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educational implications
Theory and technology with possible impacts on how we learn
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Dissection of an Argument - Toolkit For Thinking

Dissection of an Argument - Toolkit For Thinking | educational implications | Scoop.it
Toolkit of ideas and techniques to help your creative and critical thinking including problem solving, logical fallacies and decision making.
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This resource may be of help for those in writing, education, and other fields where critical thinking is necessary for production and for producing value. Along with keeping rhetorical fallacies at hand. 

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Bandura, the Theory of Social Learning and Education

Bandura, the Theory of Social Learning and Education | educational implications | Scoop.it
Albert Bandura is a psychologist from Canada who is currently a professor at the Stanford University. He is widely described as the greatest living psychologist and one of the most influential of o...

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TY! @drseide 4: Learning Strategies trump IQ in Predicting Achievement |, Scientific American

TY! @drseide 4: Learning Strategies trump IQ in Predicting Achievement |, Scientific American | educational implications | Scoop.it
In the 1960s, the legendary psychologist Albert Bandura rejected the view that learning is passive. Instead he emphasized the importance of the active use of learning strategies. ...

Via Lou Salza
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Lou Salza's insight:

There is so much data now that indicates the guided practice and learning staratagies we have offered in independent LD school matters and works!   --Lou 

 

Excerpt:

"....Over the past few decades there have been multiple studies showing the effectiveness of the self-regulated learning strategies approach using a variety of methodologies (e.g., think-aloud protocols, diaries, observation). In one recent large review, John Dunlosky and colleagues evaluated the relative utility of ten learning strategies. While some of the learning strategies (e.g., highlighting, rereading) were found to have low utility in benefitting learning outcomes, the following strategies were assessed as having moderate to high utility: practice testing (high), distributed practice (high), elaborative interrogation (medium), self-explanation (medium), and interleaved practice (medium). Practice testing had the most evidence supporting its benefits for learning across context and over time...."

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Lou Salza's curator insight, April 8, 2013 6:09 PM

There is so much data now that indicates the guided practice and learning staratagies we have offered in independent LD school matters and works!   --Lou 

 

Excerpt:

"....Over the past few decades there have been multiple studies showing the effectiveness of the self-regulated learning strategies approach using a variety of methodologies (e.g., think-aloud protocols, diaries, observation). In one recent large review, John Dunlosky and colleagues evaluated the relative utility of ten learning strategies. While some of the learning strategies (e.g., highlighting, rereading) were found to have low utility in benefitting learning outcomes, the following strategies were assessed as having moderate to high utility: practice testing (high), distributed practice (high), elaborative interrogation (medium), self-explanation (medium), and interleaved practice (medium). Practice testing had the most evidence supporting its benefits for learning across context and over time...."

Brenda Elliott's curator insight, April 9, 2013 6:12 PM

Very interesting study- effective learning strategies more important than IQ in predicting achievement-

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Playful Education In The Age Of Video Games, Binary Thinking, And Social Media - Forbes

Playful Education In The Age Of Video Games, Binary Thinking, And Social Media - Forbes | educational implications | Scoop.it
Playful Education In The Age Of Video Games, Binary Thinking, And Social Media
Forbes
One of the hardest things to teach in my humanities classroom at Temple University is that there are no right answers.
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Why Do We Sign For Things? A Rabbi, A Lawyer And A MasterCard Exec Explain

Why Do We Sign For Things? A Rabbi, A Lawyer And A MasterCard Exec Explain | educational implications | Scoop.it
The signature is supposed to say, "This is me." But why do we still use it?
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useful in the cursive writing instruction debate.
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33rd Square: Researchers Find Pathway that Contributes to Alzheimer’s Disease

33rd Square: Researchers Find Pathway that Contributes to Alzheimer’s Disease | educational implications | Scoop.it
Researchers have discovered a defect in a key cell-signaling pathway they say contributes to both overproduction of toxic protein in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients as well as loss of communication between neurons -- both significant...
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Study: Why Atheists Are So Disliked and Distrusted

Study: Why Atheists Are So Disliked and Distrusted | educational implications | Scoop.it
New research attempts to pinpoint why non-believers are widely disliked and distrusted.
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“Atheists are stereotyped to be (among other things) cynical, skeptical, and nonconformist,” they write. “Individuals perceived to endorse conflicting values, or who fail to openly endorse group values, could threaten to undermine performance and success of the group as a whole by failing to adhere to group norms.”

