US President Barack Obama plans to close a tax loophole that allows US firms to avoid paying taxes on overseas profits, the White House says.
His 2016 budget will impose a one-off 14% tax on US profits stashed overseas, as well as a 19% tax on any future profits as they are earned.
The $238bn (£158bn) raised will be used to fund road projects in the US.
The proposal is one of the main components of Mr Obama's latest budget, due to be presented on Monday.
The spending plan, including the proposal on overseas profits, would require approval from the Republican-controlled Congress to be made law, something seen as unlikely.
Research firm Audit Analytics calculated last April that US firms in total have $2.1 trillion-worth of profits stashed abroad.
It found US conglomerate General Electric had the most profit stored overseas at $110bn. Tech giants Microsoft and Apple and drugs companies Pfizer and Merck all featured in the top five.
No tax is currently due on foreign profits as long as they are not brought into the United States.
As a result some companies put their earnings in low tax jurisdictions and simply leave them there.
The White House said its plans for an immediate 14% tax would raise $238bn, which would be used to fund a wider $478bn public works programme of road, bridge and public transport upgrades.
"This transition tax would mean that companies have to pay US tax right now on the $2 trillion they already have overseas, rather than being able to delay paying any US tax indefinitely," a White House official said.