Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology
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Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology
A science editor's take on what's new and interesting in the plant kingdom.
Curated by Jennifer Mach
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant hormones and signaling peptides
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GA as a regulatory link between the showy floral traits color and scent

GA as a regulatory link between the showy floral traits color and scent | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Emission of volatiles at advanced stages of flower development is a strategy used by plants to lure pollinators to the flower. We reveal that GA negatively regulates floral scent production in petunia.
We used Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression of GA-20ox in petunia flowers and a virus-induced gene silencing approach to knock down DELLA expression, measured volatile emission, internal pool sizes and GA levels by GC-MS or LC–MS/MS, and analyzed transcript levels of scent-related phenylpropanoid-pathway genes.
We show that GA has a negative effect on the concentrations of accumulated and emitted phenylpropanoid volatiles in petunia flowers; this effect is exerted through transcriptional/post-transcriptional downregulation of regulatory and biosynthetic scent-related genes. Both overexpression of GA20-ox, a GA-biosynthesis gene, and suppression of DELLA, a repressor of GA-signal transduction, corroborated GA's negative regulation of floral scent.
We present a model in which GA-dependent timing of the sequential activation of different branches of the phenylpropanoid pathway during flower development may represent a link between the showy traits controlling pollinator attraction, namely color and scent.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant pathogens and pests
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Frontiers | Suppression of Plant Immune Responses by the Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 Type III Effector Tyrosine Phosphatases HopAO1 and HopAO2 | Plant Science

Frontiers | Suppression of Plant Immune Responses by the Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 Type III Effector Tyrosine Phosphatases HopAO1 and HopAO2 | Plant Science | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
The effector repertoire of the olive pathogen P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 includes two members of the HopAO effector family, one of the most diverse T3E families of the P. syringae complex. The study described here explores the phylogeny of these dissimilar members, HopAO1 and HopAO2, among the complex and reveals their activities as immune defence suppressors. Although HopAO1 is predominantly encoded by phylogroup 3 strains isolated from woody organs of woody hosts, both HopAO1 and HopAO2 are phylogenetically clustered according to the woody/herbaceous nature of their host of isolation, suggesting host specialization of the HopAO family across the P. syringae complex. HopAO1 and HopAO2 translocate into plant cells and show hrpL-dependent expression, which allows their classification as actively deployed type III effectors. Our data also show that HopAO1 and HopAO2 possess phosphatase activity, a hallmark of the members of this family. Both of them exert an inhibitory effect on early plant defence responses, such as ROS production and callose deposition, and are able to suppress ETI responses induced by the effectorless polymutant of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000D28E) in Nicotiana. Moreover, we demonstrate that a ΔhopAO1 mutant of P. savastanoi NCPBB 3335 exhibits a reduced fitness and virulence in olive plants, which supports the relevance of this effector during the interaction of this strain with its host plants. This work contributes to the field with the first report regarding functional analysis of HopAO homologs encoded by P. syringae or P. savastanoi strains isolated from woody hosts.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant and Seed Biology
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The evolutionary significance of polyploidy 

The evolutionary significance of polyploidy  | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it


Polyploidy, or the duplication of entire genomes, has been observed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, and in somatic and germ cells. The consequences of polyploidization are complex and variable, and they differ greatly between systems (clonal or non-clonal) and species, but the process has often been considered to be an evolutionary 'dead end'. Here, we review the accumulating evidence that correlates polyploidization with environmental change or stress, and that has led to an increased recognition of its short-term adaptive potential. In addition, we discuss how, once polyploidy has been established, the unique retention profile of duplicated genes following whole-genome duplication might explain key longer-term evolutionary transitions and a general increase in biological complexity.


Via Loïc Lepiniec
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture
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Frontiers | RNA Interference: A Novel Source of Resistance to Combat Plant Parasitic Nematodes | Plant Science

