Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology
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PLoS Pathogens: Genome Analyses of an Aggressive and Invasive Lineage of the Irish Potato Famine Pathogen (2012)

PLoS Pathogens: Genome Analyses of an Aggressive and Invasive Lineage of the Irish Potato Famine Pathogen (2012) | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Pest and pathogen losses jeopardise global food security and ever since the 19th century Irish famine, potato late blight has exemplified this threat. The causal oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, undergoes major population shifts in agricultural systems via the successive emergence and migration of asexual lineages. The phenotypic and genotypic bases of these selective sweeps are largely unknown but management strategies need to adapt to reflect the changing pathogen population. Here, we used molecular markers to document the emergence of a lineage, termed 13_A2, in the European P. infestans population, and its rapid displacement of other lineages to exceed 75% of the pathogen population across Great Britain in less than three years. We show that isolates of the 13_A2 lineage are among the most aggressive on cultivated potatoes, outcompete other aggressive lineages in the field, and overcome previously effective forms of plant host resistance. Genome analyses of a 13_A2 isolate revealed extensive genetic and expression polymorphisms particularly in effector genes. Copy number variations, gene gains and losses, amino-acid replacements and changes in expression patterns of disease effector genes within the 13_A2 isolate likely contribute to enhanced virulence and aggressiveness to drive this population displacement. Importantly, 13_A2 isolates carry intact and in planta induced Avrblb1, Avrblb2 and Avrvnt1 effector genes that trigger resistance in potato lines carrying the corresponding R immune receptor genes Rpi-blb1, Rpi-blb2, and Rpi-vnt1.1. These findings point towards a strategy for deploying genetic resistance to mitigate the impact of the 13_A2 lineage and illustrate how pathogen population monitoring, combined with genome analysis, informs the management of devastating disease epidemics.


Via Nicolas Denancé, Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology
A science editor's take on what's new and interesting in the plant kingdom.
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Root microbiota drive direct integration of phosphate stress and immunity

Root microbiota drive direct integration of phosphate stress and immunity | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Plants live in biogeochemically diverse soils with diverse microbiota. Plant organs associate intimately with a subset of these microbes, and the structure of the microbial community can be altered by soil nutrient content. Plant-associated microbes can compete with the plant and with each other for nutrients, but may also carry traits that increase the productivity of the plant. It is unknown how the plant immune system coordinates microbial recognition with nutritional cues during microbiome assembly. Here we establish that a genetic network controlling the phosphate stress response influences the structure of the root microbiome community, even under non-stress phosphate conditions. We define a molecular mechanism regulating coordination between nutrition and defence in the presence of a synthetic bacterial community. We further demonstrate that the master transcriptional regulators of phosphate stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana also directly repress defence, consistent with plant prioritization of nutritional stress over defence. Our work will further efforts to define and deploy useful microbes to enhance plant performance.
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Microbes, plant immunity, and crop science
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Plant signalling in symbiosis and immunity 

Plant signalling in symbiosis and immunity  | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Plants encounter a myriad of microorganisms, particularly at the root–soil interface, that can invade with detrimental or beneficial outcomes. Prevalent beneficial associations between plants and microorganisms include those that promote plant growth by facilitating the acquisition of limiting nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. But while promoting such symbiotic relationships, plants must restrict the formation of pathogenic associations. Achieving this balance requires the perception of potential invading microorganisms through the signals that they produce, followed by the activation of either symbiotic responses that promote microbial colonization or immune responses that limit it.