 

“Although acceptance and egalitarianism are endorsed as traditional American values,” they add, “perceptions of violations to personal and group values are often seen as justification for hostile attitudes and subsequent discrimination. Such justification is reflected in the unwillingness to accept atheists as an everyday part of American society.”

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Ivon Prefontaine's curator insight, September 15, 7:08 PM

It is interesting that Thomas Merton, a Trappist Monk, suggested atheists were as likely to be good Christians as Christians. Character is not only measured in what we say we believe, but in the proof offered in our actions.

 

@ivon_ehd1

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Almost no education research is replicated, new article shows @insidehighered

Makel and Plucker searched the entire publication history of the top 100 education journals – ranked according to five-year impact factors -- for the term replicat*. They found that 221 of 164,589 total articles replicated a previous study. Just 28.5 percent were direct replications rather than conceptual replications. (Only direct replications, which repeat an experiment’s procedure, can disconfirm or bolster a previous study. Conceptual replications, on the other hand, use different methods to test the same hypothesis.)

 
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One reason why replication is important: 

“A lot of people have made much of the difference between the natural sciences and the social sciences,” Makel said. “I do not associate science with a content area. I associate science with a process. I believe that a great many researchers in the education field would view themselves as doing science.”

An understanding of education research as a science is fairly new, said Plucker, his co-author.

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You Can Increase Your Intelligence: 5 ways to Maximize Your Cognitive Potential

You Can Increase Your Intelligence: 5 ways to Maximize Your Cognitive Potential | educational implications | Scoop.it
Five strategies to increase your fluid intelligence.
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Gifted Dyslexics: More Common Than Most People Think | Education.com

Gifted Dyslexics: More Common Than Most People Think | Education.com | educational implications | Scoop.it
Despite a lot of well-known sufferers, dyslexia is greatly misunderstood and often misdiagnosed. As a parent, it's important to not take any label lying down.

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Rethinking Giftedness and Gifted Education | The Creativity Post

Rethinking Giftedness and Gifted Education | The Creativity Post | educational implications | Scoop.it
For nearly a century, scholars have sought to understand, measure, and explain giftedness.

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A Playworker’s Taxonomy of Play Types

A Playworker’s Taxonomy of Play Types | educational implications | Scoop.it

There are acknowledged to be a number of different play types (around 16) which provide playworkers, managers and trainers with a common language for describing play. There are in no particular order. 

https://www.oxfordshire.gov.uk/cms/sites/default/files/folders/documents/childreneducationandfamilies/educationandlearning/earlyyearschildcare/workinginearlyyears/outofschool/firstclaim/playtypes.pdf

 

 

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References
Hughes, B. (2002) A Playworker’s Taxonomy of Play Types, 2nd edition, London:
PlayLink.

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Schema (Kant) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Schema (Kant)

In Kantian philosophy, a transcendental (plural: schemata) is the procedural rule by which a category or pure, non- empirical concept is associated with a sense impression. A private, subjective intuition is thereby discursively thought to be a representation of an external object. Transcendental schemata are supposedly produced by the imagination in relation to time.

Sharrock's insight:

on the road exploring imagination, it occurred to me that schema is important to understanding it. I learned that I could misunderstand schema when I found this: 

Elaborations of Kant's notion of schema in cognitive science[edit]

The philosopher Mark Johnson discusses Kant's conception of a schema with respect to developing a theory of the imagination within cognitive science.[93] Johnson's theory makes use of Kant's insights that analogy is the cognitive mechanism which links sensible percepts to their conceptual categories, and that creative analogy—or what Johnson calls conceptual metaphor—is the cognitive mechanism by which we come to have our understanding of those abstract concepts and categories of which we have less direct sensible experience. He proposes that we use imaginative schemata to structure abstract concepts largely in terms a set of spatial analogies he calls image schemata. In Johnson's view, we acquire image schemata primarily from recurrent patterns of experiences in infancy and early childhood, and then reuse these image schemata in a metaphoric fashion both to reason abstractly and as we speak our language.

