Water harvesting and storage can mitigate the adverse effects of rainfall variability. But past studies have shown that when investments in water storage are not guided by environmental health considerations, the increased availability of open water surface may increase the transmission of water-related diseases.
Existing and proposed metrics for household drinking-water services are intended to measure the availability, safety and accessibility of water sources. However, these attributes can be highly variable over time and space and this variation complicates the task of creating and implementing simple and scalable metrics. In this paper, authors highlight those factors—especially those that relate to so-called improved water sources—that contribute to variability in water safety but may not be generally recognized as important by non-experts.
The case study indicates that pro-poor policies are critical to increasing water coverage for poor people but that revenues and subsidies earned from serving the non-poor, combined with applying rigorous business principles, are equally important in sustaining these services.
De profondes mutations sociopolitiques et économiques accompagnent les phénomènes d’urbanisation des pays en développement. Alors que certaines sont porteuses de dynamiques positives de développement, d’autres à l’inverse génèrent des effets négatifs (étalement urbain, ségrégation sociale, pressions sur l’environnement, etc.). Ces dysfonctionnements ne sont pas sans conséquences sur l’accès à l’eau potable et l’assainissement dans les villes du Sud. Se pose notamment de façon aiguë le problème de la desserte de ces services dans les quartiers défavorisés.
Tel est le sujet de cet ouvrage qui rassemble les réflexions des participants aux ContrEauverses 2013
Le manuel est un document pratique et compact servant d’interface entre le papier de positionnement d’ACF sur le choléra (2012) et la Toolbox choléra ACF (2012). Il s’adresse aux employés d’Action contre la Faim et à leurs partenaires engagés dans la lutte contre le choléra. Ce document se veut plus pratique que stratégique, moins exhaustif qu’un guide technique et traite essentiellement des questions relatives à l’eau, l’assainissement et l’hygiène. Il intègre la dimension pratique de soin et approche psychosociale et propose une stratégie couvrant la réponse d’urgence et la réduction du risque au travers de la préparation aux épidémies et de l’implémentation de programmes d’EAH durable dans le cadre de la prévention et de la résilience en accord avec la stratégie EAH de l’organisation ACF et de ses partenaires opérationnels. Il présente enfin la dimension de recherche opérationnelle qui permet de faire progresser la connaissance sur la maladie et de renforcer ainsi la lutte contre ce fléau.
This paper presents data gathered from quantitative interviews with informal water business operators in Kisumu, Kenya, collected during the dry season. Sales volume, location, resource use, and cost were analyzed by using material flow accounting and spatial analysis tools. Estimates show that more than 76 percent of the city's water is consumed by less than 10 percent of the population who have water piped into their dwellings. The remainder of the population relies on a combination of water sources, including water purchased directly from kiosks and delivered by hand-drawn water carts.
Water, sanitation, and hygiene information was collected during a matched case-control study of moderate and severe diarrhea (MSD) among 4,096 children under 5 years of age in Bamako, Mali. Primary use of piped water, continuous water, fetching water, and breastfeeding significantly reduced the likelihood of MSD. Although most of Bamako’s population enjoys access to an improved water source, water quality is often compromised during household storage.
This study was designed to give a visual tool to a rural community to capture, analyze, interpret, and present their household practices from their own as well as from other perspectives. The study clearly shows that the ethno-visual tool can be used in a participatory noninterventionist manner in rural communities. Apart from the film footage, other material collected was graphically and visually provided to the elders in the community, allowing for debate on a level previously unknown to them.
The Self Supply approach is widespread in Ethiopia with family wells bringing additional benefits that are in line with wider government objectives, such as supporting small-scale irrigation. However, two recent studies show the current performance of traditional or family wells to be far below potential with most sources providing unsafe water in the absence of adequate protection. Wider formal recognition of Self Supply in policy-making and the development of the government-led Self-Supply Acceleration Program aim to extend access and improve aspects of performance, including water quality.
