Microbes, plant immunity, and crop science
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Nucl. Acids Res. (2012): Iterative capped assembly: rapid and scalable synthesis of repeat-module DNA such as TAL effectors from individual monomers

Nucl. Acids Res. (2012): Iterative capped assembly: rapid and scalable synthesis of repeat-module DNA such as TAL effectors from individual monomers | Microbes, plant immunity, and crop science | Scoop.it

DNA built from modular repeats presents a challenge for gene synthesis. We present a solid surface-based sequential ligation approach, which we refer to as iterative capped assembly (ICA), that adds DNA repeat monomers individually to a growing chain while using hairpin ‘capping’ oligonucleotides to block incompletely extended chains, greatly increasing the frequency of full-length final products. Applying ICA to a model problem, construction of custom transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) for genome engineering, we demonstrate efficient synthesis of TALE DNA-binding domains up to 21 monomers long and their ligation into a nuclease-carrying backbone vector all within 3 h. We used ICA to synthesize 20 TALENs of varying DNA target site length and tested their ability to stimulate gene editing by a donor oligonucleotide in human cells. All the TALENS show activity, with the ones >15 monomers long tending to work best. Since ICA builds full-length constructs from individual monomers rather than large exhaustive libraries of pre-fabricated oligomers, it will be trivial to incorporate future modified TALE monomers with improved or expanded function or to synthesize other types of repeat-modular DNA where the diversity of possible monomers makes exhaustive oligomer libraries impractical.

 

Adrian W. Briggs, Xavier Rios, Raj Chari, Luhan Yang, Feng Zhang, Prashant Mali and George M. Church


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NAture: The sunflower genome provides insights into oil metabolism, flowering and Asterid evolution (2017)

NAture: The sunflower genome provides insights into oil metabolism, flowering and Asterid evolution (2017) | Microbes, plant immunity, and crop science | Scoop.it
The domesticated sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., is a global oil crop that has promise for climate change adaptation, because it can maintain stable yields across a wide variety of environmental conditions, including drought. Even greater resilience is achievable through the mining of resistance alleles from compatible wild sunflower relatives, including numerous extremophile species. Here we report a high-quality reference for the sunflower genome (3.6 gigabases), together with extensive transcriptomic data from vegetative and floral organs. The genome mostly consists of highly similar, related sequences and required single-molecule real-time sequencing technologies for successful assembly. Genome analyses enabled the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the Asterids, further establishing the existence of a whole-genome triplication at the base of the Asterids II clade and a sunflower-specific whole-genome duplication around 29 million years ago. An integrative approach combining quantitative genetics, expression and diversity data permitted development of comprehensive gene networks for two major breeding traits, flowering time and oil metabolism, and revealed new candidate genes in these networks. We found that the genomic architecture of flowering time has been shaped by the most recent whole-genome duplication, which suggests that ancient paralogues can remain in the same regulatory networks for dozens of millions of years. This genome represents a cornerstone for future research programs aiming to exploit genetic diversity to improve biotic and abiotic stress resistance and oil production, while also considering agricultural constraints and human nutritional needs.
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Nat. Commun.: Sequencing and de novo assembly of a near complete indica rice genome (2017)

Nat. Commun.: Sequencing and de novo assembly of a near complete indica rice genome (2017) | Microbes, plant immunity, and crop science | Scoop.it
A high-quality reference genome is critical for understanding genome structure, genetic variation and evolution of an organism. Here we report the de novo assembly of an indica rice genome Shuhui498 (R498) through the integration of single-molecule sequencing and mapping data, genetic map and fosmid sequence tags. The 390.3 Mb assembly is estimated to cover more than 99% of the R498 genome and is more continuous than the current reference genomes of japonica rice Nipponbare (MSU7) and Arabidopsis thaliana (TAIR10). We annotate high-quality protein-coding genes in R498 and identify genetic variations between R498 and Nipponbare and presence/absence variations by comparing them to 17 draft genomes in cultivated rice and its closest wild relatives. Our results demonstrate how to de novo assemble a highly contiguous and near-complete plant genome through an integrative strategy. The R498 genome will serve as a reference for the discovery of genes and structural variations in rice.
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Front. Plant Sci.: A transcriptomics and comparative genomics analysis reveals gene families with a role in body plan complexity (2017)

