emergent-complexity
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Stroke disrupts how brain controls muscle synergies

Stroke disrupts how brain controls muscle synergies | emergent-complexity | Scoop.it

The simple act of picking up a pencil requires the coordination of dozens of muscles: The eyes and head must turn toward the object as the hand reaches forward and the fingers grasp it. To make this job more manageable, the brain’s motor cortex has implemented a system of shortcuts. Instead of controlling each muscle independently, the cortex is believed to activate muscles in groups, known as “muscle synergies.” These synergies can be combined in different ways to achieve a wide range of movements.

 

A new study from MIT, Harvard Medical School and the San Camillo Hospital in Venice finds that after a stroke, these muscle synergies are activated in altered ways. Furthermore, those disruptions follow specific patterns depending on the severity of the stroke and the amount of time that has passed since the stroke.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Every Citizen Has a Life in the New 'SimCity'

Every Citizen Has a Life in the New 'SimCity' | emergent-complexity | Scoop.it

In what is rapidly becoming one of the most anticipated games releases in the simulation community - a little more info on the forthcoming SimCity release. IN this article and interview with Ocean Quigley of EA/Maxis  quicly explains how the new SimCity simulation engine combines micro and macro simulation elements with each person, building and object will be simulated by the game's engine including individual sims that now have routines and lives and respond to the local events. Click on the image or title to learn more.


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Bill Gates wants to reinvent the toilet: Solar-powered, hydrogen and electricity producing

Bill Gates wants to reinvent the toilet: Solar-powered, hydrogen and electricity producing | emergent-complexity | Scoop.it

Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates has launched a search for a new toilet better suited to developing countries to help prevent disease and death. "Toilets are extremely important for public health, and the flush toilets we use in the wealthy world are irrelevant, impractical and impossible for 40 per cent of the global population, because they often don't have access to water, and sewers, electricity, and sewage treatment systems", Gates said.

 

The recently organized Toilet Fair was described as a swirl of about 200 inventors, designers, investors, partners and others passionate about creating safe, effective, and inexpensive waste management systems.

 

Universities from Britain, Canada, and the United States were awarded prizes in a competition launched a year ago challenging inventors to come up with a better toilet.

 

First place went to the California Institute of Technology for designing a solar-powered toilet that generates hydrogen gas and electricity.

 

Loughborough University came in second for a toilet that transforms waste into biological charcoal, minerals, and clean water.

Third place went to the University of Toronto for a toilet that sanitises human waste and recovers minerals and water.


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Mass of ants behaving like an "intelligent" fluid

Fire ants use their claws to grip diverse surfaces, including each other. As a result of their mutual adhesion and large numbers, ant colonies flow like inanimate fluids. This film shows how ants behave similarly to the spreading of drops, the capillary rise of menisci, and gravity-driven flow down a wall. By emulating the flow of fluids, ant colonies can remain united under stressful conditions.


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Sebastian Seung: I am my connectome

http://www.ted.com Sebastian Seung is mapping a massively ambitious new model of the brain that focuses on the connections between each neuron. He calls it o...
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Biota.org: The Artificial Life Project

The Digital Biology Project...

The podcasts on this site are an excellent distraction during long commutes. 

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SEEDMAGAZINE.COM | The Seed Salon | Jill Tarter + Will Wright

SEEDMAGAZINE.COM | The Seed Salon | Jill Tarter + Will Wright | emergent-complexity | Scoop.it

WIll Wright and Jill Tarter - two personal hero's of mine. Stumbled upon this on the seed.com site  (a great science website and magazine if you do not know it). Who ever had the idea to put these two across from one another at a dinner table and have them talk on Spore, evolution and the evolution of AI - thank you. Watch and enjoy. Click the image or the title for more information.


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Scientists Discover Previously Unknown Cleansing System in Brain

Scientists Discover Previously Unknown Cleansing System in Brain | emergent-complexity | Scoop.it

A previously unrecognized system that drains waste from the brain at a rapid clip has been discovered by neuroscientists at the University of Rochester Medical Center. The highly organized system acts like a series of pipes that piggyback on the brain’s blood vessels, sort of a shadow plumbing system that seems to serve much the same function in the brain as the lymph system does in the rest of the body – to drain away waste products.