Via Jean-Michel Ané, Nicolas Denancé
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Jean-Michel Ané's curator insight, March 21, 4:18 PM

Very good review

Nicolas Denancé's curator insight, March 22, 10:59 AM

Very good review

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Hierarchically aligning 10 legume genomes establishes a family-level genomics platform

Hierarchically aligning 10 legume genomes establishes a family-level genomics platform | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Mainly due to their economic importance, genomes of 10 legumes, including soybean, wild peanuts, barrel medic, etc, have been sequenced. However, a family-level comparative genomics analysis has been unavailable. With grape and selected legume genomes as outgroups, we managed to perform a hierarchical and event-related alignment of these genomes and deconvoluted layers of homologous regions produced by ancestral polyploidizations or speciations. Consequently, we illustrated genomic fractionation characterized by wide-spread gene losses after the polyploidizations. Notably, high similarity in gene retention between recently duplicated chromosomes in soybean supported a likely autopolypoidy nature of its tetraploid ancestor. Moreover, though mostly gene losses were nearly random, largely but not fully described by geometric distribution, we showed that polyploidization contributed divergently to copy number variation of important gene families. Besides, we showed significantly divergent evolutionary levels among legumes, and by performing Ks correction, re-dated major evolutionary events during their expansion. The present effort laid a solid foundation further genomics exploration in the legume research community and beyond. We described only a tiny fraction of legume comparative genomics analysis that we performed, and more information was stored in the newly constructed Legume Comparative Genomics Research Platform (www.legumegrp.org).
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IN BRIEF: A Kinase- and Proteasome-Mediated Link Between Lipid Biosynthesis and Energy Homeostasis

IN BRIEF: A Kinase- and Proteasome-Mediated Link Between Lipid Biosynthesis and Energy Homeostasis | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

A Kinase- and Proteasome-Mediated Link Between Lipid Biosynthesis and Energy Homeostasis

Nancy Rosenbaum Hofmann

Plant Cell 2017 tpc.17.00220; Advance Publication March 20, 2017; doi:10.1105/tpc.17.00220 OPEN

http://www.plantcell.org/content/early/2017/03/20/tpc.17.00220


Via Mary Williams
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Mechanisms to Mitigate the Tradeoff between Growth and Defense

Mechanisms to Mitigate the Tradeoff between Growth and Defense | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Mechanisms to Mitigate the Tradeoff between Growth and Defense

Talia Karasov, Eunyoung Chae, Jacob Herman, and Joy Bergelson

Plant Cell 2017 tpc.16.00931; Advance Publication March 20, 2017; doi:10.1105/tpc.16.00931


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The fungal UmSrt1 and maize ZmSUT1 sucrose transporters battle for plant sugar resources

The fungal UmSrt1 and maize ZmSUT1 sucrose transporters battle for plant sugar resources | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
The biotrophic fungus Ustilago maydis causes the corn smut disease inducing tumor formation in its host Zea mays. Upon infection, the fungal hyphae invaginate the plasma membrane of infected maize cells establishing an interface where pathogen and host are separated only by their plasma membranes. At this interface the fungal and maize sucrose transporters, UmSrt1 and ZmSUT1, compete for extracellular sucrose in the corn smut/maize pathosystem. Here we biophysically characterized ZmSUT1 and UmSrt1 in Xenopus oocytes with respect to their voltage-, pH- and substrate-dependence and determined affinities towards protons and sucrose. In contrast to ZmSUT1, UmSrt1 has a high-affinity for sucrose and is relatively pH- and voltage-independent. Using these quantitative parameters, we developed a mathematical model to simulate the competition for extracellular sucrose at the contact zone between the fungus and the host plant. This approach revealed that UmSrt1 exploits the apoplastic sucrose resource, which forces the plant transporter into a sucrose export mode providing the fungus with sugar from the phloem. Importantly, the high sucrose concentration in the phloem appeared disadvantageous for the ZmSUT1, preventing sucrose recovery from the apoplastic space in the fungus/plant interface.

Via Jonathan Plett
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Genomic innovation for crop improvement : Nature : Nature Research

Genomic innovation for crop improvement : Nature : Nature Research | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Crop production needs to increase to secure future food supplies, while reducing its impact on ecosystems. Detailed characterization of plant genomes and genetic diversity is crucial for meeting these challenges. Advances in genome sequencing and assembly are being used to access the large and complex genomes of crops and their wild relatives. These have helped to identify a wide spectrum of genetic variation and permitted the association of genetic diversity with diverse agronomic phenotypes. In combination with improved and automated phenotyping assays and functional genomic studies, genomics is providing new foundations for crop-breeding systems.

