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New kind of substances inhibits viruses and bacteria

New kind of substances inhibits viruses and bacteria | Ehealth | Scoop.it

A new class of substances is effective against both the AIDS pathogen, HIV, and antibiotics-resistant MRSA bacteria. These two pathogensoften occur together. Scientists hope that it may be possible to control them with a single drug in the future. Scientists of the Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS) developed so-called dual agents that inhibit the growth of both types of pathogens. They describe their findings in the renowned Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. The HIPS is the Saarbrücken branch of the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), which has its headquarters in Braunschweig. It was founded jointly by the HZI and Saarland University in 2009.

 

The human immunodeficiency virus HIV is one of the most dangerous and widespreadpathogens throughout the world. Some 37 million people are host to the virus and 1.2 million were killed by this disease in 2014 alone. Meanwhile, both the proliferation of the pathogen and the progression of the disease can be halted through a combination therapy, but the viruses show an increasing trend to develop resistance and no longer respond to the medications used against them.

 

The notorious MRSA bacteria, i.e. methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, show similar persistence as many common antibiotics have become ineffective. HIV patients, whose immune systemhas already been weakened by the disease, are often additionally afflicted by MRSA pathogens. These co-infections are very problematic and difficult to treat. "Resistance to the common therapies is quite widespread amongst both the viruses and the MRSA bacteria, which means that the co-infection is very difficult to control," explains HZI scientist Prof Rolf Hartmann, who is the head of the "Drug Design and Optimization" department at the HIPS. "In addition, it is necessary to carefully consider the interactions between the medications given to the patients."


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Tunneling nanotubes between neurons enable the spread of Parkinson's disease via lysosomes

Tunneling nanotubes between neurons enable the spread of Parkinson's disease via lysosomes | Ehealth | Scoop.it

Scientists from the Institut Pasteur have demonstrated the role of lysosomal vesicles in transporting α-synuclein aggregates, responsible for Parkinson's and other neurodegenerative diseases, between neurons. These proteins move from one neuron to the next in lysosomal vesicles which travel along the "tunneling nanotubes" between cells. These findings were published in The EMBO Journal on Aug. 22, 2016.

 

Synucleinopathies, a group of neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease, are characterized by the pathological deposition of aggregates of the misfolded α-synuclein protein into inclusions throughout the central and peripheral nervous system. Intercellular propagation (from one neuron to the next) of α-synuclein aggregates contributes to the progression of the neuropathology, but little was known about the mechanism by which spread occurs.

 

In this study, scientists from the Membrane Traffic and Pathogenesis Unit, directed by Chiara Zurzolo at the Institut Pasteur, used fluorescence microscopy to demonstrate that pathogenic α-synuclein fibrils travel between neurons in culture, inside lysosomal vesicles through tunneling nanotubes (TNTs), a new mechanism of intercellular communication.

 

After being transferred via TNTs, α-synuclein fibrils are able to recruit and induce aggregation of the soluble α-synuclein protein in the cytosol of cells receiving the fibrils, thus explaining the propagation of the disease. The scientists propose that cells overloaded with α-synuclein aggregates in lysosomes dispose of this material by hijacking TNT-mediated intercellular trafficking. However, this results in the disease being spread to naive neurons.

 

This study demonstrates that TNTs play a significant part in the intercellular transfer of α-synuclein fibrils and reveals the specific role of lysosomes in this process. This represents a major breakthrough in understanding the mechanisms underlying the progression of synucleinopathies.

 

These compelling findings, together with previous reports from the same team, point to the general role of TNTs in the propagation of prion-like proteins in neurodegenerative diseases and identify TNTs as a new therapeutic target to combat the progression of these incurable diseases.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Stem cell gene Oct4 helps to prevent heart attack, stroke, and counteracts aging

Stem cell gene Oct4 helps to prevent heart attack, stroke, and counteracts aging | Ehealth | Scoop.it

University of Virginia School of Medicine have discovered that a gene called Oct4 — which scientific dogma insists is inactive in adults — actually plays a vital role in preventing ruptured atherosclerotic plaques inside blood vessels, the underlying cause of most heart attacks and strokes.

 

The researchers found that Oct4 controls the conversion of smooth muscle cells into protective fibrous “caps” inside plaques, making the plaques less likely to rupture. They also discovered that the gene promotes many changes in gene expression that are beneficial in stabilizing the plaques. In addition, the researchers believe it may be possible to develop drugs or other therapeutic agents that target the Oct4 pathway as a way to reduce the incidence of heart attacks or stroke.

