Abstract: QR codes, developed by a Japanese company, have been around for over fifteen years.
With the advent of smart and Web capable mobile devices, we witness a steady growth of interesting
commercial applications using QR codes. As the movement of using QR codes in education is still
in its infancy, this paper serves to be one of the first comprehensive papers in journal publication
to fully delineate (a) the user characteristics of QR codes, (b) the processes of making and reading
QR codes, (c) the survey of commercial applications using QR codes, (d) the literature review of
educational applications using QR codes, and (e) offer suggestions and implementations of QR
codes in school education.