Understanding geographic inequalities in coverage of drinking-water supply and sanitation (WSS) will help track progress towards universal coverage of water and sanitation by identifying marginalized populations, thus helping to control a large number of infectious diseases. This paper uses household survey data to develop comprehensive maps of WSS coverage at high spatial resolution for sub-Saharan Africa. This study identifies important geographic inequalities in use of WSS previously hidden within national statistics, confirming the necessity for targeted policies and metrics that reach the most marginalized populations. The presented maps and analysis approach can provide a mechanism for monitoring future reductions in inequality within countries, reflecting priorities of the post-2015 development agenda.
Rainwater harvesting is a sustainable method of obtaining good-quality drinking water at low cost and with little energy expenditure. In the village of Cukhe engineers installed catchments, filters, and settled tanks in the existing rainwater harvesting facility to improve water quality, and 10 portable rainwater tanks to provide good-quality drinking water to poor households and kindergartens in the dry season. The study found that rainwater harvesting is a safe water supply option, especially when the other water sources are contaminated or too expensive to afford.
As part of its work to promote its integration to other sectors and in line with the technical axis developed in 2012, the WASH department, highly supported by the SMPS sector, produced this simple and attractive manual to stimulate integration strategies between those two sectors in the ACF missions. The author is a world recognised WASH professional, with a strong anthropologic approach, John Adams.
A seminar at World Water Week 2013 organised by SEI and MSB Water and sanitation projects are characterized by relatively large infrastructure investments, but finding out what they cost and how they are working and are maintained is not easy, even for the experts. It is not until WASH systems fail that consumers begin learning about these systems. Global statistics estimate that 2.5 to 4 billion people live with inadequate sanitation services. In cases of disasters such as flooding and earthquakes, the water and sanitation systems are particularly vulnerable, which may severely impact on the communities. The seminar explored how to solve some of the technical and management challenges but it also revealed the needs for stakeholder dialogues and social learning in order to build resilience.
This working paper reviews the first decade (2001-2011) of Uganda’s pioneering private sector participation (PSP) model for small town water supply. The number of towns under the PSP model has steadily risen from only 15 in 2001-2002 to over 90 in 2010-2011 with a combined population of over 1.5 million. In evaluating the impact of this development, this working paper aims to guide further reform within Uganda, and to inform other countries considering similar PSP approaches.
This study uses household survey data from four Kenyan towns to examine the effect of households’ characteristics and risk perceptions on their decision to treat/filter water as well as their choice of main drinking water source.
This paper reviews five years of literature taking stock and examining the nature and quality of the evidence for private enterprise engagement across both sanitation and water subsectors. It reviews the evidence concerning if and how poor households and communities are being supported and also examines how the aid and development sector currently support small-scale private and social enterprise.
IRC publie les résultats d’une recherche sur le coût, la performance et la régulation des services d’eau dans 6 petites villes, au Burkina Faso. Cette recherche utilise l’Approche des Coûts à Long Terme et l’Approche Fourniture de Service pour évaluer et comparer le coût et la performance de services d’eau assurés par réseau et de services assurés par des forages équipés de pompe à motricité humaine (PMH). Elle démontre que, grâce aux économies d’échelle dont bénéficie la distribution en réseau, il est moins coûteux d’approvisionner les usagers par borne-fontaine ou branchement privé que par PMH,tout en leur fournissant un niveau de service supérieur,y compris dans le cas du petit réseau de Titabé (capacité de 1500 usagers). Ce document de recherche montre aussi que la régulation des services d’eau ne favorise pas le développement du service le plus performant et formule des recommandations pour améliorer les fonctions de régulation exercées au niveau des communes et du ministère de l’eau.
The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of household water chlorination in reducing incidence of diarrhea among children under 5 years of age. The study compared diarrhea incidence among children who received sodium hypochlorite (liquid bleach) for household water treatment and children who did not receive the water treatment. A statistically significant reduction in incidence of diarrhea was observed in the intervention group compared to the control.
One of the greatest environmental challenges that confronts rural communities in Nigeria, especially in Borno state is scarcity of water supply. Rainwater harvesting can reduce overdependence on centralized piped water supply and checkmate climate change. This study in two rural communities determined the water per capita use, examined water sources, and then estimated the amount of rainwater that can be harvested by households in these villages.