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Video: Sophien Kamoun "The long reach of the effectors of plant associated organisms", 77th CSHL Symposium on Quantitative Biology: The Biology of Plants, June 1, 2012.

Video: Sophien Kamoun "The long reach of the effectors of plant associated organisms",  77th CSHL Symposium on Quantitative Biology: The Biology of Plants, June 1, 2012. | effectors | Scoop.it

Watch Sophien's talk at the 77th Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. The Biology of Plants, June 1, 2012 at http://web.mac.com/sophien/KamounLab/movies/SKamoun_CSHL_2012.m4v

 

Symposium website http://meetings.cshl.edu/meetings/symp12.shtml


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Immunomodulation assays of effectors (avirulence and virulence): Agroinfiltration and agroinfection assays for activation and suppression of immunity (Marina Pais and Suomeng Dong)

For references, see: Kanneganti, T.-D., Huitema, E., and Kamoun, S. 2007. In planta expression of fungal and oomycete effectors. In 'Plant-Pathogen Interactions' P. Ronald, ed. Humana Press, 35-43 http://kamounlab.dreamhosters.com/pdfs/PPIchapter_04.pdf

 

Protocol of practical course "In planta expression systems of pathogen effectors" by Marina Pais and Suomeng Dong can be downloaded here http://kamounlab.dreamhosters.com/pdfs/EMBO2012_agro.pdf

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Cell death assays in monocots: Monocot protoplast eclipse assay (Vanesa Segovia and Kentaro Yoshida)

Cell death assays in monocots: Monocot protoplast eclipse assay (Vanesa Segovia and Kentaro Yoshida) | effectors | Scoop.it

Adapted from Yoshida, K., Saitoh, H., Fujisawa, S., Kanzaki, H., Matsumura, H., Yoshida, K., Tosa, Y., Chuma, I., Takano, Y., Win, J., Kamoun, S., and Terauchi, R. 2009. Association genetics reveals three novel avirulence genes from the rice blast fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Plant Cell, 21:1573-1591. http://kamounlab.dreamhosters.com/pdfs/PCell_09a.pdf

 

Download handout at http://kamounlab.dreamhosters.com/pdfs/EMBO2012_protos.pdf

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Curr Opin Plant Biol : TAL effectors: finding plant genes for disease and defense

Curr Opin Plant Biol : TAL effectors: finding plant genes for disease and defense | effectors | Scoop.it

"Recent elucidation of the basis for specificity in DNA binding by TALEs expedites further discovery and opens the door to biotechnological applications. This article reviews the most significant findings in TALE research, with a focus on recent advances, and discusses future prospects including pressing questions yet to be answered"


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Translocation of Magnaporthe oryzae Effectors into Rice Cells and Their Subsequent Cell-to-Cell Movement. Plant Cell (2010)

Translocation of Magnaporthe oryzae Effectors into Rice Cells and Their Subsequent Cell-to-Cell Movement. Plant Cell (2010) | effectors | Scoop.it

PWL2 and BAS1 (for biotrophy-associated secreted protein 1), BIC-localized secreted proteins, were translocated into the rice cytoplasm. By contrast, BAS4, which uniformly outlines the IH, was not translocated into the host cytoplasm. Fluorescent PWL2 and BAS1 proteins that reached the rice cytoplasm moved into uninvaded neighbors, presumably preparing host cells before invasion.


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Kamoun Lab @ TSL's comment, April 9, 2013 8:04 PM
But this assay is not "pathogen-independent"...
Kamoun Lab @ TSL's comment, April 9, 2013 8:08 PM
Two issues came up in our internal discussions of the maggie RFP-NLS assay:

1/ It would be nice to see a decrease of nuclear signal as you move away from the IH/BIC plant cell. Sometimes there are several cells with stained nuclei - one would expect the signal to become weaker and weaker as the protein gets diluted. Some clear documentation of the weakening of the signal as you move away from the first infected cells would be nice.

2/ A question arose last year about whether the artificial NLS is actually carrying the effector inside the plant cells since there are papers about NLS sequences acting as cell-penetrating peptides.
Mark Farman's comment, April 9, 2013 8:53 PM
There is NO evidence that any Magnaporthe effector translocates across host cell membranes independently of pathogen machinery (nor is there such evidence for oomycetes, for that matter). The Ribot paper is seriously and fundamentally flawed. Actually, I would like to retract my use of the word "translocation" in my earlier comment and replace it with "delivery" because I do not believe that Magnaporthe effectors translocate across membranes at all! Figure that one out...
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Meet the instructors: Vivianne Vleeshouwers, Wageningen UR

Meet the instructors: Vivianne Vleeshouwers, Wageningen UR | effectors | Scoop.it

Understanding and exploiting late blight resistance in the age of effectors.

 

Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is the world's third-largest food crop. It severely suffers from late blight, a devastating disease caused by Phytophthora infestans. This oomycete pathogen secretes host-translocated RXLR effectors that include avirulence (AVR) proteins, which are targeted by resistance (R) proteins from wild Solanum species. Most Solanum R genes appear to have coevolved with P. infestans at its center of origin in central Mexico. Various R and Avr genes were recently cloned, and here we catalog characterized R-AVR pairs. We describe the mechanisms that P. infestans employs for evading R protein recognition and discuss partial resistance and partial virulence phenotypes in the context of our knowledge of effector diversity and activity. Genome-wide catalogs of P. infestans effectors are available, enabling effectoromics approaches that accelerate R gene cloning and specificity profiling. Engineering R genes with expanded pathogen recognition has also become possible. Importantly, monitoring effector allelic diversity in pathogen populations can assist in R gene deployment in agriculture.

