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Égypt-actus
revue de presse sur l'actualité culturelle, archéologique, politique et sociale de l'Égypte
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Le taux de chômage national reste stable à 13,4%

Le taux de chômage national reste stable à 13,4% | Égypt-actus | Scoop.it

The nationwide unemployment rate remained steady through the fourth quarter (Q4) of 2013, registering 13.4% of the population, the Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics reported in an official statement.

According to CAPMAS, 3.6 million Egyptians are unemployed, a 0.5% increase from the previous quarter and a 57.3% increase compared to the same quarter in 2010.

Hala El-Saeed, economics professor at Cairo University, said “this percentage is realistic when conducted on a general level nationwide; however, when it is demographically dissected we can expect a larger figure.”

“Unemployment rates in Upper Egypt can reach 50%,” El-Saeed said.

CAPMAS reported that the total labour force in Egypt witnessed a minimal increase to reach 27.3m, a 0.3% increase compared to the preceding quarter. Total labour force has surged by 4.4% since Q4 2010.

The report indicated that youth constitutes 69% of the total unemployed, an around 1.8% decrease compared to Q3 2013. The majority of the unemployed youth, 39% of the total 69%, were found in the 20 to 24 year-old tranche.

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Egypt's unemployment rate hits 13%

Egypt's unemployment rate hits 13% | Égypt-actus | Scoop.it
Egypt-actus's insight:

The Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS) revealed on Saturday that the unemployment rate in Egypt rose up to 13 percent during the last quarter of 2012 compared to only 5.12 percent during the third quarter of the same year.

CAPMAS attributed the significant increase in this rate to a slowdown of economic activities during that period.

Seventy-eight percent of the unemployed have college degrees, said a statement issued by CAMPAS.

The statement added that the number of employees dropped from October to December 2012 by 5.23 million marking a decrease of two percent.

The number of unemployed reached 5.3 million persons, including 13 percent of the labor force along with an increase of 162 thousand jobless persons, an increase estimated at 8.4 percent compared to the third quarter of last year.

The unemployment rate among males reached 9.1 percent of the total male labor force, while the unemployment rate among women is 28 percent.

 

This content is from :Aswat Masriya  
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Les chômage pousse les Egyptiens en Libye

Al Qarra – Trouver du travail en Libye pour échapper à la crise économique égyptienne. De plus en plus d’égyptiens font ce choix, poussés par la nécessité, le marasme économique et la crise que traverse leur pays. Sans êtreun nouvel Eldorado, Tripoli fait davantage rêver que le Caire. Avec un PIB qui a plus que doublé en 2012 et plus de 10% attendu en 2013, le pays fait figure d’économie dynamique. Ouvriers ou artisans, les jeunes égyptiens se retrouvent sur les trottoirs à attendre du travail. Un travailleur journalier peut gagner 500 dinars par mois, soit environ 300 euros. C’est plus du double du salaire quotidien qu’un jeune peut attendre enEgypte.

Abdul Aziz : « Nous venons en Libye, parce que c’est difficile pour nous d’arriver à survivre en Egypte. Je suis charpentier et quelques-uns de mes camarades sont plombiers ».

Car l’Egypte fait aujourd’hui figure d’homme malade de l’Afrique. Depuis la révolution de 2011, les finances du Caire ne cessent de se dégrader. Après une croissance stagnant à moins de 2% en 2011 et 2012, la livre égyptienne ne cesse de perdre de la valeur, et le taux de chômage dépasse aujourd’hui les 12%. Les jeunes sont les plus touchés : 30% d’entre eux sont aujourd’hui sans travail. Mohammed, qui habite depuis 10 ans en Libye, a vu le phénomène d’immigration s’accélérer ces dernières semaines.

Mohammed « Beaucoup des jeunes pensent qu’ils vont pouvoir gagner de l’argent et rentrer chez eux après avoir travaillé un an, ou même huit mois. »

Mais la vie d’un immigré en Libye n’est pas facile. La montée des  tensions politiques qui règnent  dans le pays inquiètent les égyptiens. Beaucoup d’entre eux semblent prêts à rentrer en Egypte s la situation économique s’améliorait.

Mohammed: « Qui voudrait supporter de vivre des épreuves en Libye? Il n’empêche que la vie est encore pire en Egypte pour la plupart d’entre nous. Il faut que j’élève mes enfants, et si je pouvais gagner ma vie en Egypte, je ne serais pas venu ici. »

Poussé par la croissance importante du pays et une forte proximité culturelle, les migrants voient donc dans la Libye une chance de s’en sortir.  Car le travail de la main d’œuvre étrangère y est vital. Ce pays très vaste ne compte lui-même que 6 millions d’habitants. Parmi eux, installés depuis plusieurs générations ou main-d’œuvre récemment immigrée, ils seraient près d’un million d’égyptien.