Via Loïc Lepiniec
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Molecular Plant special issue on maize biology

Molecular Plant special issue on maize biology | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Special issue! On The Cover Image shows a male inflorescence of Zea mays (maize) at anthesis (flower opening). This structure, also called tassel, terminates the stem of a maize plant and is composed of hundreds of male flowers organized as spikelet pairs. Anthesis and thus pollen release begins at the tassel rachis (main spike) and occurs delayed at lateral branches. Five stages of pollen development are inserted showing the male germline (labeled by YFP-α-tubulin): early bicellular stage after pollen mitosis I (red), late bicellular stage (orange), pollen mitosis II (yellow), sperm cell formation (green) and mature spindle-shaped sperm cells (cyan). Image by: Liang-Zi Zhou, Martina Juranic and Thomas Dresselhaus.
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Identification of the phosphorylation targets of symbiotic receptor‐like kinases using a high‐throughput multiplexed assay for kinase specificity

Identification of the phosphorylation targets of symbiotic receptor‐like kinases using a high‐throughput multiplexed assay for kinase specificity | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Detecting the phosphorylation substrates of multiple kinases in a single experiment is a challenge, and new techniques are being developed to overcome this challenge. Here, we utilized a multiplexed assay for kinase specificity (MAKS) to identify the substrates directly and to map the phosphorylation site(s) of plant symbiotic receptor-like kinases. The symbiotic receptor-like kinases Nodulation Receptor-like Kinase (NORK) and Lysin motif domain-containing receptor-like kinase 3 (LYK3) are indispensable for the establishment of root nodule symbiosis. Although some interacting proteins have been identified for these symbiotic receptor-like kinases, very little is known about their phosphorylation substrates. Using this high-throughput approach, we identified several other potential phosphorylation targets for both these symbiotic receptor-like kinases. In particular, we also discovered the phosphorylation of LYK3 by NORK itself which was also confirmed by pair-wise kinase assays. Motif analysis of potential targets for these kinases revealed that the acidic motif xxxsDxxx was common to both of them. In summary, this high-throughput technique catalogs the potential phosphorylation substrates of multiple kinases in a single efficient experiment, the biological characterization of which should provide a better understanding of phosphorylation signaling cascade in symbiosis.


Via Pierre-Marc Delaux
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The rice paradox: Multiple origins but single domestication in Asian rice | Molecular Biology and Evolution | Oxford Academic

The rice paradox: Multiple origins but single domestication in Asian rice | Molecular Biology and Evolution | Oxford Academic | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
The origin of domesticated Asian rice (Oryza sativa) has been a contentious topic, with conflicting evidence for either single or multiple domestication of this key crop species. We examined the evolutionary history of domesticated rice by analyzing de novo assembled genomes from domesticated rice and its wild progenitors. Our results indicate multiple origins, where each domesticated rice subpopulation (japonica, indica, and aus) arose separately from progenitor O. rufipogon and/or O. nivara. Coalescence-based modeling of demographic parameters estimate that the first domesticated rice population to split off from O. rufipogon was O. sativa ssp. japonica, occurring at ∼13.1 – 24.1 kya, which is an order of magnitude older then the earliest archaeological date of domestication. This date is consistent, however, with the expansion of O. rufipogon populations after the Last Glacial Maximum ∼18 kya and archaeological evidence for early wild rice management in China. We also show that there is significant gene flow from japonica to both indica (∼17%) and aus (∼15%), which led to the transfer of domestication alleles from early-domesticated japonica to proto-indica and proto-aus populations. Our results provide support for a model in which different rice subspecies had separate origins, but that de novo domestication occurred only once, in O. sativa ssp. japonica, and introgressive hybridization from early japonica to proto-indica and proto-aus led to domesticated indica and aus rice.