We analyzed tissue-specific transcriptomes of Arabidopsis thaliana and identified 66 gene families with a high frequency of “gradient genes” - genes showing a significant expression gradient between tissues. Gradient gene families include many with roles in hormone and peptide signaling, cell wall synthesis and remodeling, secondary metabolism, transcriptional regulation, and transport between cells. We compared the size of the gradient gene families among the genomes of four plant species with radically different body plans – a single-celled algae, a moss, a eudicot, and a monocot – and found that most of the gradient gene families (58/66) expanded in parallel with the evolution of morphological complexity. A novel measure of tissue diversity was used to show that members of any one gradient gene family tend not to be clustered in a single tissue, but are rather apportioned evenly across the tissues studied. Considered together, our results suggest that the diversification of these gene families supported the diversification of tissue types and the evolution of body plan complexity in plants.
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BMC Genomics: Comparative analysis of the predicted secretomes of Rosaceae scab pathogens Venturia inaequalis and V. pirina reveals expanded effector families and putative determinants of host rang...

BMC Genomics: Comparative analysis of the predicted secretomes of Rosaceae scab pathogens Venturia inaequalis and V. pirina reveals expanded effector families and putative determinants of host rang... | Microbes, plant immunity, and crop science | Scoop.it
Fungal plant pathogens belonging to the genus Venturia cause damaging scab diseases of members of the Rosaceae. In terms of economic impact, the most important of these are V. inaequalis, which infects apple, and V. pirina, which is a pathogen of European pear. Given that Venturia fungi colonise the sub-cuticular space without penetrating plant cells, it is assumed that effectors that contribute to virulence and determination of host range will be secreted into this plant-pathogen interface. Thus the predicted secretomes of a range of isolates of Venturia with distinct host-ranges were interrogated to reveal putative proteins involved in virulence and pathogenicity. Genomes of Venturia pirina (one European pear scab isolate) and Venturia inaequalis (three apple scab, and one loquat scab, isolates) were sequenced and the predicted secretomes of each isolate identified. RNA-Seq was conducted on the apple-specific V. inaequalis isolate Vi1 (in vitro and infected apple leaves) to highlight virulence and pathogenicity components of the secretome. Genes encoding over 600 small secreted proteins (candidate effectors) were identified, most of which are novel to Venturia, with expansion of putative effector families a feature of the genus. Numerous genes with similarity to Leptosphaeria maculans AvrLm6 and the Verticillium spp. Ave1 were identified. Candidates for avirulence effectors with cognate resistance genes involved in race-cultivar specificity were identified, as were putative proteins involved in host-species determination. Candidate effectors were found, on average, to be in regions of relatively low gene-density and in closer proximity to repeats (e.g. transposable elements), compared with core eukaryotic genes. Comparative secretomics has revealed candidate effectors from Venturia fungal plant pathogens that attack pome fruit. Effectors that are putative determinants of host range were identified; both those that may be involved in race-cultivar and host-species specificity. Since many of the effector candidates are in close proximity to repetitive sequences this may point to a possible mechanism for the effector gene family expansion observed and a route to diversification via transposition and repeat-induced point mutation.
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Plant Methods: A novel hairpin library-based approach to identify NBS–LRR genes required for effector-triggered hypersensitive response in Nicotiana benthamiana (2017)

Plant Methods: A novel hairpin library-based approach to identify NBS–LRR genes required for effector-triggered hypersensitive response in Nicotiana benthamiana (2017) | Microbes, plant immunity, and crop science | Scoop.it
PTI and ETI are the two major defence mechanisms in plants. ETI is triggered by the detection of pathogen effectors, or their activity, in the plant cell and most of the time involves internal receptors known as resistance (R) genes. An increasing number of R genes responsible for recognition of specific effectors have been characterised over the years; however, methods to identify R genes are often challenging and cannot always be translated to crop plants. We present a novel method to identify R genes responsible for the recognition of specific effectors that trigger a hypersensitive response (HR) in Nicotiana benthamiana. This method is based on the genome-wide identification of most of the potential R genes of N. benthamiana and a systematic silencing of these potential R genes in a simple transient expression assay. A hairpin-RNAi library was constructed covering 345 R gene candidates of N. benthamiana. This library was then validated using several previously described R genes. Our approach indeed confirmed that Prf, NRC2a/b and NRC3 are required for the HR that is mediated in N. benthamiana by Pto/avrPto (prf, NRC2a/b and NRC3) and by Cf4/avr4 (NRC2a/b and NRC3). We also confirmed that NRG1, in association with N, is required for the Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV)-mediated HR in N. benthamiana. We present a novel approach combining bioinformatics, multiple-gene silencing and transient expression assay screening to rapidly identify one-to-one relationships between pathogen effectors and host R genes in N. benthamiana. This approach allowed the identification of previously described R genes responsible for detection of avirulence determinants from Pseudomonas, Cladosporium and TMV, demonstrating that the method could be applied to any effectors/proteins originating from a broad range of plant pathogens that trigger an HR in N. benthamiana. Moreover, with the increasing availability of genome sequences from model and crop plants and pathogens, this approach could be implemented in other plants, accelerating the process of identification and characterization of novel resistance genes.
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Mol. Plant.: Emerging Jasmonate Transporters (2017)

