGS proteins was proposed to enable the loss of RGS in monocots. We used a combination of evolutionary and biochemical analyses and homology modeling of the Gα and RGS proteins to address their expansion and its potential effects on the G-protein cycle in plants. Our results show that RGS proteins are widely distributed in the monocot lineage, despite their frequent loss. There is no support for the adaptive coevolution of the Gα:RGS protein pair based on single amino acid substitutions. RGS proteins interact with, and affect the activity of, Gα proteins from species with or without endogenous RGS. This cross-functional compatibility expands between the metazoan and plant kingdoms, illustrating striking conservation of their interaction interface. We propose that additional proteins or alternative mechanisms may exist which compensate for the loss of RGS in certain plant species.

Via Pierre-Marc Delaux
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New Phytologist: Nine things to know about elicitins (2016)

New Phytologist: Nine things to know about elicitins (2016) | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Elicitins are structurally conserved extracellular proteins in Phytophthora and Pythium oomycete pathogen species. They were first described in the late 1980s as abundant proteins in Phytophthora culture filtrates that have the capacity to elicit hypersensitive (HR) cell death and disease resistance in tobacco. Later, they became well-established as having features of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and to elicit defences in a variety of plant species. Research on elicitins culminated in the recent cloning of the elicitin response (ELR) cell surface receptor-like protein, from the wild potato Solanum microdontum, which mediates response to a broad range of elicitins. In this review, we provide an overview on elicitins and the plant responses they elicit. We summarize the state of the art by describing what we consider to be the nine most important features of elicitin biology.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant pathogenic fungi
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RNA ‘Information Warfare’ in Pathogenic and Mutualistic Interactions

RNA ‘Information Warfare’ in Pathogenic and Mutualistic Interactions | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Regulatory non-coding RNAs are emerging as key players in host–pathogen interactions. Small RNAs such as microRNAs are implicated in regulating plant transcripts involved in immunity and defence. Surprisingly, RNAs with silencing properties can be translocated from plant hosts to various invading pathogens and pests. Small RNAs are now confirmed virulence factors, with the first report of fungal RNAs that travel to host cells and hijack post-transcriptional regulatory machinery to suppress host defence. Here, we argue that trans-organism movement of RNAs represents a common mechanism of control in diverse interactions between plants and other eukaryotes. We suggest that extracellular vesicles are the key to such RNA movement events. Plant pathosystems serve as excellent experimental models to dissect RNA ‘information warfare’ and other RNA-mediated interactions.

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Plant–pathogen interactions have undergone a paradigm shift, with the observation that silencing, non-coding RNAs move between host and pathogen, and vice versa.

So far, only one unequivocal natural example of this phenomenon has been exposed, where RNAs from Botrytis cinerea (grey mould) move into host plants. There, they ‘hijack’ host silencing machinery to downregulate transcripts involved in defence and immunity.

Similar RNA-based phenomena in interactions between animals and their microbial pathogens suggest that this mechanism is a commonality between infections in widely divergent taxa.

As well as a potent tool for developing new crops with increased disease resistance, studies of RNA traffic between plants and their symbionts will serve as models for other disease interactions.

Via Steve Marek
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New evidence for grain specific C4 photosynthesis in wheat

New evidence for grain specific C4 photosynthesis in wheat | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
The C4 photosynthetic pathway evolved to allow efficient CO2 capture by plants where effective carbon supply may be limiting as in hot or dry environments, explaining the high growth rates of C4 plants such as maize.
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Structure of a pathogen effector reveals the enzymatic mechanism of a novel acetyltransferase family : Nature Structural & Molecular Biology : Nature Research

Structure of a pathogen effector reveals the enzymatic mechanism of a novel acetyltransferase family : Nature Structural & Molecular Biology : Nature Research | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Effectors secreted by the type III secretion system are essential for bacterial pathogenesis. Members of the Yersinia outer-protein J (YopJ) family of effectors found in diverse plant and animal pathogens depend on a protease-like catalytic triad to acetylate host proteins and produce virulence. However, the structural basis for this noncanonical acetyltransferase activity remains unknown. Here, we report the crystal structures of the YopJ effector HopZ1a, produced by the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae, in complex with the eukaryote-specific cofactor inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) and/or coenzyme A (CoA). Structural, computational and functional characterizations reveal a catalytic core with a fold resembling that of ubiquitin-like cysteine proteases and an acetyl-CoA-binding pocket formed after IP6-induced structural rearrangements. Modeling-guided mutagenesis further identified key IP6-interacting residues of Salmonella effector AvrA that are required for acetylating its substrate. Our study reveals the structural basis of a novel class of acetyltransferases and the conserved allosteric regulation of YopJ effectors by IP6.

