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Disposal sites in Japan refuse to accept 140000 tons of radioactive waste - Kansas City Star

Disposal sites in Japan refuse to accept 140000 tons of radioactive waste - Kansas City Star | Earth Citizens Perspective | Scoop.it
Disposal sites in Japan refuse to accept 140000 tons of radioactive wasteKansas City StarWhen The Yomiuri Shimbun asked local governments in Tokyo and six other prefectures with waste water processing facilities how they have handled sewage sludge,...

Walang gustong tumanggap ng kontaminadong basura na galing sa Fukushima, Japan na bunga ng aksidenteng nangyari doon mula sa tsunami. Malaking problema ito dahil tinatanggihan ng mga tambakan ng basura ang naturang mga kontaminadong tambak.

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This plant-covered Singapore skyscraper is the tropical building of the future ("closer to nature")

This plant-covered Singapore skyscraper is the tropical building of the future ("closer to nature") | Earth Citizens Perspective | Scoop.it

WOHA Architects designed Oasia Hotel Downtown in Singapore, a plant-covered skyscraper that offers a new model for tropical buildings, for Far East Hospitality.

Steel and glass skyscrapers may work in the climates of New York City or San Francisco, but in tropical Singapore they heat up fast. So WOHA Architects designed the 30-story Oasia Hotel Downtown as a green vision for better tropical towers. Plants creeping across the facade and several sky gardens cool the structure naturally.

20 species of plants and flowering vines crawling across the aluminum mesh exterior afford the hotel located in Singapore’s Central Business District a lush appearance. Eventually the entire building should be covered with the plants. For now, guests can stay in one of 300 rooms and explore sky gardens in the tower.

The architects behind the project planted the greenery in a manner that wouldn’t require too much maintenance, as it’s hard to find “laborers who are both Spiderman and gardeners,” according to WOHA Architects co-founder Richard Hassell. And while the client’s goals weren’t necessarily sustainability or energy efficiency – they primarily wanted a stunning building – Hassell said he thinks the building design will offer significant energy savings.

He believes the Singapore hotel could offer a model for other tropical skyscrapers around the world, which could green up city skylines. He told Curbed, “What’s interesting is the emotional appeal it has for people all over the world…Examining the central business districts of so many cities is like looking at the moon from the Earth; one is filled with life, the other is just this collection of dead stone. With Oasia, we’ve seen so many birds and insects flying around the building. People respond so well to seeing a hummingbird flying right outside their office window.”

Bert Guevara's insight:
What if a city had all their buildings designed this way - eh di WOW!

“What’s interesting is the emotional appeal it has for people all over the world…Examining the central business districts of so many cities is like looking at the moon from the Earth; one is filled with life, the other is just this collection of dead stone. With Oasia, we’ve seen so many birds and insects flying around the building. People respond so well to seeing a hummingbird flying right outside their office window.”
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Turning cropland into forest ("big consequences of wrong policies reversed country policy on forests")

Turning cropland into forest ("big consequences of wrong policies reversed country policy on forests") | Earth Citizens Perspective | Scoop.it

First the land was baked dry, then the torrential rains came – sweeping away homes, crops, forests and human lives. 

In 1997, the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate event (among other factors) brought a 267-day drought to China’s Yellow River Basin, and the following year floods poured across vast swathes of the country as the Yangtze, Songhua and Pearl rivers broke their banks. As many as 3,600 people were killed, and 13.2 million were left homeless. 

The impacts didn’t stop there – the floodwaters swept a new way of thinking into Chinese policy, the effects of which are still being felt today. 

Logging in state forests and smallholder agriculture on steep hillsides were blamed for causing soil erosion and increasing the flood risk, and China’s government radically reoriented national forest policy away from a focus on timber production – and towards forest conservation and restoration. 

More recent research has questioned the role of forests in preventing large-scale floods – and forest loss and degradation has been widespread in both ancient and contemporary China. But the extreme weather events of the late ’90s, and the deteriorating environment, galvanized the government into action.

In 1998, logging in natural forests was banned in the upper reaches of the Yangzte and Yellow rivers, and in 1999 the government brought in the Conversion of Cropland to Forest Program (CCFP) – a massive afforestation scheme aimed at reducing both erosion and poverty by encouraging farmers to plant trees on sloping and ‘barren’ lands. 

They were given money to buy saplings and seeds, as well as a subsidy to compensate for lost agricultural income. The payments were conditional on the trees surviving – 70 to 85 percent of them, depending on local criteria.

Bert Guevara's insight:
Wrong government environment policies, like expanded timber production and increased agricultural lands, led to disastrous results. Now, the nation has repented and is going in the right direction of reforestation.
State-sponsored community nurseries and tree-planting efforts have a 70% success rate. The Philippines should not renege on its own National Greening Program, even if the initial results were a failure and a victim of corruption.

