EmDrive (Propelantless microwave resonant reactor by Roger Shawyer)
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# EmDrive (Propelantless microwave resonant reactor by Roger Shawyer)

Just a tech-watch on a possible revolution with EmDrive (Propelantless microwave resonant reactor by Roger Shawyer). Not sure it works. Not sure it cannot work. Just watching. by AlainCo of http://www.lenr-forum.com , @alain_co https://twitter.com/alain_co
Curated by Alain Coetmeur
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## EmDrive - FAQ

Alain Coetmeur's insight:

FAQ

Theory

1.
Q. Is the thrust produced by the EmDrive a reactionless force?
A. No, the thrust is the result of the reaction between the end plates of the waveguide and the Electromagnetic wave propagated within it.

2.
Q. How can a net force be produced by a closed waveguide?
A. At the propagation velocities (greater than one tenth the speed of light) the effects of special relativity must be considered. Different reference planes have to be used for the EM wave and the waveguide itself. The thruster is therefore an open system and a net force can be produced.

3.
Q. Why does the net force not get balanced out by the axial component of the sidewall force?
A. The net force is not balanced out by the axial component of the sidewall force because there is a highly non linear relationship between waveguide diameter and group velocity. (e.g. at cut off diameter, the group velocity is zero, the guide wavelength is infinity, but the diameter is clearly not zero.) The design of the cavity is such that the ratio of end wall forces is maximised, whilst the axial component of the sidewall force is reduced to a negligible value.

4.
Q. Does the theory of the EmDrive contravene the accepted laws of physics or electromagnetic theory?
A. The EmDrive does not violate any known law of physics. The basic laws that are applied in the theory of the EmDrive operation are as follows:

Newton’s laws are applied in the derivation of the basic static thrust equation (Equation 11 in the theory paper) and have also been demonstrated to apply to the EmDrive experimentally.

The law of conservation of momentum is the basis of Newtons laws and therefore applies to the EmDrive. It is satisfied both theoretically and experimentally.

The law of conservation of energy is the basis of the dynamic thrust equation which applies to the EmDrive under acceleration,(see Equation 16 in the theory paper).

The principles of electromagnetic theory are used to derive the basic design equations.

5.
Q. Why does the EmDrive not contravene the conservation of momentum when it operates in free space?
A. The EmDrive cannot violate the conservation of momentum. The electromagnetic wave momentum is built up in the resonating cavity, and is transferred to the end walls upon reflection. The momentum gained by the EmDrive plus the momentum lost by the electromagnetic wave equals zero. The direction and acceleration that is measured, when the EmDrive is tested on a dynamic test rig, comply with Newtons laws and confirm that the law of conservation of momentum is satisfied.

6.
Q. Is the EmDrive a form of perpetual motion machine?
A. The EmDrive obeys the law of conservation of energy and is therefore not a perpetual motion machine. Energy must be expended to accelerate the EmDrive (see Equation 16 of the theory paper). Once the EmDrive is switched off, Newton’s laws ensure that motion is constant unless it is acted upon by another force.

7.
Q. Why does the thrust decrease as the spacecraft velocity along the thrust vector increases?
A. As the spacecraft accelerates along the thrust vector, energy is lost by the engine and gained as additional kinetic energy by the spacecraft. This energy can be defined as the thrust multiplied by the distance through which the thrust acts. For a given acceleration period, the higher the mean velocity, the longer the distance travelled, hence the higher the energy lost by the engine.
This loss of stored energy from the resonant cavity leads to a reduction in Q and hence a reduction of thrust.

Test procedures

8.
Q. Has buoyancy been allowed for?
A. Buoyancy has been allowed for in the initial experiments and then eliminated by hermetically sealing the thruster.

9.
Q. Are there any convection currents which might affect the results?
A. Convection currents did not affect the results, as measurements were taken with the thrust vector up, down and horizontal. Test runs were also carried out using a thermal simulation heater to quantify the effects of change of coolant temperature.

10.
Q. Has stiffness in cables and pipes been allowed for?
A. The only connections to the balance were high flex electrical links

11.
Q. Has friction in any pivots been allowed for?
A. Static thrust measurements were carried out using 3 different techniques – a counterbalance rig with a knife edge pivot, a direct weighing method using a 16kg balance (0.1 gm resolution), and with the thruster suspended from a spring balance with the weight partly offloaded on to an electronic balance.

12.
Q. Have electromagnetic effects been taken into account? These include interactions between current-carrying conductors and between such conductors carrying RF currents and nearby metallic structures in which currents might be induced.
A. Stray electromagnetic effects were eliminated by using different test rigs, by testing two thrusters with very different mounting structures, and by changing the orientation by 90 degrees to eliminate the Earth’s magnetic field.

13.
Q. Is there any ionization within the air, which might cause electrostatic charging and resulting forces?
A. Electrostatic charges were eliminated by the comprehensive earthing required for safety reasons, and to provide the return path for the magnetron anode current.

14.
Q. Could RF pick-up measurement circuits have produced erroneous results?
A. EMC tests were carried out on the instrumentation to eliminate the effects of RF pick up.

