Efficient Backhaul
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Efficient Backhaul
Maximizing goodput of Mobile Backhaul transmission
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Altobridge debuts Intel-based network edge small cells caching solution | Press Wire | News

Altobridge debuts Intel-based network edge small cells caching solution | Press Wire | News | Efficient Backhaul | Scoop.it
Wireless network solutions provider Altobridge has launched a platform at the Small Cells World Summit that enables multi-layered caching both at the base station and on subscribers’ mobile devices, to aid operators in freeing up their core...
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EE: Sharing experiences from small cell backhaul trials

Blogged at: http://metrocells.blogspot.com/2013/02/ee-sharing-experiences-from-small-cell.html
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NGMN Alliance Pushes for New Work Programme

NGMN Alliance Pushes for New Work Programme | Efficient Backhaul | Scoop.it

Next Generation Converged Operations Requirements

The objective of the NGMN project Next Generation Converged Operations Requirements (NGCOR) is to reduce complexity and integration costs in the area of network management by achieving standardised interfaces between the Telco infrastructure and the OSS (Operations Support Systems). NGCOR aims to obtain more flexibility and reduced time-to-market in the introduction of services through standardised network management functionalities for converged fixed and mobile networks.

Main aspects of the project will be Configuration Management, Performance Management, Service Inventory Management and Architecture scenarios for management of Converged Networks.

 

Evolution of the Radio Access Network (RAN)

The RAN Evolution project will evaluate options and give recommendations for a future radio access network architecture providing optimised operations, higher efficiency and enhanced performance. The activity will cover, amongst other items, the evaluation of Centralised Cloud-based RAN, CoMP schemes, Dynamic Spectrum Sharing, Backhaul/Fronthaul, and will finally define the overarching requirements for a Multi-RAT architecture evolution.

 

Mobile Content Delivery Optimisation

The project Mobile Content Delivery Optimisation will evaluate mobile network enhancements for the optimised delivery of content. The project aims to define use cases for Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) and to develop related requirements. Furthermore, recommendations will be provided with regards to content delivery architecture options and CDN functionalities (like e.g. caching, media adaptation).

 

Deployment and Operation of Small Cells


The objective of project Small Cells is to define scenarios, use cases, system architecture and functional requirements for the fast and efficient introduction and operations of Small Cells. The work-streams of the project activity will deal in particular with the aspects of Wi-Fi integration, cost efficient deployment, operational issues, multi-vendor deployment and backhauling for Small Cells. 

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ABIresearch: OFDM NLOS to Dominate LTE Backhaul by 2018

ABIresearch: OFDM NLOS to Dominate LTE Backhaul by 2018 | Efficient Backhaul | Scoop.it

Of all the available backhaul choices for LTE macrocells and small cells by 2018 sub 6GHz OFDM NLOS technology will become the most popular for “last mile” backhaul. Fiber-based backhaul will be the second most popular choice, where it is available, followed by millimeter wave and the traditional LOS microwave links.

 

“The large change in backhaul type we see from 2013 to 2018 is due to the very strong ramp of LTE small cells with the number of LTE small cells deployed exceeding that of LTE macro eNodeB’s in 2016 and reaching more than 2X the number of LTE macrocells by 2018,” says Nick Marshall principal analyst at ABI Research.

 

“We found that SON is a key enabler for a successful LTE deployment, particularly when a small cell underlay is present, and that the increasing sophistication of SON in the upcoming 3GPP releases places strict latency and synchronization demands on backhaul,”

 

http://www.abiresearch.com/research/service/mobile-backhaul/

 

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Cambridge Wireless Small Cells SIG: the challenges ahead

Cambridge Wireless Small Cells SIG: the challenges ahead | Efficient Backhaul | Scoop.it
While small cells are accepted as a cost-effective way of meeting the capacity crunch, their deployment presents mobile network operators with some significant challenges.
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Dynamic service re-steering. LTE to WiFi and back

Dynamic service re-steering. LTE to WiFi and back | Efficient Backhaul | Scoop.it

Small cell innovator, ip.access, in collaboration with InterDigital, will be highlighting the possibilities of dynamically switching calls and data traffic from LTE to carrier provided WiFi and back again in order to deliver the best user experience.

 

Currently mobile handsets, not networks, take the lead in selecting which service to use with nearly all smartphones looking to default to WiFi where it is available. 


