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Construir sistemas, desenvolver códigos, criar jogos. Assistir a uma aula por computador, conhecer as possibilidades culturais em torno de uma escola por georreferenciamento. Enfim, mostrar que as escolas não estão alheias ao processo de inclusão digital e chamá-las para a discussão. A 12ª Oficina para Inclusão Digital e Participação Social, realizada pela Associação Software Livre.Org na semana passada, em Brasília, trouxe estes e muitos outros temas que buscam apontar ideias e soluções possíveis para a educação no século 21.
As part of my job at the World Bank helping to advise governments on what works, and what doesn't, related to the use of new technologies in education around the world, especially in middle- and low-income countries, I spend a fair amount of time trying to track down information about projects -- sometimes quite large in scale and invariably described as 'innovative' in some way -- that were announced with much fanfare which received a great deal of press attention, but about which very little information is subsequently made widely available. Most of these projects prominently featured some new type of technology gear, whether low cost laptops for students or new ways to connect people in remote places to the Internet or low-power e-reader devices. Other projects featured new software (English learning apps for phones! Free science curricula for teachers! A learning management system that enables personalized learning!). A sub-set of these projects -- the really ambitious and 'visionary' ones -- combined both hardware and software, and a variety of services to support their introduction and use. I do this follow up for two very basic reasons: (1) I am generally interested in learning from these sorts of projects, wherever they may be happening; and (2) I am asked about them a lot. These conversations generally go one of two ways: "Whatever happened to that project in [fill in country name] -- how are things going there these days?" "Things are proceeding [well / not so well], and a bit more slowly than originally envisioned. Here's what you need to know ..." or, alternatively: "Can you give me an update on the exciting stuff that is happening with computers in schools in ___?" "You mean the ___ project? Actually, that never actually happened." "No, that's not true, I read that ---" "Yes, you probably did read that. You may well have heard about it during a presentation by [insert name of vendor] as well. But I assure you: I talk regularly with [the ministry of education / companies / NGOs / researchers] there: Nothing actually happened there related to this stuff in the past, and nothing is happening there related to this stuff now. Will something happen there in the future? Undoubtedly something will ... perhaps even something as potentially 'transformative' as was promised ... although whether it happens in the way it was originally marketed or advertised: Your guess is as good as mine." In retrospect, the rather short half-life of an unfortunate number of such aborted projects can largely be measured not by things actually implemented 'on the ground', but rather by PowerPoint presentations and press releases. (A rather charitable characterization of what happened in some such cases, but one that is not always or necessarily more accurate, might be that people were 'overly optimistic' or that someone or some group 'was simply ahead of her/their time'. Technology folks sometimes just dismiss such efforts as 'vaporware'.) When it comes to educational technology projects, most of the press attention tends to come when new initiatives of these sorts are announced, with some momentum continuing on for awhile in the early days of a project, especially when, for example, kids get new tablets for the first time, an occasion that presents a nice, and ready-made, photo opportunity (not that such things are ever conceived of as photo opportunities, of course!). Then, often: Silence. Projects that do get implemented, and last for awhile, tend eventually to be crowded out of the popular consciousness by the latest and greatest new (new!) thing -- and, when it comes to the use of technology in education, one thing can be certain: There is always a next new (new!) thing. (In addition to lots of press attention, the well-known One Laptop Per Child project was the subject of many papers and presentations from academics in the early days that were largely speculative -- e.g. here's what could happen -- and theoretical -- e.g. here's a pedagogical approach whose time has come. Only recently have we started to see more deliberative, rigorous academic work looking at actual implementation models, and what has happened as a result.) --- For me, the most interesting part of the use of technology in education isn't the planning for it (although I spend a lot of time helping people who do that sort of thing) nor the evaluation of the impact of such use (I spend a lot of time on that stuff as well). The most interesting part is implementation -- because it's so messy; because a fidelity to certain theoretical constructs and models often comes into rude collision with reality; because that's where you really *learn* about what works, and what doesn't, and what impact the whole enterprise may be having. How are kids, and teachers, actually using the stuff? What unexpected problems are people having -- and how are they being addressed? What is changing or happening that is interesting or surprising that wasn't part of the original plan, but which is potentially quite exciting? One place where things have actually happened related to technology use in education, and where they continue to happen, at a rather large scale, is Portugal. --- Back in 2012, we had a small event here at the World Bank that attempted to share some of the lessons learned from recent Portuguese experiences in introducing new technologies into the education sector (see Around the World with Portugal's eEscola Project and Magellan Initiative). The U.S.