 

The researchers are also currently testing Oct4′s possible role in repairing cellular damage and healing wounds, which would make it useful for regenerative medicine.

 

Oct4 is one of the “stem cell pluripotency factors” described by Shinya Yamanaka, PhD, of Kyoto University, for which he received the 2012 Nobel Prize. His lab and many others have shown that artificial over-expression of Oct4 within somatic cells grown in a lab dish is essential for reprogramming these cells into induced pluripotential stem cells, which can then develop into any cell type in the body or even an entire organism.

 

“Finding a way to reactivate this pathway may have profound implications for health and aging,” said researcher Gary K. Owens, director of UVA’s Robert M. Berne Cardiovascular Research Center. “This could impact many human diseases and the field of regenerative medicine. [It may also] end up being the ‘fountain-of-youth gene,’ a way to revitalize old and worn-out cells.”


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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 Pfizer donne le coup d’envoi du premier mHealth Hackathon à Bruxelles

 Pfizer donne le coup d’envoi du premier mHealth Hackathon à Bruxelles | Ehealth | Scoop.it

Le week-end du 18 mars, la société pharmaceutique Pfizer accueille dans ses bureaux 100 profils créatifs pour le tout premier mHealth Hackathon officiel en Belgique.


Via Philippe Marchal, Bruno Demay, Lionel Reichardt / le Pharmageek
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Le futur de la chirurgie passera par l'alliance entre robotique et réalité augmentée

Le futur de la chirurgie passera par l'alliance entre robotique et réalité augmentée | Ehealth | Scoop.it

La chirurgie du futur devra pouvoir s'appuyer sur "une combinaison entre réalité virtuelle et systèmes robotisés", a soutenu Luc Soler, cofondateur de la start-up Visible Patient et membre de l'Institut de recherche contre les cancers de l'appareil digestif (Ircad), lors de la 3ème édition du Hacking health Camp à Strasbourg le 17 mars.


Via Rémy TESTON, Philippe Marchal
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Ontdek de winnaars van de eerste Belgische mHealt Hackaton

Ontdek de winnaars van de eerste Belgische mHealt Hackaton | Ehealth | Scoop.it

Dit weekend vond in Brussel de eerste Belgische mHealth Hackaton plaats. Een honderdtal creatievelingen probeerden tal van nieuwe applicaties en gezondheidsoplossingen uit te werken om de mobiele gezondheidszorg in een stroomversnelling te brengen. Na 48 uur brainstormen, ideën uit te testen en programmeren was het zondagavond tijd voor de grote pitchavond. Elk van de 13 teams kreeg 7 minuten om hun oplossing voor te stellen aan het grote publiek en de jury te overtuigen.


Via Philippe Marchal
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Elon Musk: Fully autonomous cars with 1,000km electric range are coming in 2017

Elon Musk: Fully autonomous cars with 1,000km electric range are coming in 2017 | Ehealth | Scoop.it

Elon Musk believes Tesla cars will be fully autonomous by 2018, and have an all-electric range of more than 1,000km, double what it is today. He also predicts that by 2035 all new cars will not require a driver.


A renowned futurist and CEO of Tesla and SpaceX, Musk predicts that the range of the Model S can be increased by between 5% and 10% every year, as battery technology improves. He also claims the AutoPilot self-driving feature currently being beta tested by Tesla will be rolled-out to all compatible Model S vehicles by the end of October. AutoPilot provides automatic steering, accelerating and braking on motorways, but only in countries which have updated their road laws to allow it.


In an interview on Dutch television, Musk said: "My guess is that we could probably break 1,000km within a year or two. I'd say 2017 for sure...in 2020 I guess we could probably make a car go 1,200km. I think maybe 5-10% a year [improvement], something like that." A Model S was recently driven 452 miles (723km) on a single charge, but drove at an average speed of just 24mph. Musk says his predictions account for driving at a more realistic speed. Musk added that AutoPilot will be switched on in a month's time, adding: "My guess for when we'll have full autonomy is about three years, approximately three years." This is much sooner than 2020, when analysts had expected to see autonomous cars from Google - and possible Apple - go on sale.


But this is with a caveat. "Regulators will not allow full autonomy for one to two years – maybe one to three years – after that," Musk said. "It depends on the particular market; in some markets the regulators will be more forward leaning than others. But in terms of when [full autonomy] will be technologically possible, I think three years."