Via Suayib Üstün
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant roots and rhizosphere
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Genetic Control of Lateral Root Formation in Cereals

Genetic Control of Lateral Root Formation in Cereals | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Cereals form complex root systems composed of different root types. Lateral root formation is a major determinant of root architecture and is instrumental for the efficient uptake of water and nutrients. Positioning and patterning of lateral roots and cell types involved in their formation are unique in monocot cereals. Recent discoveries advanced the molecular understanding of the intrinsic genetic control of initiation and elongation of lateral roots in cereals by distinct, in part root-type-specific genetic programs. Moreover, molecular networks modulating the plasticity of lateral root formation in response to water and nutrient availability and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization have been identified. These novel discoveries provide a better mechanistic understanding of postembryonic lateral root development in cereals.
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Lateral root formation in cereals is unique with respect to the involved cell types, their position relative to the vascular elements, their stochastic pattern of emergence and their root-type specificity.

Genetic analyses demonstrated that auxin signal transduction, polar auxin transport, auxin transport regulation and cell cycle regulation are key elements of lateral root formation in cereals.

High resolution tissue- and cell-type-specific transcriptome studies identified candidate genes and metabolic pathways associated with lateral root initiation in cereals.

Architectural remodeling of lateral root branching contributes largely to the adaptive plasticity of the root system in response to extrinsic abiotic and biotic factors such as water availability, nutrients status and interaction with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Draft genome of the wheat rust pathogen (Puccinia triticina) unravels genome-wide structural variations during evolution

Draft genome of the wheat rust pathogen (Puccinia triticina) unravels genome-wide structural variations during evolution | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Leaf rust is one of the most important diseases of wheat and is caused by Puccinia triticina, a highly variable rust pathogen prevalent worldwide. Decoding the genome of this pathogen will help in unraveling the molecular basis of its evolution and in the identification of genes responsible for its various biological functions. We generated high quality draft genome sequences (approximately 100- 106 Mb) of two races of P. triticina; the variable and virulent Race77 and the old, avirulent Race106. The genomes of races 77 and 106 had 33X and 27X coverage, respectively. We predicted 27678 and 26384 genes, with average lengths of 1,129 and 1,086 bases in races 77 and 106, respectively and found that the genomes consisted of 37.49% and 39.99% repetitive sequences. Genome wide comparative analysis revealed that Race77 differs substantially from Race106 with regard to segmental duplication (SD), repeat element, and SNP/InDel characteristics. Comparative analyses showed that Race 77 is a recent, highly variable and adapted Race compared with Race106. Further sequence analyses of 13 additional pathotypes of Race77 clearly differentiated the recent, active and virulent, from the older pathotypes. Average densities of 2.4 SNPs and 0.32 InDels per kb were obtained for all P. triticina pathotypes. Secretome analysis demonstrated that Race77 has more virulence factors than Race 106, which may be responsible for the greater degree of adaptation of this pathogen. We also found that genes under greater selection pressure were conserved in the genomes of both races, and may affect functions crucial for the higher levels of virulence factors in Race77. This study provides insights into the genome structure, genome organization, molecular basis of variation, and pathogenicity of P. triticina. The genome sequence data generated in this study have been submitted to public domain databases and will be an important resource for comparative genomics studies of the more than 4000 existing Puccinia species.

Via Yogesh Gupta
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from The Plant Cell
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Commentary: Are We There Yet? Reliably Estimating the Completeness of Plant Genome Sequences

Commentary: Are We There Yet? Reliably Estimating the Completeness of Plant Genome Sequences | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Via Mary Williams
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Interaction of Heterotrimeric G-Protein Components with Receptor-like Kinases in Plants: An Alternative to the Established Signaling Paradigm?

“Heterotrimeric G proteins comprising Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits (hereafter termed G proteins) mediate important signaling processes in all eukaryotes. As per the established paradigm, during resting phase the Gα is guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-bound and the three subunits form an inactive trimeric complex GDP⋅Gαβγ. Signal perception occurs at the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which act as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and facilitate the exchange of GDP for guanosine triphosphate (GTP) on Gα. GTP⋅Gα dissociates from the Gβγ dimer, and both these entities can interact with downstream effectors to transduce the signal. The intrinsic GTPase activity of Gα produces its GDP-bound form, which associates with the Gβγ dimer to reconstitute the inactive heterotrimer, making it available for the next round of activation (Figure 1). Proteins such as regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) or phospholipases accelerate the inherent GTPase activity of Gα, causing a faster turnover of the cycle. Both the activation and deactivation of Gα are exquisitely controlled for persistent signaling (Offermanns, 2003).”
Via Jean-Michel Ané, Xiefang lab
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Dynamic interactions of Arabidopsis TEN1: stabilizing telomeres in response to heat stress ($)