Via Dorian Q Fuller, Ricardo Oliva
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant roots and rhizosphere
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Identification of Root-Secreted Compounds Involved in the Communication Between Cucumber, the Beneficial Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and the Soil-Borne Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum | Molecular Plant...

Identification of Root-Secreted Compounds Involved in the Communication Between Cucumber, the Beneficial Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and the Soil-Borne Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum | Molecular Plant... | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Colonization of plant growth–promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is critical for exerting their beneficial effects on the plant. Root exudation is a major factor influencing the colonization of both PGPR and soil-borne pathogens within the root system. However, the tripartite interaction of PGPR, plant roots, and soil-borne pathogens is poorly understood. We screened root exudates for signals that mediate tripartite interactions in the rhizosphere. In a split-root system, we found that root colonization of PGPR strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 on cucumber root was significantly enhanced by preinoculation with SQR9 or the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, whereas root colonization of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum was reduced upon preinoculation with SQR9 or F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. Root exudates from cucumbers preinoculated with SQR9 or F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum were analyzed and 109 compounds were identified. Correlation analysis highlighted eight compounds that significantly correlated with root colonization of SQR9 or F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. After performing colonization experiments with these chemicals, raffinose and tryptophan were shown to positively affect the root colonization of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum and SQR9, respectively. These results indicate that cucumber roots colonized by F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum or SQR9 increase root secretion of tryptophan to strengthen further colonization of SQR9. In contrast, these colonized cucumber roots reduce raffinose secretion to inhibit root colonization of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant:microbe Interactions
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The evolution of plant microRNAs: insights from a basal eudicot sacred lotus

The evolution of plant microRNAs: insights from a basal eudicot sacred lotus | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

microRNAs (miRNAs) are important noncoding small RNAs that regulate mRNAs in eukaryotes. However, under which circumstances different miRNAs/miRNA families exhibit different evolutionary trajectories in plants remains unclear. In this study, we sequenced the small RNAs and degradome from a basal eudicot, sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera or lotus), to identify miRNAs and their targets. Combining with public miRNAs, we predicted 57 pre-eudicot miRNA families from different evolutionary stages. We found that miRNA families featuring older age, higher copy and target number tend to show lower propensity for miRNA family loss (PGL) and stronger signature of purifying selection during divergence of temperate and tropical lotus. Further analyses of lotus genome revealed that there is an association between loss of miRNA families in descendent plants and in duplicated genomes. Gene dosage balance is crucial in maintaining those preferentially retained MIRNA duplicates by imposing stronger purifying selection. However, these factors and selection influencing miRNA family evolution are not applicable to the putative MIRNA-likes. Additionally, the MIRNAs participating in lotus pollen–pistil interaction, a conserved process in angiosperms, also have a strong signature of purifying selection. Functionally, sequence divergence in MIRNAs escalates expression divergence of their target genes between temperate and tropical lotus during rhizome and leaf growth. Overall, our study unravels several important factors and selection that determine the miRNA family distribution in plants and duplicated genomes, and provides evidence for functional impact of MIRNA sequence evolution.


Via Jonathan Plett
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Seed endosymbiosis: a vital relationship in providing prenatal care to plants

Seed endosymbiosis: a vital relationship in providing prenatal care to plants | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Global food security is a challenge, especially under changing climatic conditions. Recent advances in plant technology using plant2microbiome interactions promise an increased crop production. Indeed, all healthy plants or crop genotypes carry a beneficial microbiome, encompassing root and seed associated endosymbionts, providing mycotrophy and mycovitality to plants, respectively. Recent studies have found that mycovitality, or the endosymbiotic seed-fungus relationship and its key translational functions, bear tangible biotechnological benefits. Thus, this paper underlines the role of endophytes as early plant growth promoters under stressful environments. Notably, it explores the concept of p ant prenatal care towards enhanced seed vigor/germination and resilience, which results in an improved crop yield under stressful conditions. It presents an extensive research overview of endosymbiotic plant-fungi relationships with special focus on the wheat seed, an important source of staple food. Historical advances in terminology and scientific concepts on the subject are also presented to highlight the areas where further research is urgently needed.