Mol. Plant.: Emerging Jasmonate Transporters (2017) | Microbes, plant immunity, and crop science | Scoop.it
Empty descriJasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) are highly mobile and, when applied to intact plants, these compounds powerfully modulate gene expression. Moreover, activation of jasmonate-responsive genes usually occurs in tissues distal to the treatments. It therefore comes as no surprise that there are jasmonate transporters; these proteins are only now emerging and their discovery is important for a number of reasons. Firstly, biologically active jasmonates such as jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) are potent regulators that are made in small quantities and that need to be delivered to the correct cellular and subcellular sites. Secondly, jasmonates act to redirect resources from growth to defense. For example, when shoots are wounded, jasmonates help to coordinate the appropriate growth of roots so that organ growth rates are balanced even when a distal part of the plant is damaged. Moreover, some plants (Arabidopsis is an example) produce large quantities of the JA-Ile precursor JA upon wounding. JA and/or its immediate precursor can be transported from cell to cell and even from shoot to root (Gasperini et al., 2015; Figure 1A–1C ). The mechanisms underlying this transport need to be identified. However, a difficulty for the jasmonate field is that many studies of JA/JA-Ile transport have used exogenous jasmonates applied at sometimes non-physiological levels to plant tissues. These studies can be difficult to interpret, so the discovery of jasmonate transporter mutants represents a welcome breakthrough. Among these is the newly reported jasmonate transporter (JAT1) from Arabidopsis (Li et al., 2017).ption
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Phytopathol.: Characterization of the Xanthomonas translucens Complex Using Draft Genomes, Comparative Genomics, Phylogenetic Analysis, and Diagnostic LAMP Assays

Prevalence of Xanthomonas translucens, which causes cereal leaf streak (CLS) in cereal crops and bacterial wilt in forage and turfgrass species, has increased in many regions in recent years. Because the pathogen is seedborne in economically important cereals, it is a concern for international and interstate germplasm exchange and, thus, reliable and robust protocols for its detection in seed are needed. However, historical confusion surrounding the taxonomy within the species has complicated the development of accurate and reliable diagnostic tools for X. translucens. Therefore, we sequenced genomes of 15 X. translucens strains representing six different pathovars and compared them with additional publicly available X. translucens genome sequences to obtain a genome-based phylogeny for robust classification of this species. Our results reveal three main clusters: one consisting of pv. cerealis, one consisting of pvs. undulosa and translucens, and a third consisting of pvs. arrhenatheri, graminis, phlei, and poae. Based on genomic differences, diagnostic loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) primers were developed that clearly distinguish strains that cause disease on cereals, such as pvs. undulosa, translucens, hordei, and secalis, from strains that cause disease on noncereal hosts, such as pvs. arrhenatheri, cerealis, graminis, phlei, and poae. Additional LAMP assays were developed that selectively amplify strains belonging to pvs. cerealis and poae, distinguishing them from other pathovars. These primers will be instrumental in diagnostics when implementing quarantine regulations to limit further geographic spread of X. translucens pathovars.
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MPMI: mlo-Based Resistance: An Apparently Universal “Weapon” to Defeat Powdery Mildew Disease (2017)

MPMI: mlo-Based Resistance: An Apparently Universal “Weapon” to Defeat Powdery Mildew Disease (2017) | Microbes, plant immunity, and crop science | Scoop.it
Loss-of-function mutations of one or more of the appropriate Mildew resistance locus o (Mlo) genes are an apparently reliable “weapon” to protect plants from infection by powdery mildew fungi, as they confer durable broad-spectrum resistance. Originally detected as a natural mutation in an Ethiopian barley landrace, this so-called mlo-based resistance has been successfully employed in European barley agriculture for nearly four decades. More recently, mlo-mediated resistance was discovered to be inducible in virtually every plant species of economic or scientific relevance. By now, mlo resistance has been found (as natural mutants) or generated (by induced mutagenesis, gene silencing, and targeted or nontargeted gene knock-out) in a broad range of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plant species. Here, we review features of mlo resistance in barley, discuss approaches to identify the appropriate Mlo gene targets to induce mlo-based resistance, and consider the issue of pleiotropic effects often associated with mlo-mediated immunity, which can harm plant yield and quality. We portray mlo-based resistance as an apparently universal and effective weapon to defeat powdery mildew disease in a multitude of plant species.
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Curr. Biol.: Activation of a Plant NLR Complex through Heteromeric Association with an Autoimmune Risk Variant of Another NLR (2017)