If the WiFi service is congested, customers have to manually force the phone onto the cellular network – often by switching off the WiFi capability.  With this  innovation, operators will be able to maintain connections using the best signal available without the customer having to manually intervene.


This capability is at demonstration stage for now, but indicates how much more closely carriers will look to integrate Wi-Fi and cellular networks in future


ip.access would be seeking feedback from the operator community on its dynamic switching capability before scheduling that feature into its roadmap

Emanuel Fleishman's insight:

from http://www.interdigital.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Cellular_WiFi_Integration-White-Paper.pdf:

 

"Our vision is for an integrated solution that addresses the issue at both the network and the terminal unit ends. Starting with the device, a smart connection manager will fully automate spectrum access to the point where the users will no longer have to think about what cellular operator, what WiFi SSID, what Bluetooth connection they needs to use"

 

Is this vision far off? Not at all: solutions such as InterDigital’s Smart Access Manager (SAM) are already providing per-application bandwidth management across Wi-Fi and cellular networks. In InterDigital’s case, we combine user preferences and operator’s ANDSF policies and use EAP-based techniques to automate access to wireless networks.

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Strategy Analytics: Mobile operators failing to plan for 4G backhaul

Strategy Analytics: Mobile operators failing to plan for 4G backhaul | Efficient Backhaul | Scoop.it
Network providers not investing in their backhaul to keep performance levels high, despite increase in mobile data and influx of 4G services

 

Currently, mobile operators predict they will spend 17.5% of their total operation costs on backhaul investments, but the study claims this level will not live up to user demands

 

The research said there will be a $9.2bn gap in the funding needed to upgrade backhaul over the next five years when compared with the money invested into the equipment globally, alongside a 16PB shortage of capacity to deal with the growing mobile data.

 

“At today’s backhaul investment levels, operators could create a significant backhaul capacity shortage,” said Sue Rudd, director of service provider analysis at Strategy Analytics. “This shortfall could diminish quality of service and, in turn, increase customer churn with as many as 40% of mobile users citing poor network performance as a reason for leaving an operator.”

 

 

Emanuel Fleishman's insight:

further details: http://www.tellabs.com/news/2013/index.cfm/nr/213.cfm

 

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France Telecom and Deutsche Telecom are Being Paid by Google

France Telecom and Deutsche Telecom are Being Paid by Google | Efficient Backhaul | Scoop.it

Google needs fiber throughout the world and France Telecom owns a cable to Africa. Google needs space and facilities in peering points controlled by both Deutsche Telekom and France Telecom. Deutsche Telekom is moving heavily into server hosting.

 

Stéphane Richard, CEO of France Telecom, broke the story "There are financial flows between Google and Orange, as well as other operators, in particular Deutsche Telekom. ... there is an overall balance of power. There are areas where Google can not do without us, for example in Africa"

 

This is "sender pays," a termination charge, that was opposed strongly by the U.S. and Europe at WCIT as deeply destructive of the Internet. It's a clear violation of net neutrality as defined by those who created the concept

 

t’s likely that Google and FT made a deal with Google paying FT for something other than transit. FT got money, Google didn’t set a precedent, and people are happy for now

 

 

Free.fr, trying to get some "senders pay" , went nuclear. Billionaire Xavi Niel at Free blocked Google (and other) Ads. An Immediate rebellion by websites afraid of going broke without Google ads got the government involved. Free.fr has been trying to collect from video sites such as Google and Dailymotion for years. Not long ago, Xavi refused ordinary peering with Google. He demanded to be paid. As YouTube traffic predictably grew, congestion grew. As much as half the time, Free’s users couldn’t get their videos.

 

This was Google’s “nuclear option,” effectively cutting service to Free’s customers if Xavi didn’t give in. It was starting to hurt, especially after consumer publication Que Choisir did a survey that made clear the problem was extreme and asked the government to do something about it. Prominent Internet analyst Taylor Reynolds tweeted he was moving his broadband away from Free

 

 

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QCI-aware Cooperative Backhaul self-optimizaton

QCI-aware Cooperative Backhaul self-optimizaton | Efficient Backhaul | Scoop.it

If backhaul is contented (in any way), the QoS and service reliability delivered over the LTE Uu interface becomes impaired. If the backhaul randomly introduces latency and/or reduces the capacity allocated to service flows (especially GBR), the service is negatively impacted. Therefore, any backhaul solution must ensure that the LTE radio-interface QoS is respected and maintained across the contented backhaul.