Looking even further ahead, Musk predicts that – providing "civilisation is still around" – by 2035 "we'll see a very large percentage of cars being electric [on the road] probably all cars being built will have full autonomy in 20 years." Again, however, a caveat exists, in that cars are not replaced as often as smartphones, so it will take a considerable amount of time for all vehicles on the world's roads (around 2.5 billion) to become electric and autonomous. Musk reckons it would take another 20 years to fully replace all cars and trucks being used in 2035 with electric vehicles.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Très-Haut Débit, télémédecine

Comment le développement du réseau Très Haut-Débit améliore t-il notre quotidien ? Réponse en images avec le centre hospitalier de Challans, en Vendée, qui n...
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Reportage chez H4D, inventeur de la cabine de télémédecine. C'est dans le prochain Business Club

Reportage chez H4D, inventeur de la cabine de télémédecine. C'est dans le prochain Business Club | Ehealth | Scoop.it
Dans le Business Club de France - Sur BFM Business Radio Diffusé samedi 11/10/14 à 7h et dimanche 12/10/14 à 15h Au sommaire :  Talk 1 : Quitter Paris, vous y songez? Talk 2 : Comment booster sa ma...
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Lorraine Numerique - à la une - Lorainne : la télémédecine progresse - Lorraine Numérique

Lorraine Numerique - à la une - Lorainne : la télémédecine progresse - Lorraine Numérique | Ehealth | Scoop.it
Le 13 octobre, seront lancées les premières téléconsultations gériatriques entre le centre hospitalier de Saint-Avold et quatre EHPAD lorrains.
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Mohamed Hijri TEDx talk: A simple solution to the coming phosphorus crisis (en Francais!)

Mohamed Hijri TEDx talk: A simple solution to the coming phosphorus crisis (en Francais!) | Ehealth | Scoop.it
Biologist Mohamed Hijri brings to light a farming crisis no one is talking about: We are running out of phosphorus, an essential element that's a key component of DNA and the basis of cellular communication. All roads of this crisis lead back to how we farm -- with chemical fertilizers chock-full of the element, which plants are not efficient at absorbing. One solution? Perhaps … a microscopic mushroom. (Filmed at TEDxUdeM.)

Via Mary Williams
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Améliorer la relation médecin-patient grâce aux...

Améliorer la relation médecin-patient grâce aux... | Ehealth | Scoop.it
Les réseaux sociaux sont-ils devenus l'outil de communication santé idéal pour améliorer la relation médecin-patient?
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Télémédecine: un programme ambitieux de surveillance des insuffisants cardiaques

Télémédecine: un programme ambitieux de surveillance des insuffisants cardiaques | Ehealth | Scoop.it
Premier site français d’information en continu sur les technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC, NTIC) dans la santé - TIC santé (Télémédecine: un programme ambitieux de surveillance des insuffisants cardiaques...
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Hybrid system designed to harvest 'full spectrum' of solar energy

Hybrid system designed to harvest 'full spectrum' of solar energy | Ehealth | Scoop.it
A new concept could bring highly efficient solar power by combining three types of technologies that convert different parts of the light spectrum and also store energy for use after sundown.

Combining the technologies could make it possible to harness and store far more of the spectrum of sunlight than is possible using any one of the technologies separately.

"Harvesting the full spectrum of sunlight using a hybrid approach offers the potential for higher efficiencies, lower power production costs, and increased power grid compatibility than any single technology by itself," said Peter Bermel, an assistant professor in Purdue University's School of Electrical and Computer Engineering. "The idea is to use technologies that, for the most part exist now, but to combine them in a creative way that allows us to get higher efficiencies than we normally would."

The approach combines solar photovoltaic cells, which convert visible and ultraviolet light into electricity, thermoelectric devices that convert heat into electricity, and steam turbines to generate electricity. The thermoelectric devices and steam turbines would be driven by heat collected and stored using mirrors to focus sunlight onto a newly designed "selective solar absorber and reflector."

"This is a spectrally selective system, so it is able to efficiently make use of as much of the spectrum as possible," he said. "The thermal storage allows for significant flexibility in the time of power generation, so the system can produce power for hours after sunset, providing a consistent source of power throughout the day."

Findings from the research are detailed in a paper with an advance online publication date of Aug. 15, and the paper is scheduled to appear in a future print issue of the journal Energy & Environmental Science.

Via Mariaschnee, Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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New theory of how we move through time

New theory of how we move through time | Ehealth | Scoop.it

Associate Professor Dr Joan Vaccaro, of Griffith's Centre for Quantum Dynamics, has solved an anomaly of conventional physics and shown that a mysterious effect called 'T violation' could be the origin of time evolution and conservation laws.