Via Jonathan Plett
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The Ecological Role of Volatile and Soluble Secondary Metabolites Produced by Soil Bacteria

The Ecological Role of Volatile and Soluble Secondary Metabolites Produced by Soil Bacteria | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
The rich diversity of secondary metabolites produced by soil bacteria has been appreciated for over a century, and advances in chemical analysis and genome sequencing continue to greatly advance our understanding of this biochemical complexity. However, we are just at the beginning of understanding the physicochemical properties of bacterial metabolites, the factors that govern their production and ecological roles. Interspecific interactions and competitor sensing are among the main biotic factors affecting the production of bacterial secondary metabolites. Many soil bacteria produce both volatile and soluble compounds. In contrast to soluble compounds, volatile organic compounds can diffuse easily through air- and gas-filled pores in the soil and likely play an important role in long-distance microbial interactions. In this review we provide an overview of the most important soluble and volatile classes of secondary metabolites produced by soil bacteria, their ecological roles, and their possible synergistic effects.

Via Steve Marek, Giannis Stringlis
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Diverse mechanisms of resistance to Pseudomonas syringae in a thousand natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana

Diverse mechanisms of resistance to Pseudomonas syringae in a thousand natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Plants are continuously threatened by pathogen attack and, as such, they have evolved mechanisms to evade, escape and defend themselves against pathogens. However, it is not known what types of defense mechanisms a plant would already possess to defend against a potential pathogen that has not co-evolved with the plant. We addressed this important question in a comprehensive manner by studying the responses of 1041 accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana to the foliar pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. We characterized the interaction using a variety of established methods, including different inoculation techniques, bacterial mutant strains, and assays for the hypersensitive response, salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and reactive oxygen species production . Fourteen accessions showed resistance to infection by Pst DC3000. Of these, two accessions had a surface-based mechanism of resistance, six showed a hypersensitive-like response while three had elevated SA levels. Interestingly, A. thaliana was discovered to have a recognition system for the effector AvrPto, and HopAM1 was found to modulate Pst DC3000 resistance in two accessions. Our comprehensive study has significant implications for the understanding of natural disease resistance mechanisms at the species level and for the ecology and evolution of plant–pathogen interactions.

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Simplified and representative bacterial community of maize roots

Simplified and representative bacterial community of maize roots | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Plant-associated microbes are important for the growth and health of their hosts. As a result of numerous prior studies, we know that host genotypes and abiotic factors influence the composition of plant microbiomes. However, the high complexity of these communities challenges detailed studies to define experimentally the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of community assembly and the beneficial effects of such microbiomes on plant hosts. In this work, from the distinctive microbiota assembled by maize roots, through host-mediated selection, we obtained a greatly simplified synthetic bacterial community consisting of seven strains (Enterobacter cloacae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Ochrobactrum pituitosum, Herbaspirillum frisingense, Pseudomonas putida, Curtobacterium pusillum, and Chryseobacterium indologenes) representing three of the four most dominant phyla found in maize roots. By using a selective culture-dependent method to track the abundance of each strain, we investigated the role that each plays in community assembly on roots of axenic maize seedlings. Only the removal of E. cloacae led to the complete loss of the community, and C. pusillum took over. This result suggests that E. cloacae plays the role of keystone species in this model ecosystem. In planta and in vitro, this model community inhibited the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium verticillioides, indicating a clear benefit to the host. Thus, combined with the selective culture-dependent quantification method, our synthetic seven-species community representing the root microbiome has the potential to serve as a useful system to explore how bacterial interspecies interactions affect root microbiome assembly and to dissect the beneficial effects of the root microbiota on hosts under laboratory conditions in the future.