Curr. Biol.: Activation of a Plant NLR Complex through Heteromeric Association with an Autoimmune Risk Variant of Another NLR (2017) | Microbes, plant immunity, and crop science | Scoop.it
When independently evolved immune receptor variants meet in hybrid plants, they can activate immune signaling in the absence of non-self recognition. Such autoimmune risk alleles have recurrently evolved at the DANGEROUS MIX2 (DM2) nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat (NLR)-encoding locus in A. thaliana. One of these activates signaling in the presence of a particular variant encoded at another NLR locus, DM1. We show that the risk variants of DM1 and DM2d NLRs signal through the same pathway that is activated when plant NLRs recognize non-self elicitors. This requires the P loops of each protein and Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-domain-mediated heteromeric association of DM1 and DM2d. DM1 and DM2d each resides in a multimeric complex in the absence of signaling, with the DM1 complex shifting to higher molecular weight when heteromerizing DM2 variants are present. The activation of the DM1 complex appears to be sensitive to the conformation of the heteromerizing DM2 variant. Autoimmunity triggered by interaction of this NLR pair thus suggests that activity of heteromeric NLR signaling complexes depends on the sum of activation potentials of partner NLRs.
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F1000Research Article: Introducing the Brassica Information Portal: Towards integrating genotypic and phenotypic Brassica crop data.

The Brassica Information Portal (BIP) is a centralised repository for Brassica phenotypic data. Trait data associated with Brassica research and breeding experiments conducted on Brassica crops, used as vegetables, for livestock fodder and biofuels, is hosted on the site, together with information on the experimental plant materials used, as well as trial design. BIP is an open access and open source project, built on the schema of CropStoreDB, and as such can provide trait data management strategies for any crop data. A new user interface and programmatic submission/retrieval system helps to simplify data access for scientists and breeders. BIP opens up the opportunity to apply big data analyses to data generated by the Brassica Research Community. Here, we present a short description of the current status of the repository.
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Mol. Plant: Brassica rapa Genome 2.0: A Reference Upgrade through Sequence Re-assembly and Gene Re-annotation (2017)

Mol. Plant: Brassica rapa Genome 2.0: A Reference Upgrade through Sequence Re-assembly and Gene Re-annotation (2017) | Microbes, plant immunity, and crop science | Scoop.it
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TiPS: Multiscale Phenotyping and Decision Strategies in Breeding for Resistance (2017)

TiPS: Multiscale Phenotyping and Decision Strategies in Breeding for Resistance (2017) | Microbes, plant immunity, and crop science | Scoop.it
Advances in biotechnology have rendered tracking of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) a much easier task, making phenotyping, and not genotyping, the main bottleneck to integrating quantitative host plant resistance into breeding programs. The relevance of phenotyping methods is conditioned by their ability to predict the performance of a genotype at the field scale. Components of resistance represent the keystone hierarchy level between resistance expression in the field (the breeder’s scale) and QTLs (the geneticist’s scale). We describe approaches for upscaling processes to identify components of resistance that best predict field resistance, and for decision making for selection in breeding programs. We further highlight avenues for future research considering specific processes: disease transmission, defoliation, disease escape, polyetic processes, and interactions between components of resistance.
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Genome editors take on crops

Genome editors take on crops | Microbes, plant immunity, and crop science | Scoop.it
The global population is expected to rise from 7.3 billion to 9.7 billion by 2050 ( 1 ). At the same time, climate change poses increasing risks to crop production through droughts and pests ( 2 ). Improved crops are thus urgently needed to meet growing demand for food and address changing climatic conditions. Genome-editing technologies such as the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)/Cas (CRISPR-associated protein) system ( 3 ) show promise for helping to address these challenges, if the precision of genome editing is improved and the technology is approved and accepted by regulators, producers, and consumers.