Dynamic interactions of Arabidopsis TEN1: stabilizing telomeres in response to heat stress ($) | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Lee, J.R., Xie, X., Yang, K., Zhang, J., Lee, S.Y. and Shippen, D.E. (2016). Dynamic interactions of Arabidopsis TEN1: stabilizing telomeres in response to heat stress. The Plant Cell. ; Advance Publication September 8, 2016; doi:10.1105/tpc.16.00408


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Bidirectional cross-kingdom RNAi and fungal uptake of external RNAs confer plant protection

Bidirectional cross-kingdom RNAi and fungal uptake of external RNAs confer plant protection | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Aggressive fungal pathogens such as Botrytis and Verticillium spp. cause severe crop losses worldwide. We recently discovered that Botrytis cinerea delivers small RNAs (Bc–sRNAs) into plant cells to silence host immunity genes. Such sRNA effectors are mostly produced by Botrytis cinerea Dicer-like protein 1 (Bc-DCL1) and Bc-DCL2. Here we show that expressing sRNAs that target Bc-DCL1 and Bc-DCL2 in Arabidopsis and tomato silences Bc-DCL genes and attenuates fungal pathogenicity and growth, exemplifying bidirectional cross-kingdom RNAi and sRNA trafficking between plants and fungi. This strategy can be adapted to simultaneously control multiple fungal diseases. We also show that Botrytis can take up external sRNAs and double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs). Applying sRNAs or dsRNAs that target Botrytis DCL1 and DCL2 genes on the surface of fruits, vegetables and flowers significantly inhibits grey mould disease. Such pathogen gene-targeting RNAs represent a new generation of environmentally friendly fungicides.

Via Giannis Stringlis
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Science: Special Issue on Plant Translational Biology

Science: Special Issue on Plant Translational Biology | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Special Issue: Plant Translational Biology The new harvest BY PAMELA J. HINES, JOHN TRAVIS Translational plant science yields sustainable oils, pharmaceuticals, and proteins. 

The plant engineer BY ELIZABETH PENNISI Dan Voytas has worked tirelessly to make targeted genome editing of plants a reality. 

When is a GM plant not a GM plant? BY ELIZABETH PENNISI New genome-editing technologies have confused the regulatory picture for genetically modified plants. 

The nitrogen fix BY ERIK STOKSTAD Few projects in plant biotechnology are harder, or promise a greater payoff, than enabling crops to make their own nitrogen fertilizer. 

REVIEWS 
The plant lipidome in human and environmental health BY PATRICK J. HORN, CHRISTOPH BENNING 
Plant metabolism, the diverse chemistry set of the future BY ELEANORE T. WURTZEL, TONI M. KUTCHAN 
Plant-produced biopharmaceuticals: A case of technical developments driving clinical deployment BY GEORGE P. LOMONOSSOFF, MARC-ANDRÉ D’AOUST 
The next green movement: Plant biology for the environment and sustainability BY JOSEPH M. JEZ, SOON GOO LEE, ASHLEY M. SHERP
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In Brief. Swept Away: Protein Mobility in the Phloem

In Brief. Swept Away: Protein Mobility in the Phloem | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

In Brief. Swept Away: Protein Mobility in the Phloem

Jennifer Mach

Plant Cell 2016 tpc.16.00722; Advance Publication September 15, 2016; doi:10.1105/tpc.16.00722


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The proteasome acts as a hub for plant immunity and is targeted by Pseudomonas type-III effectors

The proteasome acts as a hub for plant immunity and is targeted by Pseudomonas type-III effectors | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Recent evidence suggests that the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is involved in several aspects of plant immunity and a range of plant pathogens subvert the UPS to enhance their virulence. Here we show that proteasome activity is strongly induced during basal defense in Arabidopsis. Mutant lines of the proteasome subunits RPT2a and RPN12a support increased bacterial growth of virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst) and Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola ES4326. Both proteasome subunits are required for Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) responses. Analysis of bacterial growth after a secondary infection of systemic leaves revealed that the establishment of systemic-acquired resistance (SAR) is impaired in proteasome mutants, suggesting that the proteasome also plays an important role in defense priming and SAR. In addition, we show that Pst inhibits proteasome activity in a type-III secretion dependent manner. A screen for type-III effector proteins from Pst for their ability to interfere with proteasome activity revealed HopM1, HopAO1, HopA1 and HopG1 as putative proteasome inhibitors. Biochemical characterization of HopM1 by mass-spectrometry indicates that HopM1 interacts with several E3 ubiquitin ligases and proteasome subunits. This supports the hypothesis that HopM1 associates with the proteasome leading to its inhibition. Thus, the proteasome is an essential component of PTI and SAR, which is targeted by multiple bacterial effectors.

