Sir Tim Berners-Lee calls for net access to be treated as a basic right, following a report suggesting great inequalities online.
The web is becoming less free and more unequal, according to a report from the World Wide Web Foundation.
Its annual web index suggests web users are at increasing risk of government surveillance, with laws preventing mass snooping weak or non-existent in over 84% of countries.
It also indicates that online censorship is on the rise.
The report led web inventor Sir Tim Berners-Lee to call for net access to be recognised as a human right.
The World Wide Web Foundation, led by Sir Tim, measured the web's contribution to the social, economic and political progress of 86 countries.
Other headline findings from the report include:
74% of countries either lack clear and effective net neutrality rules and/or show evidence of traffic discrimination62% of countries report that the web plays a major role in sparking social or political action74% of countries are not doing enough to stop online harassment of women
The index ranked countries around the world in terms of:
universal accessrelevant content and usefreedom and opennessempowerment
Four of the top five were Scandinavian, with Denmark in first place, Finland second and Norway third. The UK came fourth, followed by Sweden.
"The richer and better educated people are, the more benefit they are gaining from the digital revolution," said Anne Jellema, chief executive of the World Wide Web Foundation, and the lead author of the report.