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Mining microbes: Creating genomic tools to fight disease

Mining microbes: Creating genomic tools to fight disease | Microbes, plant immunity, and crop science | Scoop.it
In 2015, several patients in the intensive care unit of the Royal Brompton Hospital in London came down with an unexplained illness. Doctors suspected a fungal infection—but those can be difficult to diagnose, and culturing fungi from patient blood samples takes time.
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La Bibliothèque du Vivant : une référence génomique pour les espèces

La Bibliothèque du Vivant : une référence génomique pour les espèces | Microbes, plant immunity, and crop science | Scoop.it
Bibliothèque du Vivant (BdV) est un appel à projets financé par le CNRS, l'INRA et le MNHN de 2011 et 2013 et qui a bénéficié du support technique du Génoscope pour le séquençage massif de l’ADN. BdV avait pour objectif de soutenir et d’accompagner cent équipes françaises portant des projets d’étude de la biodiversité. Il voulait accélérer le séquençage massif de gènes, ou partie de gènes d’organismes pluricellulaires appartenant à différents groupes taxinomiques (plantes, champignons, vertébrés, insectes etc.) pour compléter une bibliothèque de codes-barres ADN de référence pour le vivant et ainsi accéder à phylogénie moléculaires de ces organismes. Des travaux issus de ce programme font l’objet d’un volume spécial "DNA library of life" (2017) publié dans la revue European Journal of Taxonomy.

 

CNRS - Institut écologie et environnement - Actualités de l'institut, 05.05.2017


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A noter : 4ème Colloque de Génomique Environnementale 13615/09 à Marseille  http://gdr3692.wixsite.com/gdrge/4e-colloque-genomique-environnement
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Is There an Upper Limit to Genome Size?

Is There an Upper Limit to Genome Size? | Microbes, plant immunity, and crop science | Scoop.it

At 50-fold the size of the human genome (3 Gb), the staggeringly huge genome of 147.3 Gb recently discovered in the fern Tmesipteris obliqua is comparable in size to those of the other plant and animal record-holders (i.e., Paris japonica, a flowering plant with a genome size of 148.8 Gb, and Protopterus aethiopicus, a lungfish with a genome of 130 Gb). The synthesis of available information on giant genomes suggests that the biological limit to genome size expansion in eukaryotes may have been reached. We propose several explanations for why the genomes of ferns, flowering plants, and lungfish, all of which have independently undergone dramatic increases in genome size through a variety of mechanisms, do not exceed 150 Gb.


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Curr. Biol.: Phylogenetic comparative methods (2017)

Curr. Biol.: Phylogenetic comparative methods (2017) | Microbes, plant immunity, and crop science | Scoop.it
Phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs) enable us to study the history of organismal evolution and diversification. PCMs comprise a collection of statistical methods for inferring history from piecemeal information, primarily combining two types of data: first, an estimate of species relatedness, usually based on their genes, and second, contemporary trait values of extant organisms. Some PCMs also incorporate information from geological records, especially fossils, but also other gradual and episodic events in the Earth’s history (for example, trait data from fossils or the global oxygen concentration as an independent variable). It is important to note at the outset that PCMs are not concerned with reconstructing the evolutionary relationships among species; this has to do with estimating the phylogeny from genetic, fossil and other data, and a separate set of methods for this process makes up the field of phylogenetics. PCMs as a set of methods are distinct from, but are not completely independent of, phylogenetics. PCMs are used to address the questions: how did the characteristics of organisms evolve through time and what factors influenced speciation and extinction?
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Plant J.: Advances on plant–pathogen interactions from molecular toward systems biology perspectives (2017)

Plant J.: Advances on plant–pathogen interactions from molecular toward systems biology perspectives (2017) | Microbes, plant immunity, and crop science | Scoop.it
In the past 2 decades, progress in molecular analyses of the plant immune system has revealed key elements of a complex response network. Current paradigms depict the interaction of pathogen-secreted molecules with host target molecules leading to the activation of multiple plant response pathways. Further research will be required to fully understand how these responses are integrated in space and time, and exploit this knowledge in agriculture. In this review, we highlight systems biology as a promising approach to reveal properties of molecular plant–pathogen interactions and predict the outcome of such interactions. We first illustrate a few key concepts in plant immunity with a network and systems biology perspective. Next, we present some basic principles of systems biology and show how they allow integrating multiomics data and predict cell phenotypes. We identify challenges for systems biology of plant–pathogen interactions, including the reconstruction of multiscale mechanistic models and the connection of host and pathogen models. Finally, we outline studies on resistance durability through the robustness of immune system networks, the identification of trade-offs between immunity and growth and in silico plant–pathogen co-evolution as exciting perspectives in the field. We conclude that the development of sophisticated models of plant diseases incorporating plant, pathogen and climate properties represent a major challenge for agriculture in the future.
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Mol. Plant: Effector–Decoy Pairs: Another Countermeasure Emerging during Host–Microbe Co-evolutionary Arms Races? (2017)

