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▶ Is Punishment or Reward More Effective? - YouTube

 

 

The psychologist Daniel Kahneman, winner of the 2002 Nobel prize in economics, pointed out that regression to the mean might explain why rebukes can seem to improve performance, while praise seems to backfire.[8] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regression_toward_the_mean

 

 

I had the most satisfying Eureka experience of my career while attempting to teach flight instructors that praise is more effective than punishment for promoting skill-learning. When I had finished my enthusiastic speech, one of the most seasoned instructors in the audience raised his hand and made his own short speech, which began by conceding that positive reinforcement might be good for the birds, but went on to deny that it was optimal for flight cadets. He said, “On many occasions I have praised flight cadets for clean execution of some aerobatic maneuver, and in general when they try it again, they do worse. On the other hand, I have often screamed at cadets for bad execution, and in general they do better the next time. So please don’t tell us that reinforcement works and punishment does not, because the opposite is the case.” This was a joyous moment, in which I understood an important truth about the world: because we tend to reward others when they do well and punish them when they do badly, and because there is regression to the mean, it is part of the human condition that we are statistically punished for rewarding others and rewarded for punishing them. I immediately arranged a demonstration in which each participant tossed two coins at a target behind his back, without any feedback. We measured the distances from the target and could see that those who had done best the first time had mostly deteriorated on their second try, and vice versa. But I knew that this demonstration would not undo the effects of lifelong exposure to a perverse contingency.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regression_toward_the_mean

Sharrock's insight:

Why do people resist research findings from areas like leadership, education, parenting, and other areas related to psychology and sociology? One reason may result from the confusion between the use and value of controlled experiments and the value of anecdotal evidence. 

 
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Sharrock's curator insight, January 11, 4:49 PM

Why do people resist research findings from areas like leadership, education, parenting, and other areas related to psychology and sociology? One reason may result from the confusion between the use and value of controlled experiments and the value of anecdotal evidence. 

 

Sharrock's curator insight, January 11, 4:50 PM

Why do people resist research findings from areas like leadership, education, parenting, and other areas related to psychology and sociology? One reason may result from the confusion between the use and value of controlled experiments and the value of anecdotal evidence. 

 
Sharrock's curator insight, January 11, 4:51 PM

Why do people resist research findings from areas like leadership, education, parenting, and other areas related to psychology and sociology? One reason may result from the confusion between the use and value of controlled experiments and the value of anecdotal evidence. 

 
educational implications
Theory and technology with possible impacts on how we learn
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Dissection of an Argument - Toolkit For Thinking

Dissection of an Argument - Toolkit For Thinking | educational implications | Scoop.it
Toolkit of ideas and techniques to help your creative and critical thinking including problem solving, logical fallacies and decision making.
Sharrock's insight:

This resource may be of help for those in writing, education, and other fields where critical thinking is necessary for production and for producing value. Along with keeping rhetorical fallacies at hand. 

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Consistent distraction does not hinder learning

Consistent distraction does not hinder learning | educational implications | Scoop.it
Maybe distraction is not always the enemy of learning. It turns out in surprising Brown University psychology research that inconsistentdistraction is the real problem.
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10 Most Brilliant Social Experiments — PsyBlog

10 Most Brilliant Social Experiments — PsyBlog | educational implications | Scoop.it
Ten of the most influential social psychology experiments.
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Finding the Most Creative Ways to Help Students Advance At Their Own Pace

Finding the Most Creative Ways to Help Students Advance At Their Own Pace | educational implications | Scoop.it
Despite a statewide competency-based learning policy, some New Hampshire high schools are focusing their energies on different kinds of innovation.
Sharrock's insight:
in some ways, this is similar to technology certificates. Students demonstrate competence by taking tests, demonstrating skills and knowledge needed in that area. The challenge is different in education. Education leaders have competing visions of what a learned citizen should know and be able to do. Competency learning still has the business and community pushback, not only because of the pull of the old model, but also because of the value differences. Multiple pathways may provide a solution, but there are foundational competencies and learning experiences that are also necessary for strong learning skills as well as development of resilience. Balancing the joy of learning with the needs of credentialing in addition to the development of psychological and social skills also challenge many learning models and programs.
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Elliott's brown eyes blue eyes experiment | Smithsonian