 

In an increase of ambiguity and confusion, some cognitive scientists today have appropriated the often–misused technical term "schema" to mean Kantian Category. In his bookCognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Basic Principles and Applications (Jason Aronson Publishers,1996), Robert L. Leahy of the American Institute for Cognitive Therapy in New York City and the Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University exemplifies this misuse. In Chapter 2, "Historical Context of Cognitive Therapy," he wrote of how, for Kant, "reality is never directly knowable, but rather is 'known' through 'categories of thinking.'" Leahy then stated, "According to Kant, all knowledge was based on the 'categories' (which today we would call schemas). Consequently, reality was never directly knowable--we only knew the schemas." In this way, Kant's concept of "category," or "pure concept of the understanding," is no longer defined as being a predicate, property, quality, or characteristic of any and all objects in general. A Kantian Category is now vaguely considered by cognitive scientists to be a "schema," which was a term that Kant had already used to designate the subsumption of an empirical intuition, through time, under a category or pure concept.

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The Effort Effect--Carol Dweck

The Effort Effect--Carol Dweck | educational implications | Scoop.it

The Effort Effect

According to a Stanford psychologist, you’ll reach new heights if you learn to embrace the occasional tumble.

James Yang

 

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By Marina Krakovsky

 

One day last November, psychology professor Carol Dweck welcomed a pair of visitors from the Blackburn Rovers, a soccer team in the United Kingdom’s Premier League. The Rovers’ training academy is ranked in England’s top three, yet performance director Tony Faulkner had long suspected that many promising players weren’t reaching their potential. Ignoring the team’s century-old motto—arte et labore, or “skill and hard work”—the most talented individuals disdained serious training.

On some level, Faulkner knew the source of the trouble: British soccer culture held that star players are born, not made. If you buy into that view, and are told you’ve got immense talent, what’s the point of practice? If anything, training hard would tell you and others that you’re merely good, not great. Faulkner had identified the problem; but to fix it, he needed Dweck’s help.

A 60-year-old academic psychologist might seem an unlikely sports motivation guru. But Dweck’s expertise—and her recent book, Mindset: The New Psychology of Success—bear directly on the sort of problem facing the Rovers. Through more than three decades of systematic research, she has been figuring out answers to why some people achieve their potential while equally talented others don’t—why some become Muhammad Ali and others Mike Tyson. The key, she found, isn’t ability; it’s whether you look at ability as something inherent that needs to be demonstrated or as something that can be developed.

What’s more, Dweck has shown that people can learn to adopt the latter belief and make dramatic strides in performance. These days, she’s sought out wherever motivation and achievement matter, from education and parenting to business management and personal development.

As a graduate student at Yale, Dweck started off studying animal motivation. In the late 1960s, a hot topic in animal research was “learned helplessness”: lab animals sometimes didn’t do what they were capable of because they’d given up from repeat failures. Dweck wondered how humans coped with that. “I asked, ‘What makes a really capable child give up in the face of failure, where other children may be motivated by the failure?’” she recalls.

At the time, the suggested cure for learned helplessness was a long string of successes. Dweck posited that the difference between the helpless response and its opposite—the determination to master new things and surmount challenges—lay in people’s beliefs about why they had failed. People who attributed their failures to lack of ability, Dweck thought, would become discouraged even in areas where they were capable. Those who thought they simply hadn’t tried hard enough, on the other hand, would be fueled by setbacks. This became the topic of her PhD dissertation.

Dweck and her assistants ran an experiment on elementary school children whom school personnel had identified as helpless. These kids fit the definition perfectly: if they came across a few math problems they couldn’t solve, for example, they no longer could do problems they had solved before—and some didn’t recover that ability for days.