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Meet the instructors: Sophien Kamoun, The Sainsbury Laboratory

Meet the instructors: Sophien Kamoun, The Sainsbury Laboratory | effectors | Scoop.it

Unravelling the biochemical activities of effectors to understand how pathogens successfully colonize and reproduce on their host plants has become the driving paradigm in the field of plant pathology. We study effector biology, mainly in the Phytophthora infestans-Solanaceae pathosystem. Our long-term objective is to dissect the molecular mechanisms that enable filamentous pathogens, such as the oomycete P. infestans, to successfully infect plants and the plant processes that are perturbed by the effectors of this pathogen. We aim at understanding how pathogen effectors function, how they evolve, and how they traffic into host cells.

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Royal Horticultural Society: Tree rusts

Royal Horticultural Society: Tree rusts | effectors | Scoop.it

Tree rusts are fungal diseases causing dusty orange or brown spots (pustules) on the leaves of poplar, willow, birch, plum and five-needled pine.

 

Tree rusts cause eye-catching infections on the leaves of some trees, particularly Populus spp. (poplar), Salix spp. (willow), Betula spp. (birch), plum and Pinus spp. (five-needled pines). Tree rusts may be seen from spring until autumn for trees that lose their leaves in winter (deciduous) and all year on evergreens.

 

These are the rust fungi involved:

> Poplar rust is caused by several species of Melampsora

> Willow rust is also caused by several species of Melampsora, but not the same as those infecting poplars

> Birch rust is caused by Melampsoridium betulinumPlum rust is caused by Tranzschelia pruni-spinosae var. discolor

> Five-needled pines are infected by white pine blister rust, caused by Cronartium ribicola

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Purification of effector complexes from plants: In planta co-immunprecipitation of effectors (Tolga Bozkurt and Joe Win)

Adapted from Win, J., Kamoun, S., and Jones, A.M. 2011. Purification of effector-target protein complexes via transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. In " Methods in Molecular Biology vol. 712, The Plant Immune Response", J. McDowell, ed. http://kamounlab.dreamhosters.com/pdfs/MethodsMolBiol_2011.pdf

 

Protocol of practical course "Purification of effector complexes from plants: In planta co- immunoprecipitation of effectors" by Tolga Bozkurt and Joe Win can be downloaded here http://kamounlab.dreamhosters.com/pdfs/EMBO2012_coip.pdf

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Practical sessions for "Effectors"

Three groups:

 

Immunomodulation assays of effectors (avirulence and virulence): Agroinfiltration and agroinfection assays for activation and suppression of immunity (Marina Pais and Suomeng Dong)

 

Cell death assays in monocots: Monocot protoplast eclipse assay (Vanesa Segovia and Kentaro Yoshida)

 

Purification of effector complexes from plants: In planta co-immunprecipitation of effectors (Tolga Bozkurt and Joe Win)

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The Movie! - Method of the Year 2011: Gene-editing nucleases - by Nature Video

Gene-editing nucleases can make targeted and precise changes to an organism's genome. This has opened up new possibilities for the study of gene function


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Skeptic Wonder: Sunday Protist - Phytomonas: plant trypanosomatids! (2009)

Skeptic Wonder: Sunday Protist - Phytomonas: plant trypanosomatids! (2009) | effectors | Scoop.it

While I was trying to come up with something quick to blog about, got a couple updates in Google Reader from J. Eukaryotic Microbiol, among them a paper on... trypanosomatids living in coconut tree phloem! Somehow, you don't typically think of plants being invaded by motile, flagellate things, but on a second thought: why not? The phloem is a vessel, and while perhaps there's no need to run away from macrophages or anything, there's no particular harm in retaining the ability to swim around. Especially if your other life happens in...insects!


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Meet the instructors: Gitta Coaker, UC Davis

Meet the instructors: Gitta Coaker, UC Davis | effectors | Scoop.it

Research in the Coaker laboratory includes studies on the mechanisms controlling pathogen evolution and virulence as well as plant resistance signaling cascades. A common thread to the research that is conducted in the laboratory is the use of the Gram-negative bacterium, Pseudomonas syringae, for understanding how disease is caused on susceptible genotypes whereas defense signaling is elicited on resistant plant genotypes.

 

Gitta's lecture will be titled "Pseudomonas Effectors: Dual Roles in Pathogen Virulence and Plant Immunity"

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This page is in support of the EMBO Course "Plant-Microbe Interaction" held in Norwich, June 2012

This page is in support of the EMBO Course "Plant-Microbe Interaction" held in Norwich, June 2012 | effectors | Scoop.it

The last 20 years have provided a sophisticated understanding of how plants recognize relatively conserved microbial patterns to activate defence. This workshop will cover broad aspects of the plant-microbe interaction and train methods to study and visualise intracellular interactions during pathogenesis and defence.

 

Organized by The Sainsbury Laboratory http://www.tsl.ac.uk/


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