15.
Q. Could acceleration be caused by spurious torques generated by the air bearing?
A. Dynamic tests are preceded by an acceleration calibration test, using standard weights to determine the air bearing friction.

16.
Q. Could acceleration be caused by anomalous thermal or electromagnetic effects?
A. Acceleration and deceleration tests have been carried out in both clockwise and anti-clockwise directions Acceleration from rest only starts when the magnetron output frequency matches the resonant frequency of the engine, following an initial warm-up period.

Applications

17.
Q. Can the technology be qualified for space applications?
A. Yes, all the basic microwave, power supply, thermal and control technologies are similar to flight equipment currently used on high power communication satellites.

18.
Q. How can the EmDrive produce enough thrust for terrestrial applications?
A. The second generation engines will be capable of producing a specific thrust of 30kN/kW. Thus for 1 kilowatt (typical of the power in a microwave oven) a static thrust of 3 tonnes can be obtained, which is enough to support a large car. This is clearly adequate for terrestrial transport applications.
The static thrust/power ratio is calculated assuming a superconducting EmDrive with a Q of 5 x 109. This Q value is routinely achieved in superconducting cavities.
Note however, because the EmDrive obeys the law of conservation of energy, this thrust/power ratio rapidly decreases if the EmDrive is used to accelerate the vehicle along the thrust vector. (See Equation 16 of the theory paper). Whilst the EmDrive can provide lift to counter gravity, (and is therefore not losing kinetic energy), auxiliary propulsion is required to provide the kinetic energy to accelerate the vehicle.

Alain Coetmeur's comment, August 24, 2013 7:38 AM
It seems hard to believe, but if they did as they say, it seems experimentally hard to criticize.
For theoretical reasons, they seems to have well studied (and have been criticized), and incredulity is probably based on misunderstanding of relativistic effects.
If EmDrive is erroneous, it is probably both a strange experimental artifact that survives many checking, and tricky detail in the computations, that were not noticed by critics.
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## Click here to support Flying an EMDrive into space by Paul Kocyla

Flying an EMDrive into space by Paul Kocyla - My name is Paul Kocyla, and I am a hardware engineer in Aachen/Germany. I  built a tiny satellite which fits  into your pocket.  It flew into orbit  in  2013 and complies to a femtosatellite standard called PocketQube. Recently, a new kind of space propulsion device ran through the media. I
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## NASA Research To Create A ‘Warp Drive’ Bubble In Lab

Recently, it emerged that a small team of NASA researchers were working on warp drive technology in the lab. Led by Harold “Sonny” White, the team devised a variation of the Alcubierre warp drive. It could, in fact, almost be feasibly produced — if w
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## NASA May Have Accidentally Discovered Faster Than Light Travel

The idea of travelling to other planets with current technology has seemed impossible for a long time - but, with the power of super-luminal travel, moving from planet to planet would be almost instantaneous. Who wouldn't want to go zippin
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## "Unmöglicher Antrieb": Forscher an der Schwelle zur Geschwindigkeits-Revolution

Ist es eine revolutionäre Entdeckung, der Raketenantrieb der Zukunft, der Astronauten in gerade einmal 41 Tagen zum Mars katapultiert -  oder doch bloß ein
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## 科学家尝试将EmDrive与“飞掠反常”理论之间建立起联系-航天及新概念武器-超级大本营军事论坛-最具影响力军事论坛 -

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## Details • EM-Drive • Hackaday.io

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## IMPLAUSIBLE SPACESHIPS COULD BE POSSIBLE

One of the most interesting and controversial proposals of recent times
would answer the problem of fictional spaceships not carrying thousands of
tons of fuel. In fact, it would be a total game-changer. It’s an
electromagnetic drive now often called the EM Drive (shown in the photo)
designed by an English scientist named Roger Shawyer about fifteen years
ago, but it’s so revolutionary, and contrary to prevailing belief, that
most scientists simply won’t accept that it works. The Shawyer engine uses
microwaves bounced around in a sealed chamber to produce propulsion.
Established wisdom says that in order to go in one direction in space we
have to throw something in the opposite direction. So scientists declare
that Shawyer’s device can’t work. Except Shawyer showed that it does. And
then Chinese researchers got one to work, and an American inventor showed a
working model to NASA, and now a respected German professor has made one
that works (though he’s still not sure why it produces thrust). The jury’s
still out on the EM Drive, but acceptance is growing, and if it turns out
to be workable it just might prove that many of the fictional spaceships
we’ve read about in books and seen in movies are more realistic than we
thought.

...

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## LISTEN: Young scientist shines at Eskom Science Expo

JOBURG - A Grade 11 pupil of Sacred Heart College won a gold medal in the category of Innovation and Technology in the Eskom Science Expo for Young Scientists.
A delighted Stansell said it was a really great experience to have the opportunity to compete at the highest level, although the competition was intense with international students taking part. His project entitled, Embrive, which is a type of rocket for space travel which used microwaves instead of fuel, won him the medal. “It feels good to have achieved these accolades, and hopefully I can continue with this project and take it overseas next year,” he said.