"The CCFP has been implemented in 25 Chinese provinces, at a cost of $US 50 billion – and almost 30 million hectares of land have been converted into forest. It’s now been running for 17 years. 
“Broadly speaking, land use changes brought about by the CCFP have been positive,” Gutiérrez Rodríguez says. “The forest cover has increased fast in all CCFP implementation areas.”
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These women protect the trees that protect Ecuador – Human Nature... ("women lead win-win setup")

These women protect the trees that protect Ecuador – Human Nature... ("women lead win-win setup") | Earth Citizens Perspective | Scoop.it

Mangroves do more than protect coasts — they're also lifelines for nearby communities.

These are Ecuador’s mangrove forests, which cover about 157,000 hectares (388,000 acres) in the floodplain where the South American country’s coast meets the Pacific Ocean. Despite all the benefits mangroves provide to coastal communities, Ecuadorian mangroves have experienced huge losses in recent decades as many acres were converted to shrimp ponds. To reverse this trend, Ecuador started a mangrove concession program that grants communities exclusive rights to use nearby mangrove areas for fishing, tourism or other livelihood needs. The program has enabled thousands of traditional mangrove users to continue their way of life.

According to Ecuador’s Ministry of Environment, almost 67,000 hectares (166,000 acres) of Ecuador’s mangroves are protected through 68 community-based concessions. Conservation International (CI) Ecuador has worked closely with the Ministry of Environment to increase the number of agreements to ensure the effective conservation of these mangroves and sustainable use of their resources.

These concessions have mostly secured livelihood sources for men, who have traditionally been the ones extracting mangrove resources to make a living. However, a handful of women living in mangrove communities around the Gulf of Guayaquil are starting to challenge those gender roles, and their actions are helping to level the playing field between men and women. To encourage this shift, CI Ecuador is working to increase female participation in fishery associations and decision-making processes.

Bert Guevara's insight:
Sustainability successes in mangrove preservation show that this is replicable in many other parts of the world, including the Philippines.

"One hectare of them can store up to seven times as much carbon as a hectare of tropical forest. Standing strong on the muddy shores of the Gulf of Guayaquil, they can reduce the force of waves pounding the shore by 98 percent. Their trees provide habitat for many rare and threatened species, as well as more plentiful, lucrative ones like the red crab, an important source of sustenance and income for coastal communities.
"These concessions have mostly secured livelihood sources for men, who have traditionally been the ones extracting mangrove resources to make a living. However, a handful of women living in mangrove communities around the Gulf of Guayaquil are starting to challenge those gender roles, and their actions are helping to level the playing field between men and women. To encourage this shift, CI Ecuador is working to increase female participation in fishery associations and decision-making processes."
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Eleven Spectacular Birds From the 2016 Wildlife Photographer of the Year Awards ("natural art pics")

Eleven Spectacular Birds From the 2016 Wildlife Photographer of the Year Awards ("natural art pics") | Earth Citizens Perspective | Scoop.it

An owl in mourning, a parakeet in battle, and a mud-covered flamingo are among the winning images.

In 1965, a photograph of an owl clutching a songbird in its beak won CVR Dowdeswell the first-ever Wildlife Photographer of the Year Award, presented by a young David Attenborough. That year, only 500 photographers entered the contest, which the Natural History Museum in London, England has hosted since 1984. Fast forward to today when thousands of photographs, each displaying the beauty and fragility of the natural world, pour in from almost 100 countries to vie for the top prize: about $12,000 and the prestige that comes with winning one of the world's biggest wildlife media competitions. 

This week, the museum announced the winners and finalists from this year's contest, with 13 different categories for adults and youth. Field biologist and photojournalist Tim Laman took home the grand prize with an image of an orangutan clinging to the trunk of a fig tree high above the forest canopy in Indonesia's Gunung Palung National Park. Laman told USA Today that while he's thrilled to see his work shared internationally, he's more motivated by the chance "to try and make a difference for orangutan conservation." 

A gallery featuring about 100 of the top images opened at the museum today—a traveling exhibit will start touring internationally in 2017—with many of the masterpieces paying homage to birds. Scroll through our eleven picks for the best bird images, along with captions from the contest. And if you're a photographer, get ready: Next year's competition will accept entries from October 24 until December 15, 2016.

Bert Guevara's insight:
Feast your eyes to natural art.

A gallery featuring about 100 of the top images opened at the museum today—a traveling exhibit will start touring internationally in 2017—with many of the masterpieces paying homage to birds. Scroll through our eleven picks for the best bird images, along with captions from the contest. And if you're a photographer, get ready: Next year's competition will accept entries from October 24 until December 15, 2016.
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Oslo Is Creating The Model For How Cities Can Solve Climate Change ("they are within target")

Oslo Is Creating The Model For How Cities Can Solve Climate Change ("they are within target") | Earth Citizens Perspective | Scoop.it

To cut its emissions drastically, the city has started to fundamentally rethink how a city should work.

Oslo is taking a different approach. The city plans to cut greenhouse gas emissions in half, compared to 1990 levels, in only four years. It's faster than any city or country has made changes in the past. When France shifted to nuclear power from fossil fuels, they reduced emissions by about 5% a year. 