 

Par Matthieu Balu

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"No Jobs and Bad Jobs", by Ghada Barsoum

"No Jobs and Bad Jobs", by Ghada Barsoum | Égypt-actus | Scoop.it
Egypt-actus's insight:

Youth employment issues pose a threat to Egypt’s democratic transition. Persistent high unemployment rates among youth, the increasing deterioration of the quality of jobs available with no social protection and the growth in employment informality are central policy challenges in Egypt.

The concern about unemployed youth has long stemmed from the potential political volatility of this group. In post-January 25 Egypt and amid the ensuing economic stagnation, the unemployment rate in the age group 20-24 reached 33 percent in September 2011, according to Egypt’s central statistical bureau, CAPMAS. Almost one in three young people in this age group is unable to find work. Among those aged 15-19, the unemployment rate is a high 24.4 percent.

The unemployment rate in Egypt is much higher than the global youth unemployment rate of 13 percent as recently reported by the International Labor Organization (ILO). Research has repeatedly shown that unemployment in Egypt is primarily a problem of youth insertion to labor market. This explains the fact that unemployment rates are highest at points of school to work transition. Young women are at a particular disadvantage in Egypt’s labor market. The unemployment rate among female youth aged 20-24 years is 52.8 percent (compared to 33% among male youth). While most unemployed male youth eventually find work, most young women move out of the labor force in conjunction with marriage and childbearing.

(The Cairo Review)


More : http://www.aucegypt.edu/gapp/cairoreview/Pages/articleDetails.aspx?aid=280

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Le nombre de chômeurs en Egypte était de 3,6 millions de personnes à la fin de 2013

Le nombre de chômeurs en Egypte était de 3,6 millions de personnes à la fin de 2013 | Égypt-actus | Scoop.it

Egypt’s unemployment rate remained unchanged in the fourth quarter of 2013 at 13.4 percent of a labour force of 27.3 million people, according to state-run statistics body CAPMAS.

 

Unemployment among young people aged 15-29 hit 69 percent of the labour force in the last quarter of 2013. More than 82 percent of them hold diplomas and university degrees.

The CAPMAS quarterly report released on Monday said that the persistence of the high unemployment rate reflects an ongoing slowdown in economic activities.

The growth rate of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) during the period of July-September 2013 fell to 1.6 percent compared to the same period the previous year, when the growth rate stood at 2.6 percent.

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The Stream - Did Egypt's youth movement backfire?

Two years on, the government must address the fact that young people are still left out of the job market.

Unemployment in the MENA region is the highest in the world, and in Egypt it has remained stubbornly high for decades, fluctuating between 8% and 10% since the 1990s. After the revolution, the number of people without work only increased, and the jobless rate is now more than 12% as companies scaled back resources, investments dried up and wages remained stagnant.

The unemployment rate is even more devastating at the college-level. Of the total Egyptian population registered as unemployed, a shocking 77% are between the ages of 15 and 29. Eight out of 10 graduates can’t find a job and if they do, young people often don’t have the right skills to secure it.

Why? A combination of low quality education and lack of jobs.

But here is the interesting part: Unusually, youth unemployment is not necessarily associated with poverty or education levels.  In fact, according to research from the International Monetary Fund , unemployment tends to increase with schooling, exceeding 15% for those with tertiary education in Egypt, Jordan and Tunisia.

As Mohammed Hassan, a former advisor to the former Central Bank governor, Farouk El Okdah, wrote in thislabour market analysis :

The bulk of the young and better educated unemployed can afford a long job search with family support, but the poor simply cannot afford to be out of work for long and many take refuge in the low-pay informal market [which accounts for roughly one-third of total GDP].

There is of course an important caveat to this discovery; most unemployment figures do not take into account the informal market where the youth have found jobs outside the system.

However, what is clear from this data is that the struggle to find a job is not just a problem affecting the poor, but is typical for middle and upper class youth.

 

More : http://rebeleconomy.com/2013/02/10/the-problem-of-the-arab-worlds-jobless-youth/

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Deux ans après la révolution, l’Egypte en quelques chiffres

Deux ans après la révolution, l’Egypte en quelques chiffres | Égypt-actus | Scoop.it
L'Egypte, considérée comme un pays émergent, est la quatrième puissance économique d'Afrique. Mais c'est un colosse économique aux pieds d'argile.
Egypt-actus's insight:

En Egypte, la population augmente...
La misère sociale fut le ferment de la révolte populaire qui a éclaté il y a tout juste deux ans. Le salaire moyen hebdomadaire atteignait 252 livres égyptiennes (31 euros) en 2007, selon les derniers chiffres dont dispose le Bureau international du travail (OIT). Plus de 18% des quelque 80 millions d'Egyptiens vivent avec moins de deux dollars par jour selon les chiffres de la Banque mondiale.