"I begin by breaking the rules of physics, which is rather bold I have to admit, but I wanted to understand time better and conventional physics can't do that," Dr Vaccaro says.

 

"I do get conventional physics in the end though. This means that the rules I break are not fundamental. It also means that I can see why the universe has those rules. And I can also see why the universe advances in time."

 

In her research published in The Royal Society Dr Vaccaro says T violation, or a violation of time reversal (T) symmetry, is forcing the universe and us in it, into the future. "If T violation wasn't involved we wouldn't advance in time and we'd be stuck at the Big Bang, so this shows how we escaped the Big Bang.

 

"I found the mechanism that forces us to go to the future, the reason why you get old and the reason why we advance in time." "The universe must be symmetric in time and space overall. But we know that there appears to be a preferred direction in time because we are incessantly getting older not younger."

 

The anomaly Dr Vaccaro solves involves two things not accounted for in in conventional physical theories -- the direction of time, and the behavior of the mesons, which decay differently if time went in the opposite direction.

 

Experiments show that the behavior of mesons depends on the direction of time; in particular, if the direction of time was changed then their behavior would also," she says.

 

"Conventional physical theories can accommodate only one direction of time and one kind of meson behavior, and so they are asymmetric in this regard. But the problem is that the universe cannot be asymmetric overall.

 

"This means that physical theories must be symmetric in time. To be symmetric in time they would need to accommodate both directions of time and both meson behaviors. This is the anomaly in physics that I am attempting to solve."

 

Dr Vaccaro is presenting her work at the Soapbox Science event held in Brisbane as part of National Science Week, titled "The meaning of time: why the universe didn't stay put at the big bang and how it is 'now' and no other time."

 

Without any T violation the theory gives a very strange universe. An object like a cup can be placed in time just like it is in space.

"It just exists at one place in space and one point in time. There is nothing unusual about being at one place in space, but existing at one point in time means the object would come into existence only at that point in time and then disappear immediately.

 

"This means that conservation of matter would be violated. It also means that there would be no evolution in time. People would only exist for a single point in time -- they would not experience a "flow of time."

 

When Dr Vaccaro adds T violation to the theory, things change dramatically. "The cup is now found at any and every time," she says,

 

"This means that the theory now has conservation of matter -- the conservation has emerged from the theory rather than being assumed. Moreover, objects change over time, cups chip and break, and people would grow old and experience a "flow of time." This means that the theory now has time evolution.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Israël : invention d'un patch cardiaque révolutionnaire

Israël : invention d'un patch cardiaque révolutionnaire | Ehealth | Scoop.it

Des chercheurs de l'Université de Tel-Aviv inventent un patch cardiaque bionique contrôlable à distance pour réparer les tissus cardiaques endommagés. Le nouveau patch, qui combine électronique et tissus vivants est susceptible de révolutionner la recherche cardiaque et de constituer dans un avenir proche une alternative aux problématiques greffes du cœur....



Via Connected Mag, Lionel Reichardt / le Pharmageek, Philippe Marchal
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Technology-enabled home health | Are patients open to these new technologies?

Technology-enabled home health | Are patients open to these new technologies? | Ehealth | Scoop.it
Virtual doctor's appointments, smart pills, and remote monitoring are entering the medical world, but are patients open to these new technologies?

Via Olivier Delannoy, eMedToday, Philippe Marchal
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Un hackathon dédié aux solutions mobiles de santé à Bruxelles

Un hackathon dédié aux solutions mobiles de santé à Bruxelles | Ehealth | Scoop.it

Grande première à Bruxelles. Pendant 48 heures, des développeurs, des entreprises, des professionnels de la santé vont se mobiliser du 18 au 20 mars pour développer des applications mobiles répondants à 6 thématiques dans la santé ...


Via Philippe Marchal
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Drugging the undruggable: Discovery opens up possibility of slowing cancer spread

Drugging the undruggable: Discovery opens up possibility of slowing cancer spread | Ehealth | Scoop.it

A trawl through a library of more than 50,000 ‘small molecules’ has identified a potential candidate to inhibit the spread of cancer cells throughout the body. Reported today in the journal Nature Communications, the molecule targets a mechanism of tumour development that had previously been considered ‘undruggable’– in other words, extremely difficult, if not impossible, to target with a drug – and could open the door to further promising new candidates.