Through a series of exercises, the experimenters trained half the students to chalk up their errors to insufficient effort, and encouraged them to keep going. Those children learned to persist in the face of failure—and to succeed. The control group showed no improvement at all, continuing to fall apart quickly and to recover slowly. These findings, says Dweck, “really supported the idea that the attributions were a key ingredient driving the helpless and mastery-oriented patterns.” Her 1975 article on the topic has become one of the most widely cited in contemporary psychology.

Attribution theory, concerned with people’s judgments about the causes of events and behavior, already was an active area of psychological research. But the focus at the time was on how we make attributions, explains Stanford psychology professor Lee Ross, who coined the term “fundamental attribution error” for our tendency to explain other people’s actions by their character traits, overlooking the power of circumstances. Dweck, he says, helped “shift the emphasis from attributional errors and biases to the consequences of attributions—why it matters what attributions people make.” Dweck had put attribution theory to practical use.

She continued to do so as an assistant professor at the University of Illinois, collaborating with then-graduate student Carol Diener to have children “think out loud” as they faced problem-solving tasks, some too difficult for them. The big surprise: some of the children who put forth lots of effort didn’t make attributions at all. These children didn’t think they were failing. Diener puts it this way: “Failure is information—we label it failure, but it’s more like, ‘This didn’t work, I’m a problem solver, and I’ll try something else.’” During one unforgettable moment, one boy—something of a poster child for the mastery-oriented type—faced his first stumper by pulling up his chair, rubbing his hands together, smacking his lips and announcing, “I love a challenge.”

Such zest for challenge helped explain why other capable students thought they lacked ability just because they’d hit a setback. Common sense suggests that ability inspires self-confidence. And it does for a while—so long as the going is easy. But setbacks change everything. Dweck realized—and, with colleague Elaine Elliott soon demonstrated—that the difference lay in the kids’ goals. “The mastery-oriented children are really hell-bent on learning something,” Dweck says, and “learning goals” inspire a different chain of thoughts and behaviors than “performance goals.”

Students for whom performance is paramount want to look smart even if it means not learning a thing in the process. For them, each task is a challenge to their self-image, and each setback becomes a personal threat. So they pursue only activities at which they’re sure to shine—and avoid the sorts of experiences necessary to grow and flourish in any endeavor. Students with learning goals, on the other hand, take necessary risks and don’t worry about failure because each mistake becomes a chance to learn. Dweck’s insight launched a new field of educational psychology—achievement goal theory.

Dweck’s next question: what makes students focus on different goals in the first place? During a sabbatical at Harvard, she was discussing this with doctoral student Mary Bandura (daughter of legendary Stanford psychologist Albert Bandura), and the answer hit them: if some students want to show off their ability, while others want to increase their ability, “ability” means different things to the two groups. “If you want to demonstrate something over and over, it feels like something static that lives inside of you—whereas if you want to increase your ability, it feels dynamic and malleable,” Dweck explains. People with performance goals, she reasoned, think intelligence is fixed from birth. People with learning goals have a growth mind-set about intelligence, believing it can be developed. (Among themselves, psychologists call the growth mind-set an “incremental theory,” and use the term “entity theory” for the fixed mind-set.) The model was nearly complete (see diagram).

Growing up in Brooklyn in the ’50s, Dweck did well in elementary school, earning a spot in a sixth-grade class of other high achievers. Not just any spot, it turned out. Their teacher, Mrs. Wilson, seated the students in IQ order and even used IQ scores to dole out classroom responsibilities. Whether Mrs. Wilson meant to or not, she was conveying her belief in fixed intelligence. Dweck, who was in row 1, seat 1, believes Mrs. Wilson’s intentions were good. The experience didn’t scar her—Dweck says she already had some of the growth mind-set—but she has shown that many students pegged as bright, especially girls, don’t fare as well.

Tests, Dweck notes, are notoriously poor at measuring potential. Take a group of adults and ask them to draw a self-portrait. Most Americans think of drawing as a gift they don’t have, and their portraits look no better than a child’s scribbles. But put them in a well-designed class—as Betty Edwards, the author ofDrawing on the Right Side of the Brain, has—and the resulting portraits look so skilled it’s hard to believe they’re the work of the same “talentless” individuals. The belief that you can’t improve stunts achievement.

