[My summary]: Teachers should encourage learners to feel free to try and use the language as much as possible. Researchers use the term "willingness to communicate" to refer to learners' readiness to engage in oral communication inside or outside the classroom. Output - producing the target language - is vital for learners to develop proficiency and its value for learning is undisputed.
Two contrasting problems may arise in the classroom - either learners do not participate due to lack of opportunity, for example, or they are pushed to participate without sufficient support. Reinders recommends teachers try to:
1. reduce anxiety levels (avoid focusing on accuracy/correcting errors)
2. encourage group cohesiveness
3. find relevant and interesting topics
4. explore alternatives to face-to-face communication (text chat, digital games).
Via Shona Whyte