But experts say that's the pace needed if we want to try to keep global warming below 1.5 degrees Celsius, which is the most ambitious goal countries agreed to at the Paris climate talks, and the target that most scientists say is safest if we want to keep the climate—and all of the systems that humans rely on for survival—stable.

The city has different challenges than some others. Electricity comes from hydropower, and though recent research suggests some dams aren't quite as clean as they seem, they're still better than relying on fossil fuels. Rather than revamping electricity, Oslo will have to focus most on problems like pollution from waste disposal or transportation.

In 2015, the city decided to ban private cars from the city center; the new plan builds on that goal. Taxis will stop using gas by 2020; public transit will also go fossil-free. New infrastructure will help reduce freight emissions. The city is also rolling out new parking restrictions, tools, and building more bike lanes.

Unsurprisingly, there has been some resistance. "Like every country, I guess, people are addicted to their cars, so it would be really tough to reduce," says Peters. Adding bike lanes also means taking out parking spaces, which has caused waves of annoyance.

Bert Guevara's insight:
Hey ma, where have all the cars gone?

"Because there's no parking, there's basically no cars in the street," he says. "So I take the kids to day care in the morning, and there's a stream of bikes going down the hill on the way to work. I basically don't see any cars. You don't have to worry about the kids getting run over, and it's quiet. It's just like walking down a car-free street. I think people will see that and think, 'Oh, it's actually quite nice not to have cars coming down the street.'"
"The ambitious plans were possible because of a shift in political power; Greens and other left-wing parties won a majority of seats in the city council in 2015, and immediately went into action. Other cities may not see such rapid changes as politically or technically feasible. But if Oslo succeeds, that may change."
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Car-free cities might be catching on. ("instead of more roads, try car-less streets where man's free")

Car-free cities might be catching on. ("instead of more roads, try car-less streets where man's free") | Earth Citizens Perspective | Scoop.it

This week, cities mark World Car-Free Day, an annual event to promote ways to get around sans motor vehicles.

Car-free cities might be catching on. This week, cities mark World Car-Free Day, an annual event to promote biking, walking, mass transit, and other ways to get around sans motor vehicles (Solowheel, anyone?). 

Technically, World Car-Free Day was Thursday, September 22, but participating cities are taking the “eh, close enough” approach to get their car-free kicks in on the weekend. Said cities include Washington, D.C., Philadelphia, Brussels, Bogotá, Jakarta, Copenhagen, and Paris, where nearly half the city center will be closed to vehicle traffic on Sunday. 

But going car-free, municipally speaking, is becoming more of a regular trend than an annual affair: Mexico City closes 35 miles of city streets to cars every Sunday; the Oslo city government proposed a ban on private vehicles in the city center after 2019; and in Paris, the government is allowed to limit vehicles if air pollution rises above health-threatening levels. 

But even if your city isn’t officially participating in World Car-Free Day, you can be the change you want to see in your own metropolis. And by that, we mean: Just leave your keys at home. Horrible, no good things happen in cars.

Bert Guevara's insight:
While the world's cities are debating on how to solve traffic congestion, some cities are trying a new paradigm - car-less streets. 
If only streets are safe, I would rather walk if pedestrian zones were designed to make walking a pleasant experience.

"But even if your city isn’t officially participating in World Car-Free Day, you can be the change you want to see in your own metropolis. And by that, we mean: Just leave your keys at home. Horrible, no good things happen in cars."
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Invasive predators are eating the world's animals to extinction – and the worst is close to home

Invasive predators are eating the world's animals to extinction – and the worst is close to home | Earth Citizens Perspective | Scoop.it

Cats, rats, foxes and other mammal predators have been implicated in 60% of the world's animals extinctions.

Our study revealed that invasive predators are implicated in 87 bird, 45 mammal and 10 reptile extinctions — 58% of these groups’ contemporary extinctions worldwide. 

Invasive predators also threaten 596 species classed as vulnerable, endangered or critically endangered on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List. Combined, the affected species include 400 birds, 189 mammals and 149 reptiles. 

Twenty-three of the critically endangered species are classed as “possibly extinct”, so the number of extinctions above is likely to be an underestimate. 

Until now, these shocking statistics have been unknown, and the heavy toll of invasive predators on native biodiversity grossly underappreciated. Species extinctions attributed to invasive predators include the Hawaiian rail (Zapornia sandwichensis) and Australia’s lesser bilby (Macrotis leucura).

We found that three canids (including the red fox and feral dogs), seven members of the weasel family or mustelids (such as stoats), five rodents, two primates, two mongooses, two marsupials and nine species from other families negatively impact threatened species. Some of these species, such as hedgehogs and brushtail possums, don’t immediately spring to mind as predators, yet they are known to prey on many threatened species. 