Culture can play a large role in shaping our beliefs, Dweck says. A college physics teacher recently wrote to Dweck that in India, where she was educated, there was no notion that you had to be a genius or even particularly smart to learn physics. “The assumption was that everyone could do it, and, for the most part, they did.” But what if you’re raised with a fixed mind-set about physics—or foreign languages or music? Not to worry: Dweck has shown that you can change the mind-set itself.

The most dramatic proof comes from a recent study by Dweck and Lisa Sorich Blackwell of low-achieving seventh graders. All students participated in sessions on study skills, the brain and the like; in addition, one group attended a neutral session on memory while the other learned that intelligence, like a muscle, grows stronger through exercise. Training students to adopt a growth mind-set about intelligence had a catalytic effect on motivation and math grades; students in the control group showed no improvement despite all the other interventions.

“Study skills and learning skills are inert until they’re powered by an active ingredient,” Dweck explains. Students may know how to study, but won’t want to if they believe their efforts are futile. “If you target that belief, you can see more benefit than you have any reason to hope for.”

The classroom workshop isn’t feasible on a large scale; for one thing, it’s too costly. So Dweck and Blackwell have designed a computer-based training module to simulate the live intervention. Their hip multimedia software, called Brainology, is still in development, but thanks to early buzz from a Time magazine article and Dweck’s recent book, teachers have begun clamoring for it, one even asking to become a distributor.

Unlike much that passes for wisdom about education and performance, Dweck’s conclusions are grounded in solid research. She’s no rah-rah motivational coach proclaiming the sky’s the limit and attitude is everything; that’s too facile. But the evidence shows that if we hold a fixed mind-set, we’re bound not to reach as high as we might.

Although much of Dweck’s research on mind-sets has taken place in school settings, it’s applicable to sports, business, interpersonal relationships and so on. “Lots and lots of people are interested in her work; it touches on so many different areas of psychology and areas outside of psychology,” says Stanford psychology professor Mark Lepper, ’66, who as department chair in 2004 lured Dweck away from Columbia, where she’d been for 15 years. “The social psychologists like to say she’s a social psychologist; the personality psychologists say she’s a personality psychologist; and the developmental psychologists say she’s a developmental psychologist,” Lepper adds.

By all rights, her appeal should transcend academia, says New Yorker writer Malcolm Gladwell, who is well known for making psychological research accessible to the general public. “One of the most popular pieces I ever did relied very heavily on work done by Carol Dweck,” he said in a December interview in theJournal of Management Inquiry. “Carol Dweck deserves a big audience. It is criminal if she does not get that audience.” Perhaps Mindset will help; it was written for lay readers.

It certainly cemented Tony Faulkner’s belief that Dweck could help the Blackburn Rovers soccer team. Unlike the disadvantaged kids in Dweck’s middle-school study, the Rovers didn’t think they lacked what it took to succeed. Quite the opposite: they thought their talent should take them all the way. Yet both groups’ fixed mind-set about ability explains their aversion to effort.

But aren’t there plenty of people who believe in innate ability and in the notion that nothing comes without effort? Logically, the two ideas are compatible. But psychologically, explains Dweck, many people who believe in fixed intelligence also think you shouldn’t need hard work to do well. This belief isn’t entirely irrational, she says. A student who finishes a problem set in 10 minutes is indeed better at math than someone who takes four hours to solve the problems. And a soccer player who scores effortlessly probably is more talented than someone who’s always practicing. “The fallacy comes when people generalize it to the belief that effort on any task, even very hard ones, implies low ability,” Dweck says.

Her advice for the Rovers rings true for anyone stuck in a fixed mind-set. “Changing mind-sets is not like surgery,” she says. “You can’t simply remove the fixed mind-set and replace it with the growth mind-set.” The Rovers are starting their workshops with recent recruits—their youngest, most malleable players. (Faulkner realizes that players who’ve already earned millions from being “naturals” have little incentive to reshape their brains.) The team’s talent scouts will be asking about new players’ views on talent and training—not to screen out those with a fixed mind-set, but to target them for special training.