Frontiers | RNA Interference: A Novel Source of Resistance to Combat Plant Parasitic Nematodes | Plant Science | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Plant parasitic nematodes cause severe damage and yield loss in major crops all over the world. Available control strategies include use of insecticides/nematicides but these have proved detrimental to the environment, while other strategies like crop rotation and resistant cultivars have serious limitations. This scenario provides an opportunity for the utilization of technological advances like RNA interference (RNAi) to engineer resistance against these devastating parasites. First demonstrated in the model free living nematode, Caenorhabtidis elegans; the phenomenon of RNAi has been successfully used to suppress essential genes of plant parasitic nematodes involved in parasitism, nematode development and mRNA metabolism. Synthetic neurotransmitants mixed with dsRNA solutions are used for in vitro RNAi in plant parasitic nematodes with significant success. However, host delivered in planta RNAi has proved to be a pioneering phenomenon to deliver dsRNAs to feeding nematodes and silence the target genes to achieve resistance. Highly enriched genomic databases are exploited to limit off target effects and ensure sequence specific silencing. Technological advances like gene stacking and use of nematode inducible and tissue specific promoters can further enhance the utility of RNAi based transgenics against plant parasitic nematodes.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from The Plant Cell
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Direct and Indirect Visualization of Bacterial Effector Delivery into Diverse Plant Cell Types During Infection

Direct and Indirect Visualization of Bacterial Effector Delivery into Diverse Plant Cell Types During Infection | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Direct and Indirect Visualization of Bacterial Effector Delivery into Diverse Plant Cell Types During Infection

Elizabeth Henry, Tania Y Toruño, Alain Jauneau, Laurent Deslandes, and Gitta Laurel Coaker

Plant Cell 2017 tpc.17.00027; Advance Publication June 9, 2017; doi:10.1105/tpc.17.00027 OPEN


Via Mary Williams
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant pathogenic fungi
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Plants transfer lipids to sustain colonization by mutualistic mycorrhizal and parasitic fungi

Plants transfer lipids to sustain colonization by mutualistic mycorrhizal and parasitic fungi | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi facilitate plant uptake of mineral nutrients and draw organic nutrients from the plant. Organic nutrients are thought to be supplied primarily in the form of sugars. Here we show that the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis is a fatty acid auxotroph and that fatty acids synthesized in the host plants are transferred to the fungus to sustain mycorrhizal colonization. The transfer is dependent on RAM2 (REQUIRED FOR ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZATION 2) and the ATP binding cassette transporter–mediated plant lipid export pathway. We further show that plant fatty acids can be transferred to the pathogenic fungus Golovinomyces cichoracerum and are required for colonization by pathogens. We suggest that the mutualistic mycorrhizal and pathogenic fungi similarly recruit the fatty acid biosynthesis program to facilitate host invasion.

Via Francis Martin, Steve Marek
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Emerging Trends in Publishing and Science Writing
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CRISPR-Cpf1: A New Tool for Plant Genome Editing

CRISPR-Cpf1: A New Tool for Plant Genome Editing | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated proteins (CRISPR-Cas), a groundbreaking genome-engineering tool, has facilitated targeted trait improvement in plants. Recently, CRISPR-CRISPR from Prevotella and Francisella 1 (Cpf1) has emerged as a new tool for efficient genome editing, including DNA-free editing in plants, with higher efficiency, specificity, and potentially wider applications than CRISPR-Cas9.

Via Christophe Jacquet, Jennifer Mach
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Host-Microbe Interactions. Plant Biology.
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How does a plant orchestrate defense in time and space? Using glucosinolates in Arabidopsis as case study 


Via Tatsuya Nobori
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant immunity and legume symbiosis
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Post-translational regulation of plant immunity

Post-translational regulation of plant immunity | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Highlights

•Phosphorylation is a rapid and transient switch for PTI.
• PTM links metabolic pathways important for defense.
• PTM of TSB1 counters pathogen virulence strategies.
• PTM at the host–pathogen interface during ETI.
• NPRs are regulators of both ETI and SAR.

Plants have evolved multi-layered molecular defense strategies to protect against pathogens. Plant immune signaling largely relies on post-translational modifications (PTMs) to induce rapid alterations of signaling pathways to achieve a response that is appropriate to the type of pathogen and infection pressure. In host cells, dynamic PTMs have emerged as powerful regulatory mechanisms that cells use to adjust their immune response. PTM is also a virulence strategy used by pathogens to subvert host immunity through the activities of effector proteins secreted into the host cell. Recent studies focusing on deciphering post-translational mechanisms underlying plant immunity have offered an in-depth view of how PTMs facilitate efficient immune responses and have provided a more dynamic and holistic view of plant immunity.


Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from The Plant Cell
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CONSTANS imparts DNA sequence-specificity to the histone-fold NF-YB/NF-YC dimer

CONSTANS imparts DNA sequence-specificity to the histone-fold NF-YB/NF-YC dimer | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

CONSTANS imparts DNA sequence-specificity to the histone-fold NF-YB/NF-YC dimer

Nerina Gnesutta, Roderick W Kumimoto, Swadhin Swain, Matteo Chiara, Chamindika Siriwardana, David Stephen Horner, Ben F Holt, and Roberto Mantovani

Plant Cell 2017 tpc.16.00864; Advance Publication May 19, 2017; doi:10.1105/tpc.16.00864 OPEN


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Wild tobacco genomes reveal the evolution of nicotine biosynthesis

Wild tobacco genomes reveal the evolution of nicotine biosynthesis | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Nicotine, the signature alkaloid of Nicotiana species responsible for the addictive properties of human tobacco smoking, functions as a defensive neurotoxin against attacking herbivores. However, the evolution of the genetic features that contributed to the assembly of the nicotine biosynthetic pathway remains unknown. We sequenced and assembled genomes of two wild tobaccos, Nicotiana attenuata (2.5 Gb) and Nicotiana obtusifolia (1.5 Gb), two ecological models for investigating adaptive traits in nature. We show that after the Solanaceae whole-genome triplication event, a repertoire of rapidly expanding transposable elements (TEs) bloated these Nicotiana genomes, promoted expression divergences among duplicated genes, and contributed to the evolution of herbivory-induced signaling and defenses, including nicotine biosynthesis. The biosynthetic machinery that allows for nicotine synthesis in the roots evolved from the stepwise duplications of two ancient primary metabolic pathways: the polyamine and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) pathways. In contrast to the duplication of the polyamine pathway that is shared among several solanaceous genera producing polyamine-derived tropane alkaloids, we found that lineage-specific duplications within the NAD pathway and the evolution of root-specific expression of the duplicated Solanaceae-specific ethylene response factor that activates the expression of all nicotine biosynthetic genes resulted in the innovative and efficient production of nicotine in the genus Nicotiana. Transcription factor binding motifs derived from TEs may have contributed to the coexpression of nicotine biosynthetic pathway genes and coordinated the metabolic flux. Together, these results provide evidence that TEs and gene duplications facilitated the emergence of a key metabolic innovation relevant to plant fitness.

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Bypassing Negative Epistasis on Yield in Tomato Imposed by a Domestication Gene

Bypassing Negative Epistasis on Yield in Tomato Imposed by a Domestication Gene | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Selection for inflorescence architecture with improved flower production and yield is common to many domesticated crops. However, tomato inflorescences resemble wild ancestors, and breeders avoided excessive branching because of low fertility. We found branched variants carry mutations in two related transcription factors that were selected independently. One founder mutation enlarged the leaf-like organs on fruits and was selected as fruit size increased during domestication. The other mutation eliminated the flower abscission zone, providing “jointless” fruit stems that reduced fruit dropping and facilitated mechanical harvesting. Stacking both beneficial traits caused undesirable branching and sterility due to epistasis, which breeders overcame with suppressors. However, this suppression restricted the opportunity for productivity gains from weak branching. Exploiting natural and engineered alleles for multiple family members, we achieved a continuum of inflorescence complexity that allowed breeding of higher-yielding hybrids. Characterizing and neutralizing similar cases of negative epistasis could improve productivity in many agricultural organisms.

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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant pathogenic fungi
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Exocytosis for endosymbiosis: membrane trafficking pathways for development of symbiotic membrane compartments

Exocytosis for endosymbiosis: membrane trafficking pathways for development of symbiotic membrane compartments | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Highlights 
• SNARES and EXOCYST components conserved for AM symbiosis. 
• An exocytotic pathway shared by AM symbiosis and rhizobium-legume symbiosis. 
• EXO70i is essential for polarized exocytosis of membrane during AM symbiosis. 
• Multiple exocytosis pathways operate during endosymbiosis.

During endosymbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi or rhizobial bacteria, the microbial symbionts are housed within membrane-bound compartments in root cortex or nodule cells respectively. Their development involves polarized deposition of membrane around the symbionts as they enter the cells and the membranes show functional specialization, including transporters that mediate nutrient transfer between host and symbiont. The cellular changes associated with development of these compartments point to membrane deposition via exocytosis and over the past few years, researchers have uncovered several proteins within the exocytotic pathway that are required for development of endosymbiotic membrane compartments. The emerging theme is that unique membrane trafficking homologs or splice variants have evolved to enable exocytosis during endosymbiosis.