Feral cats threaten the most species overall (430), including 63 that have become extinct. This equates to one-quarter of all bird, mammal and reptile extinctions – making the feral cat arguably the most damaging invasive species for animal biodiversity worldwide.

Bert Guevara's insight:
This what happens when the world's balance of animal populations are disturbed -- extinction. Not only are these predators in our oceans, they are all over the lands as well.

"Our research, recently published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, shows that these predators – cats, rats and foxes, but also house mice, possums and many others – have contributed to around 60% of bird, mammal and reptile extinctions. The worst offenders are feral cats, contributing to over 60 extinctions."
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Germany converting 62 unused military bases into nature preserves ("wise move to give back to nature")

Rare and threatened species will find reprieve in these new wilderness sanctuaries located west of the Iron Curtain.

Germany is converting 62 former military bases into wildlife preserves, encompassing more than 76,600 acres and offering a quiet reprieve for species living in the forests, meadows and marshes of the zones. These creatures include the lesser spotted eagle, middle spotted woodpecker, bats, beetles and other ecologically important species. 

"The fortified borderlands that separated communist and capitalist Europe became accidental nature reserves during the Cold War. Many of these areas are now part of the European Green Belt , a chain of habitats that runs from Norway to Turkey," reports The Huffington Post. 

"We are seizing a historic opportunity with this conversion — many areas that were once no-go zones are no longer needed for military purposes," said Environment Minister Barbara Hendricks. "We are fortunate that we can now give these places back to nature."

Bert Guevara's insight:
Besides ocean conservation, there are land areas that are better left to nature. Man is better off maintaining a balance in land development for long term sustainability and biodiversity.
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Zimbabwe is dehorning its rhinos to curb poaching ("next gen may never see a complete rhino again")

Zimbabwe is dehorning its rhinos to curb poaching ("next gen may never see a complete rhino again") | Earth Citizens Perspective | Scoop.it

To help deter poachers, Zimbabwe has announced plans to surgically remove the horns of all 100-odd rhinos in its state parks.

In 2015, at least 1,338 rhinos were illegally killed for their horns across Africa. Of these 50 rhinos were killed in Zimbabwe. 

To help curb poaching, Zimbabwe has announced plans to dehorn the nearly 100 rhinos residing in its state parks. Private conservancies, which house some 600 additional rhinos, may also choose to dehorn their rhinos. 

“We want to send a message to poachers that they will not get much if they come to Zimbabwe,” Lisa Marabini, founder trustee and director of operations with Aware Trust Zimbabwe, one of the conservation groups assisting the Zimbabwe Parks and Wildlife Management Authority in the dehorning program, told Reuters. “The park’s policy is to dehorn all the rhino.” 

Poaching of rhinos is fueled by demand from countries like China and Vietnam. Rhino horn, made of keratin, the same material as our fingernails and hair, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine. In Vietnam too, many people incorrectly believe that rhino horns can cure cancer or hangover. In fact, rhino horns can fetch about $100,000 in Vietnam’s markets.

“Dehorning is a strategy that has to be used in conjunction with intensive paramilitary protection,” Marabini said. “It is necessary to leave a small amount of living horn bed on the animal. However, to the poacher, the reward to risk ratio greatly decreases if he is risking his life poaching for a few 100 grams of horn on a dehorned rhino, versus a big horn weighing seven kilograms on an animal that has not been dehorned.” Despite not being foolproof, researchers have found that recently dehorned rhinos in some of Zimbabwe’s conservancies seem to have 29.1 percent higher chance of survival than horned animals. “That may not sound like much but it’s the difference between three rhino being killed a day and two rhino being killed a day,” Marabini said. “In our situation where every single rhino in the park is dehorned, and where this fact is publicized, and where there is a shoot-to-kill policy against armed poachers in protected areas, dehorning is a strong disincentive for the poachers to even think about coming into those parks.”Despite not being foolproof, researchers have found that recently dehorned rhinos in some of Zimbabwe’s conservancies seem to have 29.1 percent higher chance of survival than horned animals. “That may not sound like much but it’s the difference between three rhino being killed a day and two rhino being killed a day,” Marabini said. “In our situation where every single rhino in the park is dehorned, and where this fact is publicized, and where there is a shoot-to-kill policy against armed poachers in protected areas, dehorning is a strong disincentive for the poachers to even think about coming into those parks.”

Bert Guevara's insight:
Our children may think all rhinos do not have horns.

"Despite not being foolproof, researchers have found that recently dehorned rhinos in some of Zimbabwe’s conservancies seem to have 29.1 percent higher chance of survival than horned animals. 
“That may not sound like much but it’s the difference between three rhino being killed a day and two rhino being killed a day,” Marabini said. “In our situation where every single rhino in the park is dehorned, and where this fact is publicized, and where there is a shoot-to-kill policy against armed poachers in protected areas, dehorning is a strong disincentive for the poachers to even think about coming into those parks.”
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Why is Smart Farming Asia's big new trend? | GovInsider ("agri can't stagnate in a changing world")

Why is Smart Farming Asia's big new trend? | GovInsider ("agri can't stagnate in a changing world") | Earth Citizens Perspective | Scoop.it

Asian governments are investing massively in this... field.