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## The #EMpossibleDrive - 9.16

This week we bring on Dave Distler to talk about the EMDrive once more. REMEMBER: DAVE IS A TRAINED PROFESSIONAL -- DO NOT ATTEMPT TO BUILD YOUR OWN EMDRIVE AT HOME!

Dave advanced through three high-tech RF & Microwave manufacturing companies in 35 years. He started out as a technician, then Quality Control, Sales and Applications Engineering, to Sale and Marketing Manager and finally to Product Line Manager. He has traveled worldwide extensively and met with high level Engineers designing and testing transmission and receive systems for Military, Aerospace, Space and Commercial systems. He holds an Extra Class Amateur Radio License and has built and designed a variety of high power RF Systems. Today, he is semi-retired and enjoys returning to his roots in electronics with designing, building and testing what he at first considered an implausible Electromagnetic Propulsion device.

In Space News we have:
* Falcon 9 launches with JCSAT-14 – lands another stage
* Departure of Europe’s First Mars Rover delayed to 2020
* Russian rocket recovery is a bit different than SpaceX
* SpaceX to test recovered stage on SLC-39A
* Rare Transit of Mercury to Take Place on May 9th
* July - 1st flight of new Antares Rocket

TMRO Live Shows are crowd funded. If you like this episode consider contributing to help us to continue to improve. Head over to http://www.patreon.com/tmro for information, goals and reward levels. Don't forget to check out our SpacePod campaign as well over at http://www.patreon.com/spacepod

Via Stratocumulus
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## Here’s the 411 on the EmDrive: the ‘physics-defying’ thruster even NASA is puzzled over

Despite the fact that they're still unsure of how it works exactly, NASA scientists have confirmed once again that the seemingly impossible EmDrive is legit
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## New hypothesis attempts to crack mystery of how fuel free engine that appears to violate known laws of physics works

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## Physics from the edge: New Emdrive Result & Unmissing Planck

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## Am eigenen Zopf durchs Universum

Kann sich eine Rakete durchs All bewegen, indem ihre Passagiere kräftig gegen die Vorderwand pochen?
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## [1101.4678] Frequency Dependence of Rotor's Free Falling Acceleration and Inequality of Inertial and Gravity Masses

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## Создан электромагнитный двигатель нарушающий законы физики

Свежие новости Украины, последние новости из-за рубежа, новости политики, экономики, спорта, культуры, технологий, шоу-бизнеса
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## Physics from the edge: We learn by doing, MiHsC, emdrive

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## Goodreads | Michael Brachman's Blog: Tales of the Vuduri - The EmDrive - May 19, 2016 06:13

Yesterday, I told you about a new substance called Vantablack which is blacker than black. I tried to figure out if there was some way to fold this ne
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## Создан электромагнитный двигатель нарушающий законы физики | Журнал

В это трудно поверить… Если всё так, перед человечеством вот-вот откроется новая эра — Эра космических путешествий.

EmDrive (сокр. «электромагнитный двигатель») используе
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## Physics from the edge: Clearer Explanation of MiHsC & EMdrive

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## 无需燃料的宇宙飞船推进器，不可能成为可能？--百度百家

Alain Coetmeur's insight:
Chinese version of what is in international news.
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## Africa Intel ISEF 2016 - Testing of an Electromagnetic Drive

Name: Paul Stansell
Location: Johannesburg, South Africa
School Represented: Sacred Heart College
Student Showcase: Electric Space Propulsion – An Exploration into Innovative Propellant Solutions Involving the Testing of an Electromagnetic Drive Study
Synopses: Since its birth, spaceflight has always been hindered by propellant constraints. Unfeasible amounts of fuel are required to cover the vast distances between stars and so modern spaceflight is confined to the solar system. A revolutionary electric propulsion system, according to Stansell, composed of a hollow asymmetric resonant cavity excited by microwaves, known as the EMDrive has been shown to produce a unidirectional acceleration although results have been inconclusive. This warrants further research. According to Stansell a non-resonant EMDrive was constructed to act as a control, this design was then extended to create a new cavity which allowed for resonance at a frequency of 2450 MHz. The designs were tested in both the upright and inverted orientations to allow for EMDrive force separation from buoyant forces. The designs were tested on a millinewton resolution knife-edge fulcrum which was calibrated to accurately determine thrust magnitude. Stansell revealed that due to thermal currents caused by the heating of the magnetron and cavity, each test experienced net upwards motion. However the resonant upright cavity moved upwards considerably more than the non-resonant control suggesting another force was at work pushing the cavity upwards. Additionally the resonant inverted test moved upwards considerably less than the control again indicating another force was counteracting the net upwards motion. This force varied in magnitude from 8.8825 millinewtons 11.8436 millinewtons. In conclusion, according to Stansell, despite thermal current interference a replicable, anomalous thrust was produced. As the observed thrust is not yet attributable to any known physical phenomenon more research in vacuum is required.
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## Physics from the edge: Response to John Baez: 1 (MiHsC)

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## Stories that creep into my mind: How it works

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## Flying the infinite improbability drive _ hackaday | Organ donorship

BLOOD
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