Via Pierre-Marc Delaux, Francis Martin, Steve Marek
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant pathogens and pests
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Fungal manipulation of hormone-regulated plant defense

Fungal manipulation of hormone-regulated plant defense | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Fungi have adapted to diverse habitats and ecological niches, including the complex plant systems. Success of the pathogenic or symbiotic fungi in colonizing the plant tissue depends on their ability to modulate the host defense signaling [1]. Strategies that impart such abilities in fungi include the use of effector proteins that directly disrupt phytohormone-based defense signaling pathways and/or the deployment of mimics of specific plant molecules to evade recognition and the subsequent host immune response [1, 2]. Recent exciting findings have provided insight into a novel strategy whereby the fungal pathogens utilize the endogenous phytohormone-mimics and/or relevant metabolic enzymes to suppress host immunity. These studies strongly suggest that fungal metabolites, in addition to effector proteins, can chemically shape and maintain distinct pathogenic or symbiotic interkingdom relationships between plants and fungi.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant Sciences
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Improved maize reference genome with single-molecule technologies : Nature 

Improved maize reference genome with single-molecule technologies : Nature  | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Complete and accurate reference genomes and annotations provide fundamental tools for characterization of genetic and functional variation. These resources facilitate the determination of biological processes and support translation of research findings into improved and sustainable agricultural technologies. Many reference genomes for crop plants have been generated over the past decade, but these genomes are often fragmented and missing complex repeat regions. Here we report the assembly and annotation of a reference genome of maize, a genetic and agricultural model species, using single-molecule real-time sequencing and high-resolution optical mapping. Relative to the previous reference genome, our assembly features a 52-fold increase in contig length and notable improvements in the assembly of intergenic spaces and centromeres. Characterization of the repetitive portion of the genome revealed more than 130,000 intact transposable elements, allowing us to identify transposable element lineage expansions that are unique to maize. Gene annotations were updated using 111,000 full-length transcripts obtained by single-molecule real-time sequencing. In addition, comparative optical mapping of two other inbred maize lines revealed a prevalence of deletions in regions of low gene density and maize lineage-specific genes.

Via Saclay Plant Sciences
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from GMOs, NBT & Sustainable agriculture
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The Algal Revolution

The Algal Revolution | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Algae are (mostly) photosynthetic eukaryotes that occupy multiple branches of the tree of life, and are vital for planet function and health. In this review, we highlight a transformative period in studies of the evolution and functioning of this extraordinary group of organisms and their potential for novel applications, wrought by high-throughput ‘omic’ and reverse genetic methods. We cover the origin and diversification of algal groups, explore advances in understanding the link between phenotype and genotype, consider algal sex determination, and review progress in understanding the roots of algal multicellularity. Experimental evolution studies to determine how algae evolve in changing environments are highlighted, as is their potential as production platforms for compounds of commercial interest, such as biofuel precursors, nutraceuticals, or therapeutics.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from microbial pathogenesis and plant immunity
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Iron and Immunity | Annual Review of Phytopathology

Iron and Immunity | Annual Review of Phytopathology | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Iron is an essential nutrient for most life on Earth because it functions as a crucial redox catalyst in many cellular processes. However, when present in excess iron can lead to the formation of harmful hydroxyl radicals. Hence, the cellular iron balance must be tightly controlled. Perturbation of iron homeostasis is a major strategy in host-pathogen interactions. Plants use iron-withholding strategies to reduce pathogen virulence or to locally increase iron levels to activate a toxic oxidative burst. Some plant pathogens counteract such defenses by secreting iron-scavenging siderophores that promote iron uptake and alleviate iron-regulated host immune responses. Mutualistic root microbiota can also influence plant disease via iron. They compete for iron with soil-borne pathogens or induce a systemic resistance that shares early signaling components with the root iron-uptake machinery. This review describes the progress in our understanding of the role of iron homeostasis in both pathogenic and beneficial plant-microbe interactions.

Via Giannis Stringlis, Tatsuya Nobori, Jim Alfano
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from MycorWeb Plant-Microbe Interactions
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Cell Biology: Control of Partner Lifetime in a Plant–Fungus Relationship

Cell Biology: Control of Partner Lifetime in a Plant–Fungus Relationship | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Arbuscules are tree-shaped fungal structures inside plant root cells that facilitate the exchange of nutrients delivered by the fungus with carbon sources from the host. To maintain symbiotic efficiency, plant cells can trigger degeneration of underperforming arbuscules. A recent study reveals the first transcription factor, which induces genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes, to mediate arbuscule degeneration.