GovInsider has gathered the cutting-edge and, yes, the cool, to highlight how countries in the region are ploughing ahead in this once old-fashioned sector.

1. Australia

Robots in Australia are milking cows. In Camden, south-west of Australia, the FutureDairy prototype can milk up to 90 cows an hour.

2. Japan

Japan is looking at robots to automate crop farms and pick fruits. 

3. Malaysia

Malaysia is leveraging sensor and data in farms, and aims to increase farming productivity by 20% in the next five years.

4. Philippines

Philippines has teamed up with the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) to use drones to scope out where agricultural land is most vulnerable to natural disasters. The government will use this to better prepare for disasters and adapt agricultural plans accordingly.

5. South Korea

Sejong City is encouraging startups to develop smart farming solutions, in a joint collaboration between the ICT ministry and SK group, a large conglomerate in the country.

6. Thailand

Thailand is piloting the use of big data analytics in farming. “The Ministry of Agriculture wants data to help them provide solutions to farmers,” Sak Segkhoonthod, Chief Executive of Thailand’s E-Government Agency told GovInsider. The ministry can then advice farmers on what types of crops to harvest to ensure the stability of food prices.


Bert Guevara's insight:
Aside from the hi-tech gadgets, smart farming has to do with changing the rules on the weather due to climate change.

"Countries in the region are boosting their farming manpower with robots, drones and sensors; it’s widespread, and getting increasingly popular in the industry. It’s healthier to think of them as helpers, rather than threats to manual jobs – after all, they work so we can reap the fruits of their labour."
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PHL’s greening program, a global model for inclusive reforestation ("it's sad that corruption killed it")

PHL’s greening program, a global model for inclusive reforestation ("it's sad that corruption killed it") | Earth Citizens Perspective | Scoop.it
The country’s greening program was among the case studies of progress towards inclusive green growth highlighted by the Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI), which is holding a week-long global forum here. 
“A global model for inclusive reforestation is possible,” the Seoul-based international organization said in a paper. 
The paper said the Philippine NGP proves that ambitious targets combined with inclusive processes on the ground can deliver “impressive land-use greening and greater-than-expected results”, by including communities whose livelihoods are most affected. 
The GGGI believes the stronger processes and explicit inclusion targets to match environmental ones can take NGP even further in the Philippines. 
“But the level of environmental and social progress – compared with previous, less inclusive initiatives – is a laudable success and a model to be recommended,” it said. 
The Philippine government initiated a USD650-million massive forest rehabilitation program that aims to plant 1.5 billion trees in 1.5 million hectares across the country from 2011 to 2016. The level of planting even exceeded planned annual targets in 2011 to 2013. 
Apart from its reforestation goal, the NGP was designed to promote inclusion by helping provide alternative livelihood activities for marginalized upland and lowland groups. 
A study has indicated that the greening program had employed 1.18 million people from upland and rural communities in reforestation activities as of 2013. 
“In circumstances where major tree-planting programs are often top-down impositions on local development, the NGP strove to combine ambitious green objectives with effective, equitable and sustainable social benefits,” added the paper released by GGGI. 
Bert Guevara's insight:
This is the case of a good program that was shot by corruption.
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A new era of collaboration for sustainable agriculture ("this model should happen worldwide

A new era of collaboration for sustainable agriculture ("this model should happen worldwide | Earth Citizens Perspective | Scoop.it

Business has the opportunity to draw attention to issues that matter to their business and customers. Today, a handful did just that and announced their commitment to sustainable agriculture.

Over the past several months, I’ve spent countless hours representing Environmental Defense Fund in a room with Cargill, General Mills, Kellogg Company, Monsanto, PepsiCo, The Nature Conservancy, Walmart, and World Wildlife Fund. This group makes up the Midwest Row Crop Collaborative (MRCC) – a diverse coalition working to reduce the environmental impacts of commodity row crop production (i.e., corn, soy, wheat, etc.) throughout the Upper Mississippi River Basin. 

This isn’t just good news for the planet. Implementing on-the-ground solutions that reduce fertilizer pollution and improve soil health can also result in higher yields for farmers, reduced risk of supply chain disruptions for food companies and retailers, reduced air and water pollution, and improved transparency for consumers. 

Farmers and food companies need fertilizer to grow their ingredients, but fertilizer in excess of the amount crops need can lead to water and air pollution and wasted money for farmers, who spend approximately half of their input costs on fertilizer. 

Each year, fertilizer runoff contributes to an aquatic dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico – an area the size of Connecticut that so devoid of oxygen, marine life cannot survive. And excess nitrogen fertilizer can lead to nitrates contaminating drinking water and water supplies – posing serious health risks to infants in particular. 