 

•Typically this requires a detailed understanding of the LTE Air-Interface


•Not something that can easily be done using code-point markings, or other simple packet marking (ToS bits)

 

In Cooperative QoS mode the Backhaul Scheduler maintains visibility of Pico scheduling requirements for UEs (MSs), tracking QoS commitments on bandwidth, latency and priority


In addition the Backhaul Scheduler also has visibility of the backhaul radio interface and it’s interference environment.


The scheduling by the Pico cells takes accounts of both requirements to deliver high performance over the backhaul and end-to-end QoS over the 4G LTE or 4G WiMAX Pico access interface

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Small Cells, Big Impact

Small Cells, Big Impact | Efficient Backhaul | Scoop.it

In Crystal Lake Park, a suburb of St. Louis, we deployed metrocells in an outdoor residential area with poor coverage due to geographical challenges. The small cells have shown to be an effective solution, allowing for a 17 percent increase in mobile traffic on our network where the solution was deployed

Emanuel Fleishman's insight:

17% - new benchmark for "big" and "effective"?

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H.265 Is Approved, Paving The Way For High-Quality Video On Low-Bandwidth Networks

H.265 Is Approved, Paving The Way For High-Quality Video On Low-Bandwidth Networks | Efficient Backhaul | Scoop.it
The ITU has approved a new video format that could bring 4k video to future broadband networks, while also making streaming HD video available even on bandwidth-constrained mobile networks.

 

Of course, just because the format has been approved doesn’t mean that we’ll start seeing video files shrink or lower bit-rate streams anytime soon. While there will likely be software-based encoders available by the end of the year, the codec won’t see mass adoption until it gets embedded into chips and hardware. It could be 12 to 18 months, maybe longer, before the first devices with H.265 hardware acceleration make it to market.

 

Once those initial devices do make it to market, however, we can probably expect a quick ramp up in the amount of content that begins to take advantage of H.265. Since the launch of the iPad, the percentage of video published in H.264 has climbed from less than 10 percent to more than 84 percent in less than three years, according to MeFeedia.

 

Emanuel Fleishman's insight:

Bit Rate Saving Comparision:G.J. Sullivan; Heiko Schwarz; Thiow Keng Tan; Thomas Wiegand (2012-08-22)."Comparison of the Coding Efficiency of Video Coding Standards – Including High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC)"(PDF). IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology. Retrieved 2012-09-22 http://iphome.hhi.de/wiegand/assets/pdfs/2012_12_IEEE-HEVC-Performance.pdf

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Cambridge Communication Systems raises £4.5 million

Cambridge Communication Systems raises £4.5 million | Efficient Backhaul | Scoop.it
Cambridge UK startup CCS – founded as Cambridge Communication Systems – has raised £4.5 million of new money to accelerate commercial deployment of its unique microwave small-cell backhaul technology.

 

CCS has developed a self-organising microwave backhaul system and an automatic capacity planning capability

 

The system provides the backhaul capacity needed to support dense deployments of mobile small cells and has been designed from the start to be deployed in a cost-effective manner on street-furniture in large-scale dense urban environments.

 

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5-Port CE2.0 NID with G.8032v2 and IEEE 1588v2

5-Port CE2.0 NID with G.8032v2 and IEEE 1588v2 | Efficient Backhaul | Scoop.it

The iConverter GM4 NIDs provide Carrier Ethernet service demarcation for business services and mobile backhaul for cell towers and small cells.

 

A new 5-port model and several new features have been added to the iConverter GM4 NID product line:

ITU-T G.8032v2 Ethernet Ring Protection Switching (ERPS, 50ms)IEEE 1588v2 Synchronization (Transparent Mode)Hardware-based Delay Measurement with nanosecond resolutionPort mirroring for non-invasive troubleshooting

In this application example, GM4 NIDs are deployed as nodes on a wireless backhaul ring. The two 5-port GM4 NIDs connected to the Wireless Backhaul Network provide NNI functions for the ring. All GM4 NIDs on the ring support G.8032v2 ERPS.

 

Emanuel Fleishman's insight:

Lean product, encapsulating functionality to be expected in Small Cell  Backhaul

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Ericsson's Wibergh on solving network congestion and the promise of LTE broadcast

Ericsson's Wibergh on solving network congestion  and the promise of LTE broadcast | Efficient Backhaul | Scoop.it

FierceBroadbandWireless: One of the challenges with small cells is the backhaul. How do operators overcome that issue?


