A bookshop or roadside bookseller can be found on most streets in Cairo, reflecting the country's centuries-old association with books in general, and printing in particular.
"The printing industry is experiencing many problems due to its diversity and variety as it encompasses different kinds of publications, whether literary, scientific or cultural, as well as newspapers, textbooks, other school supplies and commercial printing such as labels and packaging", said Shehata Abdul Qader of Egypt's Chamber of Printing Industries.
Several factors, including the cost of paper, printing materials like ink, new machines and upgrades to old ones are causing problems in the industry, he told Al-Shorfa.
The printing sector is incredibly important since it is intertwined with many other production industries, Abdul Qader said.
It is a nine billion Egyptian pound ($1.3 billion) industry, with one billion ($144 million) coming from commercial cover printing, one and a half billion ($215 million) from textbooks and the rest from books, newspapers and magazines, he said.
The industry employs approximately 200,000 workers, and there are currently 4,900 licensed printing houses and 10 paper factories in Egypt, he added.