Bert Guevara's insight:
Big industries wake up to sustainable agriculture! Countries who are still ignoring the threat of unsustainable agricultural practices should wake up before the problem becomes more expensive to remedy.
Actually, the technologies are simple and the models are existing. Effective collaboration is needed.

"Farmer organizations, environmental groups, food companies, state and local watershed organizations, and many others share these common goals – and much work is already underway. 
"That’s why the MRCC isn’t reinventing any wheels. It’s shining a spotlight on an important environmental issue that is often overlooked, while helping support and scale the various technical and regional sustainability efforts already in place. 
"When leading companies collaborate around a common goal, both business and the planet will thrive."
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'The Mother of All Risks': Insurance Giants Call on G20 to Stop Bankrolling Fossil Fuels

'The Mother of All Risks': Insurance Giants Call on G20 to Stop Bankrolling Fossil Fuels | Earth Citizens Perspective | Scoop.it

Warning that climate change amounts to the "mother of all risks," three of the world's biggest insurance companies this week are demanding that G20 countries stop bankrolling the fossil fuels industry.Multi-national insurance giants Aviva, Aegon, and Amlin, which together manage $1.2tn in assets, released a statement Tuesday calling on the leaders of the world's biggest economies to commit to ending coal, oil, and gas subsidies within four years.

"Climate change in particular represents the mother of all risks—to business and to society as a whole. And that risk is magnified by the way in which fossil fuel subsidies distort the energy market," said Aviva CEO Mark Wilson. "These subsidies are simply unsustainable." 

According to a recent report by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), fossil fuel companies receive an estimated $5.3tn a year in global subsidies—a figure that included, as the IMF put it, the "real costs" associated with damage to the environment and human health that are foisted on populations but not paid by polluters. 

Tuesday's declaration is being issued as leaders prepare to convene for the 11th G20 summit, which is being held in Hangzhou, China on September 4-5 under the theme: "Toward an Innovative, Invigorated, Interconnected, and Inclusive World Economy." 

"We're calling on governments to kick away these carbon crutches, reveal the true impact to society of fossil fuels and take into account the price we will pay in the future for relying on them," Wilson added. 

Indeed, insurance companies are increasingly shouldering many of the costs associated with a warming planet, whether it be from extreme weather damage or reimbursing farmers for lost crops.

Bert Guevara's insight:
If these 3 insurance giants are singing the same tune, then G20 leaders must listen to them.

"These subsidies fuel dangerous climate change," said Whitley. "If we are to have any chance of meeting the 2°C target set at the Paris climate summit then governments need to start a program of rapid decarbonization. The finance sector recognizes the importance of moving away from fossil fuels, governments need to realize they may be the only ones left not moving."
"In the past seven years, we’ve seen historic climate progress across the U.S. and around the globe," said Sierra Club executive director Michael Brune. "But while the world moves forward toward a 100 percent clean energy economy, G20 leaders have remained stagnant, with the world waiting on empty promises."
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Bandila: Pagkasira ng halos 1 ektaryang mangrove, nadiskubre sa Palawan ("dapat hulihin!")

Iniimbestigahan ngayon ang malawakang pagsira sa mangrove area sa Barangay San Manuel sa Puerto Princesa City. Hinala ng mga taga-barangay, may ilan
Bert Guevara's insight:
This is an example of the the mindless destruction of mangroves by people who are ignorant of the consequences. This has to stop!
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Built on stilts: Brick house rises on on jacks during floods

Built on stilts: Brick house rises on on jacks during floods | Earth Citizens Perspective | Scoop.it

Whatever happened to "form follows function"?

The great American architect Louis Sullivan wrote: 

It is the pervading law of all things organic and inorganic, of all things physical and metaphysical, of all things human and all things superhuman, of all true manifestations of the head, of the heart, of the soul, that the life is recognizable in its expression, that form ever follows function. This is the law.

Then there is this, discovered on Inhabitat; a boxy brick house weighing 71 US tons that rises up five feet above the ground when there is a flood. Being built by Larkfleet, a british builder, it theoretically could open up new development sites. 

Karl Hick, CEO of The Larkfleet Group of Companies, said: “The elevating house effectively eliminates the risk of flood damage to homes so that more land across the country can be approved for future home building. This will help to tackle the ‘housing crisis’ that is being caused by the demand for new housing far exceeding the supply.” 

The house will have flexible water and sewage connections and solar power so it could keep going for a while in a flood. However the builders expect that the owners would “pack up, lock up and jack up the home before taking refuge in temporary accommodation on higher ground elsewhere”. 

But it looks so odd, a big heavy brick house sitting up there on jacks. Why not have form follow function? Why not design a lighter house? Why not just build it on stilts five feet up in the first place? Look at what some of our best architects have built on stilts, on sites that can flood.


Bert Guevara's insight:
Climate resilient architecture, anyone?

"But it looks so odd, a big heavy brick house sitting up there on jacks. Why not have form follow function? Why not design a lighter house? Why not just build it on stilts five feet up in the first place? Look at what some of our best architects have built on stilts, on sites that can flood."
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World on track to lose two-thirds of wild animals by 2020, major report warns ("what have we done?")