-based Consortium for School Networking (CoSN) released a report last month as a follow-up to a study visit to Portugal in late 2013. While written from a North American perspective and for a North American audience, "Reinventing Learning in Portugal: An Ecosystem Approach" provides a useful lens through which an outsider, regardless which continent she calls home, can start to take stock of some of the high level lessons from the ongoing Portuguese experience. (Side note: I would also be quite interested to read a companion report at some point that focuses on what went wrong in Portugal, and what changed as a result; I am a big believer in the power and value of learning from failure.) --- Countries interested in learning about the 'impact' of efforts to introduce and sustain the use of technologies to benefit education in Portugal might do well to understand the context of what has happened in Portugal, and the circumstances that may make it either unique, or a good comparator, to their own national circumstances. A quick review of what's happened in Portugal:
Si vous avez peur de la mort ou de ne rien laisser à vos descendants, cette nouvelle va vous emplir de joie. Un ingénieur a affirmé que dans une trentaine d'années, vous pourrez transférer toute votre mémoire dans un disque dur d'ordinateur. La vie éternelle ne sera peut-être plus un mythe inaccessible.
C'est pendant le congrès Global Future 2045 que l'informaticien Ray Kurzweil a annoncé l'incroyable nouvelle. En partant du principe que les ordinateurs doublent de puissance tous les deux ans (loi de Moore), il sera possible de stocker sur disque dur l'intégralité des informations contenues dans un cerveau humain d'ici 2045. En admettant que vous trépassiez à cette époque, vos proches pourraient alors continuer à "discuter" avec vous, apprendre des choses en consultant votre répertoire culture, rire un bon coup en visitant votre dossier "humour", etc.
En imaginant une interface appropriée, il serait même possible de discuter avec vous en direct, comme dans une conversation Skype. Pour pousser les suppositions encore plus loin, certains chercheurs n'hésitent pas à dire que l'on pourrait ensuite réimplanter les données dans un robot pour humaniser le défunt. Pour cela, il faudra par contre attendre encore un peu plus longtemps. Toujours est-il que le sujet passionne. Un neurobiologiste américain a ainsi déclaré qu'il était prêt à se suicider afin d'être réincarné dans une machine pour faire avancer le projet.
Le court métrage ci-dessous, intitulé "The Final Moments of Karl Brant", propose une vision de cette nouvelle technologie. Un homme qui a transféré sa mémoire dans un ordinateur se fait assassiner quelques temps plus tard. Les enquêteurs accèdent à ces données et parviennent à discuter avec le défunt sous forme d'hologramme pour qu'il livre des informations précieuses sur le meurtrier et les raisons qui l'ont poussé à passer à l'acte. Une fois qu'il a donné les renseignements utiles à l'enquête, l'esprit est débranché alors qu'il réclame de vivre de cette façon plutôt que de disparaître.
Nous avons été complètement subjugués d'apprendre que le contenu de notre cerveau pourrait nous survivre. Nous n'aurions pas imaginé qu'une telle technologie soit réalisable dans un futur proche. Toutefois, cela est-il bien moral et ne vaudrait-il pas mieux laisser les gens partir pour de bon ? Si cela devenait possible, aimeriez-vous devenir immortel en transférant votre cerveau dans un ordinateur ?
In this article, I will offer you an in-depth look at how you can integrate Micro-eLearning techniques into your eLearning course, in order to improve performance and provide your students or employees with the most beneficial eLearning course design.
There are a variety of benefits associated with Micro-learning, particularly in eLearning environments. In essence, micro-eLearning offers students and employees the opportunity to more easily absorb and retain the information that is being offered, by making lessons and course activities more manageable and “digestible”. Micro-eLearning is often referred to as “bite sized” education, because it breaks the educational process down into lessons that typically last no longer than a few minutes, and enable them to collect and recall course materials more efficiently and effectively.
I was going to include these thoughts as part of my weekly reflection about using iPads in the classroom but the further my mind delved the more distant I seemed to get from the basic pedagogy which I was trying to record in those weekly posts.