Wibergh: Some people think it is very easy to add small cells. The technology has been over-hyped. I think it's important to know about the other things as well--the macro network and the cell splitting. The problem with small cells is when you have backhaul you need power. How do you generate power?

 

With backhaul, we are releasing this summer a new software that makes it easier to upgrade the backhaul to Internet grade. We have been developing backhaul products where you eliminate the delay issues.

 


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Movik - RT RAN and Content Awareness

Movik - RT RAN and Content Awareness | Efficient Backhaul | Scoop.it

The company's solutions enable operators to improve the subscriber experience by intelligently correlating and acting in real-time, on all traffic in the RAN.

 

Movik leverages network and content awareness to quickly and easily scale content distribution, establish policies and procedures based on real-time network conditions, and implement traffic management techniques that make the most efficient use of the existing network infrastructure.

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Base Stations as Small CDN Nodes

Base Stations as Small CDN Nodes | Efficient Backhaul | Scoop.it

Adding intelligence to the base station or the network edge can achieve several things:

 

It can act as part of a content delivery network doing things like local caching.

 

It can also act to optimise backhaul requirements by lessening the need to re-deliver popular content or applications over the backhaul link.

 

Additionally, it can allow operators to take advantage of things that the base station "knows", like radio link quality, user location and local cell conditions, to deliver content or applications optimised to the circumstances of that user.

 

Mapping applications, which are often heavy in information, are prime candidates for being optimised and enriched by the addition of cell-level network data

 

Mobile CDNs as a concept have been around for a while, and NSN is far from alone in outlining to operators the possibilities they may hold.

 

There are also companies out there looking at added edge intelligence to do things like reduce backhaul load (remember, NSN said to TMN it thought backhaul load could be reduced 30-40%) or deliver localised services. Intel, for one, has made it a mission to move its processing presence in network platforms from the core to the edge, taking advantage of this model. 

Small cell developer Ubiquisys works with Intel on its Smart Cell and EdgeCloud concepts, using partners such as Saguna and Quortus to develop the applications.

 

Altobridge is another company with an edge data strategy, and is integrating its WAN data optimisation capabilities with small cell vendor Argela.

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Neul creates new ‘silicon’ valley - ASIC for Weightless 1.0

Neul creates new ‘silicon’ valley  - ASIC for Weightless 1.0 | Efficient Backhaul | Scoop.it
The Cambridge UK team that developed the world’s first single chip Bluetooth device has lit the touchpaper to a silicon explosion that will even dwarf the reach of the cellular market.
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ADVA Optical Networking to Demonstrate Cachejack™ which integrates Saguna cell-site cashing into FSP150 family

ADVA Optical Networking  to Demonstrate Cachejack™ which integrates Saguna cell-site cashing into FSP150 family | Efficient Backhaul | Scoop.it

Cachejack™ is designed to improve mobile user experience and enable location-based services (LBS) through an application-aware radio access network (RAN) and optimize resource utilization by uniquely transporting content directly from the backhaul network straight to the mobile subscriber.

 

The solution caches popular content on FSP150 installed in cell sites or aggregation points. The effect is slashed time to first byte, translating into an enhanced user experience as subscribers receive content more quickly. .... And Cachejack™ helps operators save bandwidth and money by optimizing mobile backhaul.

Emanuel Fleishman's insight:

See also http://the-mobile-network.com/article/OTU=/Skyfire,-Saguna,-Flash-and-Vantrix-all-push-data-optimisation-into-the-network.html

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Ericsson solidifies carrier cloud strategy with OpenStack-based Cloud System

Ericsson solidifies carrier cloud strategy with OpenStack-based Cloud System | Efficient Backhaul | Scoop.it

Ericsson Cloud System, which will hit availability in the first quarter of 2014, targets mobile operators in particular. It incorporates an upgraded Cloud Manager, which is Ericsson’s operations support system, alongside a new Cloud Execution Environment that’s based on OpenStack and the KVM hypervisor.

 

This all runs on existing Ericsson Blade System (EBS) server clusters and Smart Services Routers (SSR), and the general idea is to enable virtualized environments across the network, from the base station to aggregation nodes and business support systems.

 

The benefit, it argues, would be to make resources elastic, to cope with an application’s bandwidth or quality-of-service requirements on-the-fly. By doing so, Ericsson says, the operator can make its own business more efficient, then perhaps use freed-up resources to provide cloud compute and storage services to others.