In his 2002 essay that relied on Dweck’s work, Gladwell cited one of her best-known experiments to argue that Enron may have collapsed precisely because of the company’s talent-obsessed culture, not despite it. Dweck’s study showed that praising children for intelligence, rather than for effort, sapped their motivation (see sidebar). But more disturbingly, 40 percent of those whose intelligence was praised overstated their scores to peers. “We took ordinary children and made them into liars,” Dweck says. Similarly, Enron executives who’d been celebrated for their innate talent would sooner lie than fess up to problems and work to fix them.

Business School professor Jeffrey Pfeffer says Dweck’s research has implications for the more workaday problem of performance management. He faults businesses for spending too much time in rank-and-yank mode, grading and evaluating people instead of developing their skills. “It’s like the Santa Claus theory of management: who’s naughty and who’s nice.”

Leaders, too, can benefit from Dweck’s work, says Robert Sternberg, PhD ’75, Tufts University’s dean of the School of Arts and Sciences. Sternberg, a past president of the American Psychological Association, says that excessive concern with looking smart keeps you from making bold, visionary moves. “If you’re afraid of making mistakes, you’ll never learn on the job, and your whole approach becomes defensive: ‘I have to make sure I don’t screw up.’”

Social psychologist Peter Salovey, ’80, MA ’80, dean of Yale College and a pioneer in the field of emotional intelligence, says Dweck’s ideas have helped him think through a controversy in his field. Echoing an older debate about the malleability of general intelligence, some scholars say emotional intelligence is largely inborn, while others, like Salovey, see it as a set of skills that can be taught and learned. “People say to me all the time, ‘I’m not a people person,’ or ‘I’m not good at managing my emotions,’” unaware that they’re expressing a fixed mind-set, Salovey says.

Stanford psychology professor James Gross has begun extending Dweck’s work to emotions. In a recent study, Gross and his colleagues followed a group of Stanford undergrads as they made the transition to college life. Those with a fixed mind-set about emotions were less able to manage theirs, and by the end of freshman year, they’d shown poorer social and emotional adjustment than their growth-minded counterparts.

As she approaches the end of her third year at Stanford, Dweck has embraced the challenge of cross-country culture shock in a manner consistent with the growth mind-set. Nearby San Francisco provides her with the benefits of a great city, she says, including a dining scene that rivals New York’s; and the University supplies a more cozy sense of community. She’s also brought a bit of the New York theater scene with her in the form of her husband, critic and director David Goldman. He founded and directs the National Center for New Plays at Stanford.

At the Association for Psychological Science convention in May, Dweck will give the keynote address. The topic: “Can Personality Be Changed?” Her short answer, of course, is yes. Moreover, holding a growth mind-set bodes well for one’s relationships. In a recent study, Dweck found that people who believe personality can change were more likely than others to bring up concerns and deal with problems in a constructive way. Dweck thinks a fixed mind-set fosters a categorical, all-or-nothing view of people’s qualities; this view tends to make you ignore festering problems or, at the other extreme, give up on a relationship at the first sign of trouble. (The growth mind-set, though, can be taken too far if someone stays in an abusive relationship hoping her partner will change; as always, the person has to want to change.)

These days, Dweck is applying her model to kids’ moral development. Young children may not always have beliefs about ability, but they do have ideas about goodness. Many kids believe they’re invariably good or bad; other kids think they can get better at being good. Dweck has already found that preschoolers with this growth mind-set feel okay about themselves after they’ve messed up and are less judgmental of others; they’re also more likely than kids with a fixed view of goodness to try to set things right and to learn from their mistakes. They understand that spilling juice or throwing toys, for example, doesn’t damn a kid as bad, so long as the child cleans up and resolves to do better next time. Now Dweck and graduate student Allison Master are running experiments at Bing Nursery School to see if teaching kids the growth mind-set improves their coping skills. They’ve designed a storybook with the message that preschoolers can go from “bad” one year to better the next. Can hearing such stories help a 4-year-old handle a sandbox setback?