"They shot that King yesterday. Why'd they shoot that King?" All 28 children found their desks, and Elliott said she had something special for them to do, to begin to understand the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. the day before. "How do you think it would feel to be a Negro boy or girl?" she asked the children, who were white. "It would be hard to know, wouldn't it, unless we actually experienced discrimination ourselves. Would you like to find out?" A chorus of "Yeahs" went up, and so began one of the most astonishing exercises ever conducted in an American classroom. Now, almost four decades later, Elliott's experiment still matters—to the grown children with whom she experimented, to the people of Riceville, population 840, who all but ran her out of town, and to thousands of people around the world who have also participated in an exercise based on the experiment. (She prefers the term "exercise.") It is sometimes cited as a landmark of social science. The textbook publisher McGraw-Hill has listed her on a timeline of key educators, along with Confucius, Plato, Aristotle, Horace Mann, Booker T. Washington, Maria Montessori and 23 others. Yet what Elliott did continues to stir controversy. One scholar asserts that it is "Orwellian" and teaches whites "self-contempt." A columnist at a Denver newspaper called it "evil." Read more: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/lesson-of-a-lifetime-72754306/#hbzw8Kr7PBpSU9HS.99 Give the gift of Smithsonian magazine for only $12! http://bit.ly/1cGUiGv Follow us: @SmithsonianMag on Twitter
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To my white male Facebook friends

To my white male Facebook friends | educational implications | Scoop.it
A plea to the good guys in my world to stop being so defensive and listen to other people's experiences
Sharrock's insight:
Would you class this essay as perssuasive or argumentative? and why? Identify where ethos, pathos, logos, and for extra credit, even mythos is addressed. How would you improve this essay?
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How Obama Made Health Care Go Viral

How Obama Made Health Care Go Viral | educational implications | Scoop.it
The level of political awareness in this country is probably best summed up by a recent Anneberg Public Policy Center poll which found that only 36 percent of Americans can name the three branches of government and 35 percent "could not name a single one." If that level of ignorance is buffered by only those things spun into viral gold, we’re in trouble.
Sharrock's insight:
hpwcan educators exploit this? viral video can be informative apparently. can educators make important facts go viral?
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How to Succeed as a Voiceover Artist in the Digital Age | Mediashift | PBS

How to Succeed as a Voiceover Artist in the Digital Age | Mediashift | PBS | educational implications | Scoop.it
While voiceover work has existed for decades, new technologies have enabled voiceover actors to record with more quality and to do so virtually anywhere they happen to be.

Most of us probably take many voiceovers for granted: telephony (such as voice prompts and on-hold messages); animation dialogue; videogame voices; audiobook readings; corporate and training video work; dubbing work; e-learning instruction; webinar speaking; documentary film narration; radio, podcast, promo, trailer (the famous Don LaFontaine) narration, and television voicing.

This growing need for voiceover work, along with the opportunities to work from anywhere, make this profession a great and burgeoning business for voice actors.
Sharrock's insight:

career advice

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Adolescents Today: Pressure in the Wrong Places - Tim Elmore

Adolescents Today: Pressure in the Wrong Places - Tim Elmore | educational implications | Scoop.it

The term “adolescence” is only about a hundred years old, created by G. Stanley Hall to describe the sexual maturation of young people. Prior the 20th century, adults viewed youth with different expectations than they do today. For example, the play Romeo and Juliet was radical back in Shakespeare’s day. It was a show about teens rebelling against family traditions, lost in young love. Back in the 16th century, there was no such thing as adolescence. Young people the ages of Romeo and Juliet (around 13-14 years old) were adults in the eyes of society—even though they were probably pre-pubescent. Paradoxically, puberty came later in past eras, while the departure from parental supervision came earlier than it does today.

 

Sharrock's insight:

The necessary skills and behaviors needed for college and career readiness must be layered on beyond maturation. In fact, the additional layer of parental control and supervision that results in the emergence of adolescence stage has its purposes when considering what adolescence-ing is or what it does. Rather than see adolescence as something that developed from too much societal coddling, we might see it differently. 