 

Scientists have known that cerebrospinal fluid or CSF plays an important role cleansing brain tissue, carrying away waste products and carrying nutrients to brain tissue through a process known as diffusion. The newly discovered system circulates CSF to every corner of the brain much more efficiently, through what scientists call bulk flow or convection.

 

While the previously discovered system works more like a trickle, percolating CSF through brain tissue, the new system is under pressure, pushing large volumes of CSF through the brain each day to carry waste away more forcefully.

 

The glymphatic system is like a layer of piping that surrounds the brain’s existing blood vessels. The team found that glial cells called astrocytes use projections known as “end feet” to form a network of conduits around the outsides of arteries and veins inside the brain – similar to the way a canopy of tree branches along a well-wooded street might create a sort of channel above the roadway.

 

Those end feet are filled with structures known as water channels or aquaporins, which move CSF through the brain. The team found that CSF is pumped into the brain along the channels that surround arteries, then washes through brain tissue before collecting in channels around veins and draining from the brain.


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Dov Henis's comment, August 23, 2012 11:32 AM
Brain's Cleansing System

Tags: brain clean-up, brain evolution, melatonin function, neural cells evolution

A.
Another Wheel Reinvention
Brain's hidden sewers revealed
Specialized cells host a hitherto unknown cleansing system.
http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/343079/title/Brains_hidden_sewers_revealed

B.
http://www.articlesbase.com/science-articles/life-is-simpler-than-they-tell-us-817144.html
Now we can appreciate the fractal nature of life's evolution. It is ever-continuous ever-enhanced ever-complexed cooperation. Now we can understand why, and grosso modo how, all the organs and processes and signals found in multicelled organisms have their origins in the monocells communities, cultures. And this includes the functions of serotonin and melatonin and, yes, the evolution of neural cells and the neural systems with their intricate outer-membrane shapes and functionings and with their high energy consumption requirements.

C.
http://www.immunityageing.com/content/2/1/17/comments
Melatonin Origin And Function
Dov Henis (2009-02-03)
Melatonin's role was to signal that the genes are asleep, their functional activities are shut off, and it is time for the security and maintenance crews to do their tasks, especially to clean up the intercell environment, for keeping the community of cells in proper state.

Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)
http://universe-life.com/
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Measuring the Complexity of Ultra-Large-Scale Evolutionary Systems

Measuring the Complexity of Ultra-Large-Scale Evolutionary Systems | emergent-complexity | Scoop.it

 

Ultra-large scale (ULS) systems are becoming pervasive. They are inherently complex, which makes their design and control a challenge for traditional methods. Amoretti and Gershenson propose the design and analysis of ULS systems using measures of complexity, emergence, self-organization, and homeostasis based on information theory. They evaluate the proposal with a ULS computing system provided with genetic adaptation mechanisms. Researchers show the evolution of the system with stable and also changing workload, using different fitness functions. When the adaptive plan forces the system to converge to a predefined performance level, the nodes may result in highly unstable configurations, that correspond to a high variance in time of the measured complexity. Conversely, if the adaptive plan is less "aggressive", the system may be more stable, but the optimal performance may not be achieved.

 

Source:

Michele Amoretti, Carlos Gershenson

Measuring the Complexity of Ultra-Large-Scale Evolutionary Systems

Neural and Evolutionary Computing. Submitted on 27 Jul 2012


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Mutation Testing – Killed or Survived? | Platformability

Mutation Testing – Killed or Survived? | Platformability | emergent-complexity | Scoop.it
Introduction This blog is a follow up from Why 100% Test Coverage is not enough. Mutation Testing is a method of software testing where the source code (Mutation Testing – Killed or Survived?
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Real-World Applications of Genetic Algorithms | Free 4 Downloads

Real-World Applications of Genetic Algorithms | Free 4 Downloads | emergent-complexity | Scoop.it
Olympia Roeva, “Real-World Applications of Genetic Algorithms” Publisher: InTech | ISBN: 9789535101468, 9535101468 | 2012 | PDF | 376 pages | 12.4 MB. The book addresses some of the most recent issues, with the ...
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