Via Suayib Üstün
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Plant Molecular Biology: Plant-Microbe Symbiotic Interactions (2016)

Plant Molecular Biology: Plant-Microbe Symbiotic Interactions (2016) | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
This special issue is dedicated to these topics, featuring research articles as well as review papers. Early communication, from chemotaxis, recognition of the microbes by the plant, effective colonization, and the plant genes necessary for positive response to the microorganisms are the focus of nine of the papers. Biotic stress tolerance conferred by plant-associated microorganisms against insects and microbial pathogens is covered in three papers. Increased tolerance to abiotic factors including salinity and limited nutrients as well as overall increased growth and health are the topics of three of the papers. Many of the authors included future perspectives on how to move this important research field forward. Information gained from plant–microbe interaction studies in native habitats may be especially relevant since the host plant and microorganisms have co-evolved with opportunities by the plant to select over time the most beneficial symbionts. Understanding the requirements for recruitment, recognition, colonization, and response will be essential if this knowledge is to be applied to commercial agriculture. Determination of the mechanisms by which microbiota impart tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress will enable optimization for improved plant health and growth under the increased challenges resulting from climate change.

Via Steve Marek, Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Phosphoinositide signaling in plant development

Phosphoinositide signaling in plant development | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
The membranes of eukaryotic cells create hydrophobic barriers that control substance and information exchange between the inside and outside of cells and between cellular compartments. Besides their roles as membrane building blocks, some membrane lipids, such as phosphoinositides (PIs), also exert regulatory effects. Indeed, emerging evidence indicates that PIs play crucial roles in controlling polarity and growth in plants. Here, I highlight the key roles of PIs as important regulatory membrane lipids in plant development and function.
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Reduced nighttime transpiration is a relevant breeding target for high water-use efficiency in grapevine

Reduced nighttime transpiration is a relevant breeding target for high water-use efficiency in grapevine | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Breeding crops with more biomass produced per drop of water transpired is a key challenge in the context of climate change. However, the tight coupling between transpiration and carbon assimilation during the day makes it challenging to decrease water loss without altering photosynthesis and reducing crop yield. We tested whether reducing transpiration at night when photosynthesis is inactive could substantially reduce water loss without altering growth—a hypothesis that, to our knowledge, has never been genetically addressed in any species. By studying a whole progeny in grapevine, a major crop for drought-prone areas, we identified genomic regions where selection could be operated to reduce transpiration at night and maintain growth. This opens new horizons for breeding crops with higher water-use efficiency.


Via Andres Zurita
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Love the use of "drop" as the unit for water in the first sentence.
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant Biology Teaching Resources (Higher Education)
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Review. Growing Out of Stress: The Role of Cell- and Organ-scale Growth Control in Plant Water-stress Responses

Review. Growing Out of Stress: The Role of Cell- and Organ-scale Growth Control in Plant Water-stress Responses | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

A new review article in The Plant Cell by

Wei Feng, Heike Lindner, Neil E Robbins, and Jose R. Dinneny


Via Mary Williams
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doozyfunny's comment, September 1, 12:05 AM
Its tremendous
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Apoplastic fungal effectors in historic perspective; a personal view - Wit - 2016 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library

Apoplastic fungal effectors in historic perspective; a personal view - Wit - 2016 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Via Tatsuya Nobori, Jim Alfano
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Newest Teaching Tool: Carbon-Fixing Reactions of Photosynthesis

Newest Teaching Tool: Carbon-Fixing Reactions of Photosynthesis | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Find the newest Teaching Tools in Plant Biology article here: http://www.plantcell.org/site/teachingtools/TTPB34.xhtml. Access requires institutional subscription to The Plant Cell or ASPB membership.


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Mary Williams's curator insight, August 3, 5:46 AM

Here's a link to the newest Teaching Tools in Plant Biology article on the Plant Cell website http://www.plantcell.org/site/teachingtools/TTPB34.xhtml

as well as on Plantae - enjoy!

https://community.plantae.org/education-outreach/teaching-tools