World on track to lose two-thirds of wild animals by 2020, major report warns ("what have we done?") | Earth Citizens Perspective | Scoop.it

Living Planet Index shows vertebrate populations are set to decline by 67% on 1970 levels unless urgent action is taken to reduce humanity’s impact.

The number of wild animals living on Earth is set to fall by two-thirds by 2020, according to a new report, part of a mass extinction that is destroying the natural world upon which humanity depends. 

The analysis, the most comprehensive to date, indicates that animal populations plummeted by 58% between 1970 and 2012, with losses on track to reach 67% by 2020. Researchers from WWF and the Zoological Society of London compiled the report from scientific data and found that the destruction of wild habitats, hunting and pollution were to blame.

The creatures being lost range from mountains to forests to rivers and the seas and include well-known endangered species such as elephants and gorillas and lesser known creatures such as vultures and salamanders. 

The collapse of wildlife is, with climate change, the most striking sign of the Anthropocene, a proposed new geological era in which humans dominate the planet. “We are no longer a small world on a big planet. We are now a big world on a small planet, where we have reached a saturation point,” said Prof Johan Rockström, executive director of the Stockholm Resilience Centre, in a foreword for the report.

The biggest cause of tumbling animal numbers is the destruction of wild areas for farming and logging: the majority of the Earth’s land area has now been impacted by humans, with just 15% protected for nature. Poaching and exploitation for food is another major factor, due to unsustainable fishing and hunting: more than 300 mammal species are being eaten into extinction, according to recent research.

Bert Guevara's insight:
Who is defending animal rights against human abuse? Whether directly or indirectly, we have something to do with this carnage.

"The number of wild animals living on Earth is set to fall by two-thirds by 2020, according to a new report, part of a mass extinction that is destroying the natural world upon which humanity depends. The analysis, the most comprehensive to date, indicates that animal populations plummeted by 58% between 1970 and 2012, with losses on track to reach 67% by 2020. Researchers from WWF and the Zoological Society of London compiled the report from scientific data and found that the destruction of wild habitats, hunting and pollution were to blame."
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Why world's climate response 'will be won or lost in cities' ("spotlight is now on urbanization")

Why world's climate response 'will be won or lost in cities' ("spotlight is now on urbanization") | Earth Citizens Perspective | Scoop.it

In Quito, Ecuador, a UN conference on cities reveals global momentum to seek lower-carbon urban living patterns. But blending emission cuts with economic growth is a daunting challenge, especially in the Global South.

This week in Ecuador, as an anticipated 45,000 people gather for a sequel, things are playing out on a very different track. 

Heading into the meeting known as Habitat III, participating nations have prepared a document reflecting the urgent belief that cities will be ground zero for mitigating and adapting to climate change. While the document itself is light on short-term implementation methods, experts hope the adoption of the document this week will be a launching pad in the battle for sustainable development that the UN has declared “will be won or lost in cities."

But if the world's response to climate change is growing, so are its cities – particularly in the Global South. Between 1950 and 2050 the world’s urban population is projected to increase from under one-third to about two-thirds of the total population, with 52 and 21 percent of that population living in Asia and Africa respectively. 

With more than half the human population already living in cities, urban areas are now disproportionately responsible for the planet’s emissions. While they cover less than 2 percent of the Earth’s surface, they consume 78 percent of its energy and produce 60 percent of its CO2 emissions.

But this is why some urbanists are so worried about the vagueness in the headline document of Habitat III: the New Urban Agenda. 

Although the Agenda is binding – unlike the declarations of past Habitat conferences – critics are frustrated that it didn’t include more specifics on how people living in cities are supposed to make these changes happen, instead leaving those practical details to be grappled with at the conference itself and beyond.

Bert Guevara's insight:
A new climate battleground site has been declared!
"... the battle for sustainable development that the UN has declared “will be won or lost in cities."

“Previous Habitats were more generally about human settlements. This is focused on urbanization,” said Ms. Moreno. “This not an excluding conversation, it’s a focusing conversation on big challenges humanity is facing.”
“This idea of actually getting services to everyone as a path towards growth and environmental sustainability is a departure from what we’ve traditionally believed in,” he said.
“Cities don’t change overnight, so their decisions over roads, over land use, that they make today will impact them over [decades],” he added. “Quito [needs to] be the beginning of the conversation and not end of the conversation.”
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Bees added to US endangered species list for the first time ("a biodiversity crisis that affects man")

Bees added to US endangered species list for the first time ("a biodiversity crisis that affects man") | Earth Citizens Perspective | Scoop.it

Seven types of the yellow-faced or masked bees once found in great numbers in Hawaii are under threat, federal officials say.

Seven types of bees once found in abundance in Hawaii have become the first bees to be added to the US federal list of endangered and threatened species. 