 

The cells in our body go through a continuous process of growth, division and death, but when this process goes awry it can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and the development of tumours. Unchecked, this growth first manifests as a localised tumour, but eventually the cancer will ‘metastasise’, invading surrounding tissues and organs. Over nine out of ten cancer deaths are attributable to such progression.

However, even in a sick patient, the vast majority of the body’s 50 trillion cells maintain accurate control over processes like growth and division for a lifetime. This process is orchestrated by proteins known as ‘transcription factors’ that instruct DNA in the cells to produce specific proteins needed by the cell at specific times. A transcription factor searches for specific genes on DNA and once it finds them, turns them on as needed. Common perturbations in cancer, such a mutation in the gene that produces a transcription factor, or an over-production of the factor itself, can disrupt the proper functioning of this network.

Recently, cancer biologists discovered that one particular transcription factor called FOXM1 is vastly over-abundant in many diverse types of cancers including breast, lung, ovarian and head and neck carcinomas. Importantly, the amount of FOXM1 present in a given tumour was shown to correlate with both the stage of the disease and the severity of prognosis, with high levels of FOXM1 indicative of advanced disease and poor patient outcome.

FOXM1 has been shown to control the activity of many gene targets known to play a role in the development and spread of cancer. However, transcription factors have long been considered ‘undruggable’.

Researchers from the Department of Chemistry at the University of Cambridge and the Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute hypothesized that FOXM1 might represent a novel target for next-generation chemotherapeutics and developed a tool to identify potential ‘small molecules’ that could inhibit the action of the transcription factor – like finding the correct key to fit into switch and deactivate the transcription factor.

Mike Gormally, a PhD student at the University of Cambridge, explains: “Transcription factors bind a bit of DNA, but targeting the interface between DNA and the protein is difficult. It’s often much larger than can be targeted with a ‘small molecule’, and lacks well defined cavities for the drug to latch onto. That doesn't mean this is impossible, but it does make rational design of drugs much more difficult: it’s hard to pick a feature out and say, if we can drug this feature, we will inhibit this transcription factor.”

In collaboration with the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, a division of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), the team used high throughput screening tools to probe a library of 54,211 small molecules and identified a promising candidate that binds to FOXM1 protein and blocks it from binding its target DNA. In human breast cancer cells, this compound, FDI-6, suppresses the genes targeted by FOXM1, halting cancer cell proliferation. Whilst not a drug itself, the molecule provides a tool to better understand how FOXM1 drives disease, and indicates promising potential for designing drugs to target FOXM1 in the clinic in future work.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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ACPM - La télémédecine – Défis et obligations - Sécurité des soins

ACPM - La télémédecine – Défis et obligations - Sécurité des soins | Ehealth | Scoop.it
Les médecins qui exercent la télémédecine au-delà des frontières provinciales et territoriales canadiennes doivent se conformer aux exigences applicables aux permis d’exercice et à la...
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A Pontoise, la télémédecine pour prévenir l'insuffisance cardiaque - Vonews

A Pontoise, la télémédecine pour prévenir l'insuffisance cardiaque
Vonews
L'étude PIMPS, coordonnée par le Dr P. Jourdain, professeur associé de cardiologie au CH René Dubos de Pontoise dont Mr C.
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FNCCR - Colloque: Quelles perspectives pour l'e-administration et l'aménagement numérique de la France?

FNCCR - Colloque: Quelles perspectives pour l'e-administration et l'aménagement numérique de la France? | Ehealth | Scoop.it
Colloque: Quelles perspectives pour l'e-administration et l'aménagement numérique de la France? (11 juin: colloque @fnccr : Quelles perspectives pour l'e-administration et l'aménagement numérique de la France?

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Télémédecine: 14 projets numériques reçoivent une une aide de 23 millions d’euros

Télémédecine: 14 projets numériques reçoivent une une aide de 23 millions d’euros | Ehealth | Scoop.it
Télémédecine, prise en charge à domicile de patients atteints de maladies chroniques, information des patients et des soignants...

Via TéléSanté Centre, Lionel Reichardt / le Pharmageek
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Dépistage inédit de la DMLA grâce à la téléméde...

Dépistage inédit de la DMLA grâce à la téléméde... | Ehealth | Scoop.it
“[Citizen Press] - Une simple photographie couleur de la rétine suffit pour dépister la dégénérescence maculaire liée à l’âge (DMLA) : c’est ce que révèle une étude menée par le service ophtalmologie de l’hôpital de la Croix-Rousse à Lyon et le...”...
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