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Sosyal bilimler kategorisi içerisinde sayılan ekonomi bilimi, modern anlamıyla insanın ekonomik davranışlarını piyasa mekanizması içerisinde inceler. Smith ve diğer klâsik ekonomistlerde ve Marshall’da gördüğümüz bu anlayış, ekonomik teori ve analizin tarihi ile ilgili önemli bir sınırlamayı da zorunlu olarak ortaya koymaktadır. Yani insanın ekonomik davranışı ile piyasa mekanizması veya kavramının birlikte düşünülmesi. Bu anlamda modern ekonomik teori ve analizin, Smith’in piyasa mekanizmasının düzenleyici rolünü keşfetmesiyle başladığı genelde kabul edilir. Bu çizgide klâsik ve neoklâsik ekonomistlerin çalışmalarının ortaya koyduğu düşünce, teori ve analizlerdeki gelişmeler büyük ölçüde bu kitabın konusu olmuştur. Bu ortodoks çizgi dışında piyasa mekanizmasının yetersizliğini, alternatiflerini, ekonominin diğer sosyal bilimler ve kurumsal yapı ile ilişkisini öne çıkaran heterodoks çizgideki çalışmalar da dengeli bir şekilde kitap kapsamına alınmıştır.
Kitapta Smith’in Wealth of Nations’ı, modern ekonomik teori ve analizin başlangıç tarihi olarak kabul edilmiştir ve ağırlıklı olarak bu tarihten sonrası incelenmiştir. Ancak Smith’e temel oluşturan, Antik Yunan dönemine kadar uzanan tarihsel, sosyal ve ekonomik analizde kullanılan önemli kavramlarla ve yaklaşımlarla ilgili entelektüel birikim de kapsam içerisine alınmaya çalışılmıştır.
Kitapta teori ve analize katkılar, olabildiğince matematik tekniklerine dayalı çıkarsama ve kanıtlamalara girmeden, yalın halleriyle, dayandıkları vizyon ve esaslar dikkate alınarak aktarılmaya çalışılmıştır. Dolayısıyla kitap, matematik ve teknik ayrıntılardan olabildiğince arındırılarak hazırlanmıştır. Bu haliyle çalışmanın; ekonomi bilimine aşinalığı bulunan, başlangıç düzeyinde ekonomi bilgisi sahibi herkes tarafından, en azından çoğu bölümlerinin, rahatlıkla okunup değerlendirilebileceğini düşünmekteyim.
Fransız iktisatçı Thomas Piketty‘nin önce Eylül 2013′te Fransızca, daha sonra ise Mart 2014′te İngilizce olarak yayınlanan Yirmibirinci Yüzyılda Sermaye adlı kitabı ve konuyla ilgili diğer bazı çalışmaları: ...
Aykut Kibritçioğlu's insight:
Selected Readings on Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the 21st Century" and the Discussions about its Methodological/Empirical Relevance & Possible Effects on Economics (or Economic Policies):
Highlight from Diane Coyle's GDP: A Brief but Affectionate History:Kuznets, however, saw specifically his task as working out how to measure national economic welfare rather than just output. He wrote:It would be of great value to have national income estimates...
(2014). Understanding with theoretical models. Journal of Economic Methodology: Vol. 21, Papers from the IX INEM Conference in Helsinki, pp. 19-36. doi: 10.1080/1350178X.2014.886470
This paper discusses the epistemic import of highly abstract and simplified theoretical models using Thomas Schelling's checkerboard model as an example. We argue that the epistemic contribution of theoretical models can be better understood in the context of a cluster of models relevant to the explanatory task at hand. The central claim of the paper is that theoretical models make better sense in the context of a menu of possible explanations. In order to justify this claim, we introduce a distinction between causal scenarios and causal mechanism schemes. These conceptual tools help us to articulate the basis for modelers' intuitive confidence that their models make an important epistemic contribution. By focusing on the role of the menu of possible explanations in the evaluation of explanatory hypotheses, it is possible to understand how a causal mechanism scheme can improve our explanatory understanding even in cases where it does not describe the actual cause of a particular phenomenon.
Much less is known about the development of the social sciences as a complete discipline group than about the previously dominant STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) discipline group. Patrick Dunleavy, Simon Bastowand Jane Tinkler set out some key findings from their new book ‘The Impacts of the Social Sciences’, identifying five key trends that are causing the old social sciences versus physical science divide to dissolve. With the advent of ‘big data’ and e-science across the board, the social sciences are converging strongly on a ‘rapid advance/moderate consensus’ model previously characteristic only of the STEM disciplines.
Mainstream economics is in fact an ideology – the ideology of the free market. But the tools of economics, as currently taught, provide little scope for investigating the links between economists’ ideas and the structures of power.
Just like they forecast economic variables, and even asset prices, economists are now trying to predict who will win the World Cup. For example, professional services network PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) uses an econometric model to estimate the relative strength of each country participating in the World Cup.
They find that Brazil is the strongest team - and therefore most likely to win the tournament. Nearly half of Brazil’s strength is explained by home advantage, which turns out to be an important factor in other similar studies as well. In fact, there are several teams who have better form (recent performance) than Brazil in PwC’s model.
“Capital in the Twenty-First Century,” the new book by the French economist Thomas Piketty, is a bona fide phenomenon. Other books on economics have been best sellers, but Mr. Piketty’s contribution is serious, discourse-changing scholarship in a way most best sellers aren’t. And conservatives are terrified. Thus James Pethokoukis of the American Enterprise Institute warns in National Review that Mr. Piketty’s work must be refuted, because otherwise it “will spread among the clerisy and reshape the political economic landscape on which all future policy battles will be waged.”
The main driver of inequality -- returns on capital that exceed the rate of economic growth -- is again threatening to generate extreme discontent and undermine democratic values. Thomas Piketty's findings in this ambitious, original, rigorous work will transform debate and set the agenda for the next generation of thought about wealth and inequality.
Since the global financial crisis, the recognition has slowly taken hold that, during the boom that preceded it, economists were blind to the potential consequences of failure – and to the true cost of “success.” What is needed now is a new, more comprehensive policy target that emphasizes human wellbeing above output.
Economics blogs represent a significant change in the way research on development economics is discussed and disseminated; yet little is known about the impact of this new medium. Using surveys of development researchers and practitioners, along with experimental and non-experimental techniques, we try to quantify some of their effects. We find that links from blogs cause a striking increase in the number of abstract views and downloads of economics papers. Furthermore, blogging raises the profile of the blogger and changes readers‟ perceptions about his or her institution. Finally, we find some suggestive evidence that a blog can increase knowledge of the topics it covers for the average, but not the marginal, reader.