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Hi-tech schools rescuing an ancient language

Hi-tech schools rescuing an ancient language | educational implications | Scoop.it
A university project is using iPads to create the textbooks needed for lessons in the Irish language
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3-D printing makes courtroom evidence high-tech and tactile

3-D printing makes courtroom evidence high-tech and tactile | educational implications | Scoop.it
3-D printing technology has made waves in the manufacturing, architecture and medicine industries. You can now add law to that list.
Sharrock's insight:
this use of 3d printing was unexpected (although virtual reality modeling might have been). Being able to examine evidence by touch as well as by sight is compelling and will probably be researched for its psychological impact. which brings us to educational impacts.
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Rescooped by Sharrock from Leadership, Innovation, and Creativity
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Stanford researcher explores why cliques thrive in some high schools more than others

Stanford researcher  explores why cliques thrive in some high schools more than others | educational implications | Scoop.it
Schools that offer students more choice are more likely to be rank-ordered, cliquish and segregated by race, age, gender and social status.

Those are among the conclusions of a new study, published online today in American Sociological Review. The lead author is Daniel A. McFarland, professor of education at Stanford Graduate School of Education. "Educators often suspect that the social world of adolescents is beyond their reach and out of their control, but that's not really so,'' McFarland said. "They have leverage, because the schools are indirectly shaping conditions in these societies."


Via Vineta Erzen, Ivon Prefontaine
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Vineta Erzen's curator insight, November 19, 5:24 PM

 What  potentially valuable qualities in adulthood. are , directly or indirectly,  shaped by high school conditions?

Ivon Prefontaine's curator insight, November 19, 7:32 PM

Teachers play a key role in helping set the tone and pace in School. Their positive involvement is essential.

 

@ivon_ehd1

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The Attention Economy: An Overview

The Attention Economy: An Overview | educational implications | Scoop.it
Because of this information explosion, we no longer read - we skim. The news that used to last a day now lasts just a few hours, simply because we need to pay attention to the new news. So it is becoming increasingly difficult to juggle all the news sources and keep on top of things. Which brings us to the law of information, stated first by Herbert Simon: the rapid growth of information causes scarcity of attention.
Sharrock's insight:

This is why education is taking on still more responsibilities. This additional responsibility is to teach students how to be economical about their attention. Health classes can do this from a hygiene and healthy practices point of view, but other courses--especially academic courses--can do so from the point of view of evaluating ideas and reading, teaching tools to set standards and making judgments about the information, verifying the validity of it, confirming accuracy, and identifying errors, like logical fallacies. These academic teachers might also teach "shortcuts" for choosing information resources when needing a quick but with fairly dependable accuracy and validity. Not so easy with digital resources, but it can be offered with caveats. 

 

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11 ways race isn’t real

You've heard that race is a "social construct." These reminders of how silly racial categories are explain how that works in real life.
Sharrock's insight:
excerpt: "As political priorities change, American racial definitions adjust right along with them. So, for example, people of Mexican birth or ancestry were "white" until the 1930 Census snatched that privilege back. Since then, their status — white or Hispanic — has flip-flopped several more times, all depending largely on whatever the current thinking was about their role in labor or immigration."
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Transcript of "The power of believing that you can improve"

Transcript of "The power of believing that you can improve" | educational implications | Scoop.it
Carol Dweck researches “growth mindset” — the idea that we can grow our brain's capacity to learn and to solve problems. In this talk, she describes two ways to think about a problem that’s slightly too hard for you to solve.
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How Much Practice is Too Much?

How Much Practice is Too Much? | educational implications | Scoop.it
By Annie Murphy Paul Why do I have to keep practicing? I know it already!” That’s the familiar wail of a child seated at the piano or in front of the mu
Sharrock's insight:
This has been the argument for practicing technical skills as one becomes an artist.
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Ivon Prefontaine's curator insight, December 16, 9:44 PM

Once we think we have mastered something, the enjoyment of practice and performing continues to help develop the skill.

 

@ivon_ehd1

David Hain's curator insight, December 17, 4:36 AM

Keep on practicing, even after it seems the task has been learned. ~ Neuroscience study.

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Here’s The Curious Secret To Perfect Learning While You Are Distracted — PsyBlog

Here’s The Curious Secret To Perfect Learning While You Are Distracted — PsyBlog | educational implications | Scoop.it
How to learn while distracted as if you were totally focused.
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How To Turn Character Flaws Into Strengths With One Easy Mental Trick — PsyBlog

How To Turn Character Flaws Into Strengths With One Easy Mental Trick — PsyBlog | educational implications | Scoop.it
An easy mental trick to turn poor personality traits to your advantage.
Sharrock's insight:
this remids me of that elliot experiment where kids experienced the negative effects of stereotyping (brown eyes/blue eyes more intelligent). Belief was the key there as well. also reminds me of the rabbit's foot or magic feather stories. Superstition canbe powerfully useful.
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WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE?