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Delivering content with LTE Broadcast – whitepaper from Ericsson

Delivering content with LTE Broadcast – whitepaper from Ericsson | Efficient Backhaul | Scoop.it

The concept of Ericsson’s LTE Broadcast
solution enables unicast and broadcast
service blending, aiming to help meet
the challenges created by rising mobile
usage and the growth of video traffic in
LTE networks.

 

The solution covers the
entire chain from live encoder, through
delivery via point-to-multipoint transport
to devices.

 

Broadcast and unicast radio channels
coexist in the same cell and share the
available capacity. The subset of available
radio resources can temporarily be
assigned to a broadcast radio channel.

 

 

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Tarana Wireless | Concentrating Multipoint for Small Cell Backhaul

Tarana Wireless |  Concentrating Multipoint for Small Cell Backhaul | Efficient Backhaul | Scoop.it

Tarana’s solution is comprised of two different wireless devices – concentrator nodes (CN) and end nodes (EN). Each EN connects directly to a small cell and provides dedicated backhaul capacity.

 

Tarana devices are configured to form a single hop star with the CN aggregating links and capacity for multiple ENs. Should a concentrator node fail, the system automatically adapts providing seamless failover to another concentrator node with minimal packet loss

 

Tarana CNs are typically co‑located on a tower or rooftop where there is direct access to high capacity connectivity to the carrier’s core network. ENs are compact devices co‑located with small cells to provide high capacity wireless backhaul.

 

Tarana incorporates technology that enables all the links at the CN to operate simultaneously, at full capacity, using the same wireless channel.

 

Tarana utilizes an antenna array that has automatic alignment at both ends of the link which minimizes and an extremely wide aperture. Together these features reduce planning and installation time and increase system reliability.

 

 

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INTRACOM StreetNode - Adaptive Small Cell Backhaul

INTRACOM  StreetNode - Adaptive Small Cell Backhaul | Efficient Backhaul | Scoop.it

StreetNode™ features software-defined radio operation, Point-to-Point (PtP) or Point-to-MultiPoint (PtMP), providing a uniquely-flexible network architecture that combines:

 

City overlay, for maximizing single-link, small-cell connections.

 

In-clutter connectivity, for extending street-level coverage.

 

StreetNode™ operates in the 26 / 28 / 32 / 42 GHz frequency bands and can be deployed at street / curb locations and on wall surfaces or lamp posts

 

Easy-to-get installation permission - StreetNode™'s external looks and small dimensions provide unobtrusive blending into the urban landscape.

 

"Zero-touch" service provisioning  - just plugging the power / traffic cable and StreetNode™ will automatically connect to the network within a few minutes.

 

Innovative, auto-aligned antenna - 3D alignment capability in azimuth and elevation planes.

 

Software-defined operation - utilization of different profiles allow the same system to operate either as part of a PtMP link (hub or terminal) or as part of a PtP link.

 

Ultra-compact, "everything-in-a-box" system, measuring just 250 mm x 170 mm x 120 mm (4 lt.) with integrated antenna.

 

In-clutter deployment - StreetNode™ can extend the reach of overlay backhaul network, and can serve as an autonomous backhaul network at street level.

 

The software-defined radio operation (PtMP or PtP) employed by StreetNode™ provides efficient overlay and street-level coverage, serving the vast majority of SmC locations 

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Broadband Traffic Management: Research: OpenDPI Performance; How many Packets Needed to Identify Applications?

Broadband Traffic Management: Research: OpenDPI Performance; How many Packets Needed to Identify Applications? | Efficient Backhaul | Scoop.it

The identification of the nature of the traffic flowing through a TCP/IP network is a relevant target for traffic engineering and security related tasks. Despite the privacy concerns it arises, Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) is one of the most successful current techniques. Nevertheless, the performance of DPI is strongly limited by computational issues related to the huge amount of data it needs to handle, both in terms of number of packets and the length of the packets. One way to reduce the computational overhead with identification techniques is to sample the traffic being monitored. This paper addresses the sensitivity of OpenDPI, one of the most powerful freely available DPI systems, with sampled network traffic. Two sampling techniques are applied and compared: the per-packet payload sampling, and the per-flow packet sampling. Based on the obtained results, some conclusions are drawn to show how far DPI methods could be optimised through traffic sampling.

 

One finding relates to the number of packet the classifier needs to see in order to correctly classify applications, which significantly affect the system performance:

 

http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/jnw/article/view/jnw08017181/6299

 

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