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Plant Sex Determination

Plant Sex Determination | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Sex determination is as important for the fitness of plants as it is for animals, but its mechanisms appear to vary much more among plants than among animals, and the expression of gender in plants differs in important respects from that in most animals. In this Minireview,

Via Loïc Lepiniec
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Autocrine regulation of stomatal differentiation potential by EPF1 and ERECTA-LIKE1 ligand-receptor signaling

Autocrine regulation of stomatal differentiation potential by EPF1 and ERECTA-LIKE1 ligand-receptor signaling | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Autocrine regulation of stomatal differentiation potential by EPF1 and ERECTA-LIKE1 ligand-receptor signaling | The stomatal precursor cell uses autocrine peptide-receptor kinase signaling to self-inhibit its differentiation potential in order to ensure proper stomatal development on the plant epidermis.
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The plant perceptron connects environment to development : Nature 

The plant perceptron connects environment to development : Nature  | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Plants cope with the environment in a variety of ways, and ecological analyses attempt to capture this through life-history strategies or trait-based categorization. These approaches are limited because they treat the trade-off mechanisms that underlie plant responses as a black box. Approaches that involve the molecular or physiological analysis of plant responses to the environment have elucidated intricate connections between developmental and environmental signals, but in only a few well-studied model species. By considering diversity in the plant response to the environment as the adaptation of an information-processing network, new directions can be found for the study of life-history strategies, trade-offs and evolution in plants.

Via Loïc Lepiniec
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The Sequence of 1504 Mutants in the Model Rice Variety Kitaake Facilitates Rapid Functional Genomic Studies

The Sequence of 1504 Mutants in the Model Rice Variety Kitaake Facilitates Rapid Functional Genomic Studies | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

ABSTRACT The availability of a whole-genome sequenced mutant population and the cataloging of mutations of each line at a single-nucleotide resolution facilitates functional genomic analysis. To this end, we generated and sequenced a fast-neutron-induced mutant population in the model rice cultivar Kitaake (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica), which completes its life cycle in 9 weeks. We sequenced 1,504 mutant lines at 45-fold coverage and identified 91,513 mutations affecting 32,307 genes, 58% of all rice genes. We detected an average of 61 mutations per line. Mutation types include single base substitutions, deletions, insertions, inversions, translocations, and tandem duplications. We observed a high proportion of loss-of-function mutations. Using this mutant population, we identified an inversion affecting a single gene as the causative mutation for the short-grain phenotype in one mutant line with a small segregating population. This result reveals the usefulness of the resource for efficient identification of genes conferring specific phenotypes. To facilitate public access to this genetic resource, we established an open access database called KitBase that provides access to sequence data and seed stocks, enabling rapid functional genomic studies of rice.


Via Loïc Lepiniec
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A phenol-enriched cuticle is ancestral to lignin evolution in land plants

A phenol-enriched cuticle is ancestral to lignin evolution in land plants | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Lignin, one of the most abundant biopolymers on Earth, derives from the plant phenolic metabolism. It appeared upon terrestrialization and is thought critical for plant colonization of land. Early diverging land plants do not form lignin, but already have elements of its biosynthetic machinery. Here we delete in a moss the P450 oxygenase that defines the entry point in angiosperm lignin metabolism, and find that its pre-lignin pathway is essential for development. This pathway does not involve biochemical regulation via shikimate coupling, but instead is coupled with ascorbate catabolism, and controls the synthesis of the moss cuticle, which prevents desiccation and organ fusion. These cuticles share common features with lignin, cutin and suberin, and may represent the extant representative of a common ancestor. Our results demonstrate a critical role for the ancestral phenolic metabolism in moss erect growth and cuticle permeability, consistent with importance in plant adaptation to terrestrial conditions.


Via Pierre-Marc Delaux
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Current Opinion in Microbiology: The cell biology of late blight disease (2016)

Current Opinion in Microbiology: The cell biology of late blight disease (2016) | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

• The Phytophthora haustorium is a major site of secretion during infection.