you’re not trying to become an AI expert but to have a reasonable understanding of AI and machine learning concepts. For an introductory overview, consider these resources: Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (3rd Edition) by Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig Machine Learning by Thomas M. Mitchell For a cliff note version, refer to AI co-founder John McCarthy’s article. (see attached)
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How Do Ideas Feel In Our Brain? [VIDEO]

How Do Ideas Feel In Our Brain? [VIDEO] | educational implications | Scoop.it
The ability for your senses to provide data to the brain and translate those into mental phenomena is responsible for ideasthesia.
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Shanley Kane of Model View Culture Challenges a “Corrupt” Silicon Valley | MIT Technology Review

Shanley Kane of Model View Culture Challenges a “Corrupt” Silicon Valley | MIT Technology Review | educational implications | Scoop.it
Obviously, programmers are important, but a very common dysfunction, particularly at technology startups, is privileging programmers. When you don’t value other skills, your engineering team becomes very entitled and even abusive of other parts of the company. Really important functions, like marketing, sales, business development, finance, and legal, become underfunded and under-resourced. We often end up with companies with great technology that are nonetheless dying because they could not execute from a nontechnical standpoint.
Sharrock's insight:

STEM careers could be the carrot that attracts women, blacks, hispanics, and other minorities, if they could be supported/promoted /valued by reps of companies that are inclusive and interested in promoting minority pursuits. This is not the case. Instead, creative careers--careers in the arts--are more attractive. Why? What do you often see in the Arts? Solo shows, ensembles, faces on book jackets, poetry: these are some of the inclusive forums and venues and media. When MORE non-white people can talk about science, technology, engineering, and maths without having to rationalize or apologize for being one of the few non-white people, and be able to focus more on dreams and intellectual pursuits being realized, more youths will pursue these areas. Their teachers will be diverse, their role models will be diverse, and colleagues will be diverse. Until then, very few will be attracted to the STEM fields. 

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Rescooped by Sharrock from Transmedia: Storytelling for the Digital Age
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Toy makers use transmedia storytelling to drive sales

Toy makers use transmedia storytelling to drive sales | educational implications | Scoop.it

Via The Digital Rocking Chair
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The Digital Rocking Chair's curator insight, November 29, 12:06 PM


Jordan England-Nelson:  "Rather than rely on popular films to generate buzz for new products, toy companies are creating in-house studios to produce their own video content to get kids excited about new toy lines."

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Surviving the Childhood Trauma of a Parent's Drug Addiction

Surviving the Childhood Trauma of a Parent's Drug Addiction | educational implications | Scoop.it
MY SENSE THAT I was alone in these experiences was a weight that I carried constantly. In my upper-middle-class enclave, it was embarrassing enough that I had a single mother, let alone a father who was banned from seeing us. I’d go to great lengths to hide my family history. Even into adulthood, I really thought my story was uniquely humiliating.

Sadly, it’s not. Over 8.3 million children, nearly 12 percent of all children in the United States, live with an addict. At Al-Anon, a support group for loved ones, there’s a saying that every alcoholic negatively affects at least four people. The organization’s associate communications director (whose name is omitted due to the organization’s policy of anonymity) says that the number can be as high as 16 if you count not just the children of an addict, but also the grandchildren who could be affected by their family’s dysfunctional past.
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What’s Our Vision for the Future of Learning?

What’s Our Vision for the Future of Learning? | educational implications | Scoop.it
Author David Price writes: "If schools are coming into direct competition with the learning opportunities available in the informal social space, it has to be said that this is a pressure, which barely registers within the political discourse.
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NIMH · Manipulating Memory

NIMH · Manipulating Memory | educational implications | Scoop.it
A pair of articles published this week in two of the most prestigious science journals describe the manipulation of memory with neurotechnologies capable of precisely targeting brain circuitry.
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Is The US In A Phase Change To The Creative Economy?

Is The US In A Phase Change To The Creative Economy? | educational implications | Scoop.it
Is The US In A Phase Change From A Factory Economy To A Creative Economy? Stiglitz "suggests large investments in infrastructure, technology, and education for decades, as well as support for “small and medium-size companies, especially new ones, which are disproportionately the source of job creation in any economy, and they have been especially hard-hit. What’s needed is to get banks out of the dangerous business of speculating and back into the boring business of lending.”
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