Dweck’s students from over the years describe her as a generous, nurturing mentor. She’d surely attribute these traits not to an innate gift, but to a highly developed mind-set. “Just being aware of the growth mind-set, and studying it and writing about it, I feel compelled to live it and to benefit from it,” says Dweck, who took up piano as an adult and learned to speak Italian in her 50s. “These are things that adults are not supposed to be good at learning.”


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What Is Self-Efficacy?

What Is Self-Efficacy? | educational implications | Scoop.it
Psychologist Albert Bandura suggested that self-efficacy plays a critical role in how we think, feel, and behave. Learn more about what self-efficacy is and why it is so important.

Via Luis Valdes, Ken Donaldson
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There is no difference between "grit" and "self-efficacy", especially when self-efficacy is explored in terms of human agency. 

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Social Cognitive Theory

Social Cognitive Theory | educational implications | Scoop.it

History and Orientation

In 1941 Miller and Dollard proposed the theory of social learning. In 1963 Bandura and Walters broadened the social learning theory with the principles of observational learning and vicarious reinforcement. Bandura provided his concept of self-efficacy in 1977, while he refuted the traditional learning theory for understanding learning.

The Social Cognitive Theory is relevant to health communication. First, the theory deals with cognitive, emotional aspects and aspects of behavior for understanding behavioral change. Second, the concepts of the SCT provide ways for new behavioral research in health education. Finally, ideas for other theoretical areas such as psychology are welcome to provide new insights and understanding.

Core Assumptions and Statements

The social cognitive theory explains how people acquire and maintain certain behavioral patterns, while also providing the basis for intervention strategies (Bandura, 1997). Evaluating behavioral change depends on the factors environment, people and behavior. SCT provides a framework for designing, implementing and evaluating programs.

Environment refers to the factors that can affect a person’s behavior. There are social and physical environments. Social environment include family members, friends and colleagues. Physical environment is the size of a room, the ambient temperature or the availability of certain foods. Environment and situation provide the framework for understanding behavior (Parraga, 1990). The situation refers to the cognitive or mental representations of the environment that may affect a person’s behavior. The situation is a person’s perception of the lace, time, physical features and activity (Glanz et al, 2002).


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Charles Tiayon's curator insight, November 27, 2013 1:09 PM

History and Orientation

In 1941 Miller and Dollard proposed the theory of social learning. In 1963 Bandura and Walters broadened the social learning theory with the principles of observational learning and vicarious reinforcement. Bandura provided his concept of self-efficacy in 1977, while he refuted the traditional learning theory for understanding learning.

The Social Cognitive Theory is relevant to health communication. First, the theory deals with cognitive, emotional aspects and aspects of behavior for understanding behavioral change. Second, the concepts of the SCT provide ways for new behavioral research in health education. Finally, ideas for other theoretical areas such as psychology are welcome to provide new insights and understanding.

Core Assumptions and Statements

The social cognitive theory explains how people acquire and maintain certain behavioral patterns, while also providing the basis for intervention strategies (Bandura, 1997). Evaluating behavioral change depends on the factors environment, people and behavior. SCT provides a framework for designing, implementing and evaluating programs.

Environment refers to the factors that can affect a person’s behavior. There are social and physical environments. Social environment include family members, friends and colleagues. Physical environment is the size of a room, the ambient temperature or the availability of certain foods. Environment and situation provide the framework for understanding behavior (Parraga, 1990). The situation refers to the cognitive or mental representations of the environment that may affect a person’s behavior. The situation is a person’s perception of the lace, time, physical features and activity (Glanz et al, 2002).

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Maslow and Student Motivation

Maslow and Student Motivation | educational implications | Scoop.it
There is no such thing as an unmotivated student. All students are motivated by something in school. The problem is that they might not be motivated by the things you'd like them to be motivated by...

Via Beth Dichter
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Beth Dichter's curator insight, September 29, 3:37 PM

Another question that has one looking at Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, this time with the primary question geared to students: Why do students try in school?

Below are the five areas and what may be motivating the student.

* Survival - "I am in danger here or at home. I'm motivated by fear (intrinsic)."

* Self-care - "I'm motivated to stay afloat and avoid more work (extrinsic).