Le pays avait connu une période de forte croissance depuis 2008 mais la révolution qui a chassé Moubarak du pouvoir a laissé des traces. Fuite des investisseurs étrangers et des touristes, grèves et mouvements sociaux à quoi il faut ajouter le retour au pays des Egyptiens travaillant en Libye, la machine économique est en panne. La croissance économique, la lutte contre la pauvreté et les inégalités sociales restent le premier défi du pays.

Le chômage des jeunes aussi.
La population égyptienne est en plein boom, plus 1,3 million d'habitants chaque année. Un Egyptien sur trois a moins de 15 ans, près de deux sur trois ont moins de 30 ans. On estime que 700.000 jeunes arrivent chaque année sur un marché du travail déprimé. Officiellement, chez les 15-24 ans, ils sont presque un sur quatre à être sans emploi, soit 24,8%. Les filles sont deux fois plus nombreuses que les garçons à chercher du travail.

"Le chômage des jeunes a été une des causes fondamentales des changements révolutionnaires du printemps arabe dans les pays d'Afrique du nord et du Moyen Orient. L'OIT compte fournir une aide spécifique au niveau national pour amener les jeunes du travail", souligne le Directeur de cette organisation internationale.

Les richesses de l'Egypte
Le Canal de Suez et le Nil sont les artères économiques du pays, tant pour le commerce intérieur que pour son ouverture sur le Proche-Orient. Le Canal de Suez et les droits de passage sont l'une des principales sources de devises pour le pays : 5 milliards de dollars par an

L'activité économique se déploie principalement le long du fleuve. Le Nil nourricier car les eaux du fleuve, notamment depuis la création du barrage d'Assouan, permettent l'irrigation des terres dévolues à l'agriculture, un secteur qui emploie un tiers des Egyptiens.

Le tourisme, l'autre manne de l'Egypte
Le tourisme constitue la principale ressource du pays, il représente ¼ de ses revenus en devises. Le tourisme fournit un emploi sur huit, il pèse 12 % du PIB national. Mais voilà, le secteur a connu beaucoup d'aléas ces dernières années. Les attentats, l'instabilité politique puis bien sûr, la révolution ont dissuadé les touristes d'aller visiter les trésors des pharaons et de l'Egypte ancienne. Rien qu'en 2011, le tourisme a diminué d'un tiers. Depuis 2012, on note une timide reprise mais on est encore loin des niveaux d'avant la révolution. 14,5 millions de touristes avaient alors visité l'Egypte.

Méline Freda / Sources, OIT, Banque Mondiale et Perspectives économiques en Afrique, via Arte.fr
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No Jobs and Bad Jobs, by Ghada Barsoum

No Jobs and Bad Jobs, by Ghada Barsoum | Égypt-actus | Scoop.it

Youth employment issues pose a threat to Egypt’s democratic transition. Persistent high unemployment rates among youth, the increasing deterioration of the quality of jobs available with no social protection and the growth in employment informality are central policy challenges in Egypt.

The concern about unemployed youth has long stemmed from the potential political volatility of this group. In post-January 25 Egypt and amid the ensuing economic stagnation, the unemployment rate in the age group 20-24 reached 33 percent in September 2011, according to Egypt’s central statistical bureau, CAPMAS. Almost one in three young people in this age group is unable to find work. Among those aged 15-19, the unemployment rate is a high 24.4 percent.

The unemployment rate in Egypt is much higher than the global youth unemployment rate of 13 percent as recently reported by the International Labor Organization (ILO). Research has repeatedly shown that unemployment in Egypt is primarily a problem of youth insertion to labor market. This explains the fact that unemployment rates are highest at points of school to work transition. Young women are at a particular disadvantage in Egypt’s labor market. The unemployment rate among female youth aged 20-24 years is 52.8 percent (compared to 33% among male youth). While most unemployed male youth eventually find work, most young women move out of the labor force in conjunction with marriage and childbearing.

However, unemployment is not the only problem in Egypt’s labor market. There are two main issues that unemployment figures fail to capture. The first is what is termed by the World Bank as “joblessness.” By definition, the unemployed are those not working for at least one hour per week and are available for work and actively searching for a job. Statistics on joblessness include young people who have given up searching for a job due to limited opportunities. This group of “discouraged” youth is significant and is particularly high in rural areas in Egypt. Many young people have given up looking for work upon realizing that the search does not lead to employment. Analysis of recent survey data on Egypt’s youth shows that the joblessness rate among young people aged 15-29 reaches 60 percent. This means that almost two thirds of young people in this age group are not in school, or employed. Unemployment statistics, while significant, only refer to a sub-group within this large group of jobless youth.

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