Via Pierre-Marc Delaux, Francis Martin
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant-Microbe Symbiosis
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Plant breeding goes microbial

Plant breeding goes microbial | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Plant breeding has traditionally improved traits encoded in the plant genome. Here
we propose an alternative framework reaching novel phenotypes by modifying together
genomic information and plant-associated microbiota. This concept is made possible
by a novel technology that enables the transmission of endophytic microbiota to the
next plant generation.

Via Jean-Michel Ané
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Jean-Michel Ané's curator insight, June 5, 9:54 AM

Nice idea in principle but I have several concerns about this approach.

Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Host-Microbe Interactions. Plant Biology.
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Bacterial outer membrane vesicles at the plant–pathogen interface

Bacterial outer membrane vesicles at the plant–pathogen interface | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Via Tatsuya Nobori
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from SEED DEV LAB Biblio
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Advances in the MYB–bHLH–WD Repeat (MBW) Pigment Regulatory Model

Advances in the MYB–bHLH–WD Repeat (MBW) Pigment Regulatory Model | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
very nice review 

Via Loïc Lepiniec
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Autophagy as an emerging arena for plant–pathogen interactions

Autophagy as an emerging arena for plant–pathogen interactions | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Highlights

• Autophagy is an integral part of plant–pathogen interactions.
• A large variety of microbial pathogens target or are targeted by plant autophagy.
• Autophagy in eukaryotic microbial pathogens is essential for pathogenesis.
• Plant autophagy participates in defense responses against invading microbes.
• Successful pathogens have evolved strategies to manipulate plant autophagy.



Autophagy is a highly conserved degradation and recycling process that controls cellular homeostasis, stress adaptation, and programmed cell death in eukaryotes. Emerging evidence indicates that autophagy is a key regulator of plant innate immunity and contributes with both pro-death and pro-survival functions to antimicrobial defences, depending on the pathogenic lifestyle. In turn, several pathogens have co-opted and evolved strategies to manipulate host autophagy pathways to the benefit of infection, while some eukaryotic microbes require their own autophagy machinery for successful pathogenesis. In this review, we present and discuss recent advances that exemplify the important role of pro- and antimicrobial autophagy in plant–pathogen interactions.


Via Christophe Jacquet, Suayib Üstün
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from The Plant Cell
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Monoterpenes support systemic acquired resistance within and between plants

Monoterpenes support systemic acquired resistance within and between plants | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant immunity and legume symbiosis
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uORF-mediated translation allows engineered plant disease resistance without fitness costs

uORF-mediated translation allows engineered plant disease resistance without fitness costs | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Controlling plant disease has been a struggle for humankind since the advent of agriculture. Studies of plant immune mechanisms have led to strategies of engineering resistant crops through ectopic transcription of plants’ own defence genes, such as the master immune regulatory gene NPR1 (ref. 1). However, enhanced resistance obtained through such strategies is often associated with substantial penalties to fitness2, making the resulting products undesirable for agricultural applications. To remedy this problem, we sought more stringent mechanisms of expressing defence proteins. On the basis of our latest finding that translation of key immune regulators, such as TBF1 (ref. 3), is rapidly and transiently induced upon pathogen challenge (see accompanying paper4), we developed a ‘TBF1-cassette’ consisting of not only the immune-inducible promoter but also two pathogen-responsive upstream open reading frames (uORFsTBF1) of the TBF1 gene. Here we demonstrate that inclusion of uORFsTBF1-mediated translational control over the production of snc1-1 (an autoactivated immune receptor) in Arabidopsis thaliana and AtNPR1 in rice enables us to engineer broad-spectrum disease resistance without compromising plant fitness in the laboratory or in the field. This broadly applicable strategy may lead to decreased pesticide use and reduce the selective pressure for resistant pathogens.

Via Francis Martin, Christophe Jacquet
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The evolutionary significance of polyploidy : Nature Reviews Genetics : Nature Research

The evolutionary significance of polyploidy : Nature Reviews Genetics : Nature Research | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Polyploidy, or the duplication of entire genomes, has been observed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, and in somatic and germ cells. The consequences of polyploidization are complex and variable, and they differ greatly between systems (clonal or non-clonal) and species, but the process has often been considered to be an evolutionary 'dead end'. Here, we review the accumulating evidence that correlates polyploidization with environmental change or stress, and that has led to an increased recognition of its short-term adaptive potential. In addition, we discuss how, once polyploidy has been established, the unique retention profile of duplicated genes following whole-genome duplication might explain key longer-term evolutionary transitions and a general increase in biological complexity.

Via Francis Martin, Steve Marek
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