Mol. Plant: Effector–Decoy Pairs: Another Countermeasure Emerging during Host–Microbe Co-evolutionary Arms Races? (2017) | Microbes, plant immunity, and crop science | Scoop.it
Plant pathogenic microbes pose a significant threat to food production, collectively affecting all cultivated crops. Given the impact of these pathogens on food security, there continues to be an urgent need to understand and exploit the biology of pathogenesis, plant susceptibility, and immunity in crop systems. Consequently, intense research efforts have helped define the molecular and evolutionary events that underpin plant-microbe interactions.
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TiPS: RNA-Binding Proteins Revisited – The Emerging Arabidopsis mRNA Interactome

TiPS: RNA-Binding Proteins Revisited – The Emerging Arabidopsis mRNA Interactome | Microbes, plant immunity, and crop science | Scoop.it
RNA–protein interaction is an important checkpoint to tune gene expression at the RNA level. Global identification of proteins binding in vivo to mRNA has been possible through interactome capture – where proteins are fixed to target RNAs by UV crosslinking and purified through affinity capture of polyadenylated RNA. In Arabidopsis over 500 RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) enriched in UV-crosslinked samples have been identified. As in mammals and yeast, the mRNA interactomes came with a few surprises. For example, a plethora of the proteins caught on RNA had not previously been linked to RNA-mediated processes, for example proteins of intermediary metabolism. Thus, the studies provide unprecedented insights into the composition of the mRNA interactome, highlighting the complexity of RNA-mediated processes.
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Nat. Commun: Genome assembly with in vitro proximity ligation data and whole-genome triplication in lettuce (2017)

Nat. Commun: Genome assembly with in vitro proximity ligation data and whole-genome triplication in lettuce (2017) | Microbes, plant immunity, and crop science | Scoop.it
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is a major crop and a member of the large, highly successful Compositae family of flowering plants. Here we present a reference assembly for the species and family. This was generated using whole-genome shotgun Illumina reads plus in vitro proximity ligation data to create large superscaffolds; it was validated genetically and superscaffolds were oriented in genetic bins ordered along nine chromosomal pseudomolecules. We identify several genomic features that may have contributed to the success of the family, including genes encoding Cycloidea-like transcription factors, kinases, enzymes involved in rubber biosynthesis and disease resistance proteins that are expanded in the genome. We characterize 21 novel microRNAs, one of which may trigger phasiRNAs from numerous kinase transcripts. We provide evidence for a whole-genome triplication event specific but basal to the Compositae. We detect 26% of the genome in triplicated regions containing 30% of all genes that are enriched for regulatory sequences and depleted for genes involved in defence.
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Mol. Ecol. Introduction: microbial local adaptation: insights from natural populations, genomics and experimental evolution (2017)

Mol. Ecol. Introduction: microbial local adaptation: insights from natural populations, genomics and experimental evolution (2017) | Microbes, plant immunity, and crop science | Scoop.it
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Mol. Plant Pathol.: The role of type III effectors from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis in virulence and suppression of plant immunity (2017€

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam) causes cassava bacterial blight, the most important bacterial disease of cassava. Xam, like other Xanthomonas species, requires type III effectors (T3Es
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Current Biology: Building Barriers… in Roots (2017)

Current Biology: Building Barriers… in Roots (2017) | Microbes, plant immunity, and crop science | Scoop.it

The Casparian strip is an important barrier regulating water and nutrient uptake into root tissues. New research reveals two peptide signals and their co-receptors play critical roles patterning and maintaining barrier integrity.

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Bodyguards: Pathogen-Derived Decoys That Protect Virulence Factors

Bodyguards: Pathogen-Derived Decoys That Protect Virulence Factors | Microbes, plant immunity, and crop science | Scoop.it
Recent studies on plant-pathogen interactions have exposed a new strategy used by plant pathogens: decoy effectors that protect virulence factors. Examples of these “bodyguards” include the recently discovered PsXLP1 from Phytophthora sojae and truncated TALEs from Xanthomonas oryzae. These examples suggest important roles for seemingly non-functional effector proteins in distracting the host.

Via Suayib Üstün
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