"The popular protests this year in North Africa and the Middle East - known as the Arab Spring - have cost the region more than $50bn, a new report says.
The report, by consultancy group Geopolicity, says Egypt, Syria and Libya paid the highest financial price.
It warns that without a regional support programme, the effects of the Arab Spring could be regressive.
But oil-producing nations that have avoided or suppressed rebellions have benefited most, it says." (Peter Biles/BBC world affairs)