* Belonging - "I'm motivated by friends, family, and parents (extrinsic).

* Esteem - "I'm motivated because it makes me feel good about myself (both).

* Self-actualization - "I'm motivated in school because its important work (intrinsic)."

In each of the five areas you will find four to six statements that provide more depth to the statement.

Tony Meehan's curator insight, September 29, 11:40 PM

Very interesting table linking Maslow to levels of student motivation

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Learning How to Exert Self-Control - NYTimes.com

Learning How to Exert Self-Control - NYTimes.com | educational implications | Scoop.it
Mr. Mischel is about to publish his first nonacademic book, “The Marshmallow Test: Mastering Self-Control.” He says we anxious parents timing our kids in front of treats are missing a key finding of willpower research: Whether you eat the marshmallow at age 5 isn’t your destiny. Self-control can be taught. Grown-ups can use it to tackle the burning issues of modern middle-class life: how to go to bed earlier, not check email obsessively, stop yelling at our children and spouses, and eat less bread. Poor kids need self-control skills if they’re going to catch up at school.
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Carrots Aren't Best For Eyesight, Plus 5 Other Food Nutrition Myths

Carrots Aren't Best For Eyesight, Plus 5 Other Food Nutrition Myths | educational implications | Scoop.it
Our moms are right about a lot of things, but which foods we should eat to grow big and strong aren't always best.
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Top Colleges That Enroll Rich, Middle Class and Poor

Top Colleges That Enroll Rich, Middle Class and Poor | educational implications | Scoop.it
A new index measures which colleges have the most economically diverse student bodies — and charge the least to lower-income students.
Sharrock's insight:

“I’d be the first concede we have room to improve,” Kenneth Ruscio, Washington and Lee’s president, said. “But we are on the right path.”

 

This article also points towards what's been called an invisible curriculum http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hidden_curriculum. Malcolm Gladwell has referred to certain cutlural differences (mainly class differences) for students navigating college life and learning.

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Handy statistical lexicon - Statistical Modeling, Causal Inference, and Social Science

These are all important methods and concepts related to statistics that are not as well known as they should be.
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18 Resources For The Parents Of Gifted Students

18 Resources For The Parents Of Gifted Students | educational implications | Scoop.it
18 Resources For The Parents Of Gifted Students

Via Tom D'Amico (@TDOttawa) , KL Westberg
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SchoolandUniversity's comment, February 25, 2013 1:19 AM
wow amazing gift for students, i am very happy with this !
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Group kids by ability and subject not age, says gifted-education professor

Group kids by ability and subject not age, says gifted-education professor | educational implications | Scoop.it
Schoolchildren should be classed by intellectual ability in subject groupings rather than lumped together according to age, says Miraca Gross, the University of New South Wales' Professor of Gifted Education…...

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The Too Many Aptitudes Problem

Some people call them knacks. Aptitudes have a major impact not just on performance, but on our individual and unique states of being. They are a big part of the reason "One man's meat is another man's poison."

Sharrock's insight:

excerpt: 

"Strong talents do not equal high performance. Having the right knacks or talents provides a head start and ongoing advantage. They are not very useful without knowledge and motivation."

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Phys.Org Mobile: Fluid mechanics suggests alternative to quantum orthodoxy

Phys.Org Mobile: Fluid mechanics suggests alternative to quantum orthodoxy | educational implications | Scoop.it
"The work of Yves Couder and the related work of John Bush … provides the possibility of understanding previously incomprehensible quantum phenomena, involving 'wave-particle duality,' in purely classical terms," says Keith Moffatt, a professor emeritus of mathematical physics at Cambridge University. "I think the work is brilliant, one of the most exciting developments in fluid mechanics of the current century."
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David Kelley: How to build your creative confidence - YouTube

http://www.ted.com Is your school or workplace divided into "creatives" versus practical people? Yet surely, David Kelley suggests, creativity is not the dom...
Sharrock's insight:

cites Bandura's self-efficacy and relates how scaffolding works in building self-efficacy in overcoming phobia and the fear of MRI machines. 

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