• The host endocytic cycle contributes to biogenesis of the Extra-Haustorial Membrane.
• RXLR effectors manipulate host processes at diverse subcellular locations.

• They directly manipulate the activity or location of immune proteins.

• They also promote the activity of endogenous negative regulators of immunity.

 

Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is a major global disease of potato and tomato. Cell biology is teaching us much about the developmental stages associated with infection, especially the haustorium, which is a site of intimate interaction and molecular exchange between pathogen and host. Recent observations suggest a role for the plant endocytic cycle in specific recruitment of host proteins to the Extra-Haustorial Membrane, emphasising the unique nature of this membrane compartment. In addition, there has been a strong focus on the activities of RXLR effectors, which are delivered into plant cells to modulate and manipulate host processes. RXLR effectors interact directly with diverse plant proteins at a range of subcellular locations to promote disease.

 


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL, Ricardo Oliva
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Epigenetic regulation of antagonistic receptors confers rice blast resistance with yield balance

Epigenetic regulation of antagonistic receptors confers rice blast resistance with yield balance | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Rice blast fungus can devastate a rice harvest. Genes that provide resistance to the fungus usually depress rice yield. Deng et al. analyzed the molecular underpinnings of a rice variant that is resistant to rice blast but still high-yielding (see the Perspective by Wang and Valent). The key locus encodes several R (resistance) genes. One gene confers resistance and is expressed throughout the plant. Another gene fails to confer resistance and is expressed only in pollen and panicles (the rice-producing flower clusters). Because the R proteins function as dimers, heterodimerization in pollen and panicles disables resistance. The plants thus produce smaller but more numerous rice grains, which sustains yield, while the body of the plant resists fungal infection.

Science , this issue p. [962][1]; see also p. [906][2]

[1]: /lookup/doi/10.1126/science.aai8898
[2]: /lookup/doi/10.1126/science.aam9517
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Rescooped by Jennifer Mach from Plant pathogens and pests
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Genomic dissection of host–microbe and microbe–microbe interactions for advanced plant breeding

Genomic dissection of host–microbe and microbe–microbe interactions for advanced plant breeding | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it
Highlights



Sequencing plants and microbiota has identified mechanisms of communal interactions.


Identification of host traits, responsible for microbial community structure.


Plant microbiota members evolve at multiple speeds and vary in host specificity.


Niche formation is involved in the structuring of the host associated microbiome.


Niche customization for beneficial microbes is an important plant breeding trait.

Agriculture faces many emerging challenges to sustainability, including limited nutrient resources, losses from diseases caused by current and emerging pathogens and environmental degradation. Microorganisms have great importance for plant growth and performance, including the potential to increase yields, nutrient uptake and pathogen resistance. An urgent need is therefore to understand and engineer plants and their associated microbial communities. Recent massive genomic sequencing of host plants and associated microbes offers resources to identify novel mechanisms of communal assembly mediated by the host. For example, host–microbe and microbe–microbe interactions are involved in niche formation, thereby contributing to colonization. By leveraging genomic resources, genetic traits underlying those mechanisms will become important resources to design plants selecting and hosting beneficial microbial communities.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Cell Host & Microbe: Fungal Sex Receptors Recalibrated to Detect Host Plants (2015)

Cell Host & Microbe: Fungal Sex Receptors Recalibrated to Detect Host Plants (2015) | Emerging Research in Plant Cell Biology | Scoop.it

Via The Sainsbury Lab, Lalit Kharbikar, Jaehyuk Choi, Junhyun Jeon, Xiefang lab
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The Sainsbury Lab's curator insight, December 10, 2015 9:47 AM

Secreted peroxidases are well-known components of damage-induced defense responses in plants. A recent study in Nature ( Turrà et al., 2015) has revealed that these enzymes can inadvertently serve as reporters of wounded sites and constitute an “Achilles heel,” allowing adapted pathogens to track and enter host tissue.