The listing decision, published on Friday in the Federal Register, classifies seven varieties of yellow-faced or masked bees as endangered, due to such factors as habitat loss, wildfires and the invasion of non-native plants and insects. 

The bees, so named for yellow-to-white facial markings, once crowded Hawaii and Maui but recent surveys found their populations have plunged in the same fashion as other types of wild bees – and some commercial ones – elsewhere in the United States, federal wildlife managers said.

Pollinators like bees are crucial for the production of fruits, nuts and vegetables and they represent billions of dollars in value each year to the nation’s agricultural economy, officials said. 

Placing yellow-faced bees under federal safeguards comes just over a week since the US Fish and Wildlife Service proposed adding the imperilled rusty patched bumble bee, a prized but vanishing pollinator once found in the upper midwest and north-eastern United States, to the endangered and threatened species list. 

One of several wild bee species seen declining over the past two decades, the rusty patched bumble bee is the first in the continental United States formally proposed for protections.

Bert Guevara's insight:
In many parts of the developed world, bees are disappearing or diminishing in a massive scale. For those who understand their major role in nature, this is a major crisis in our ecosystem.
To those living in the city, have you seen a bee lately?

"The bees faced a variety of threats including “feral pigs, invasive ants, loss of native habitat due to invasive plants, fire, as well as development, especially in some for the coastal areas”, Jepson told Associated Press."
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Royal Navy Admits Causing Whale Deaths ("bomb testing rattled the whales to confusion & death")

Royal Navy Admits Causing Whale Deaths ("bomb testing rattled the whales to confusion & death") | Earth Citizens Perspective | Scoop.it

Three 1,000lb bombs detonated underwater by the Royal Navy were to blame for the mass stranding and deaths of a pod of pilot whales on the north coast of Scotland in 2011, it has emerged.   A report released by the Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs on Wednesday cited the explosions as a significant factor in the whales' deaths.  

The report relates to events which took place on 22nd July 2011, when 70 long-finned pilot whales in the Garvie Island Bombing Range, Cape Wrath, were exposed to the effects of bomb detonations in the sea near the Royal Navy's Northern Diving Group. 

Despite attempts by experts to save the 39 whales left stranded, 19 ended up dead. 

Cape Wrath is owned by the Ministry of Defence and large parts are used as a military bombardment range.

"The magnitude, frequency and proximity of the multiple detonations in the day prior to the stranding, and the single high order detonation shortly after the beginning of the mass standing were plausible sources of significant disturbance to any neighbouring marine mammals."

The report criticises the Royal Navy’s visual checks for whales before bombs are exploded as “insufficient”, and recommends improved monitoring. It also highlights the routine use of devices elsewhere in the world that burn out rather than detonate bombs. 

The MoD said that it accepted the findings of the report. “It identified a number of possible factors that may have influenced events, one of which was the detonation of underwater explosives,” said a spokesman.

Bert Guevara's insight:
The military is treating the ocean as its playground, as if they had the right to use it as they pleased. After the mass killing of whales, they wake up to a greater reality that the world has other inhabitants.

"Three 1,000lb bombs detonated underwater by the Royal Navy were to blame for the mass stranding and deaths of a pod of pilot whales on the north coast of Scotland in 2011, it has emerged.
"The resulting noise damaged their sensitive hearing and navigational ability, causing confusion amongst the pod, and resulting in them accidentally travelling towards the beach where they ultimately died."
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Russia's Red River Another Sad Chapter for One of the Most Polluted Cities on Earth ("human wreck!")

Russia's Red River Another Sad Chapter for One of the Most Polluted Cities on Earth ("human wreck!") | Earth Citizens Perspective | Scoop.it

Norilsk Nickel​, the world's largest nickel manufacturer, admitted responsibility for turning Daldykan River in Russia bright red. For the city of Norilsk,

The city of 175,000, which was founded in 1935 as a slave labor camp, was named one of the world's most polluted places on Earth by the Blacksmith Institute. WikiTravel advises potential visitors that "a substantial stay could jeopardize your health." 

Norilsk owes its unfortunate accolade and its economy to some of the largest deposits of nickel on Earth. Mining began in the 1930s, and by 1953 was producing 35 percent of the Soviet Union's total nickel output, 12 percent of its copper, 30 percent of its cobalt and 90 percent of its platinum group metals. Today, it produces 20 percent of the world's nickel and 50 percent of its palladium. 

Norilsk Nickel's 1942 Plant, named for the year it began operations, produced about 120,000 metric tons (132,000 U.S. tons) a year. The plant was decommissioned on Aug. 26.

The company, headquartered in Moscow, which recently rebranded itself as Nornickel, issued a statement Monday attributing the Daldykan River event to abnormally heavy rains in the region that caused a dam containing tailings to overflow. 

"Short-term river color staining with iron salts presents no hazards for people and river fauna," the statement declares. 

Others are not so sure. Greenpeace Russia spokesman Alexei Kiselyov told Agency France-Presse (AFP), "You can't just say that it's no big deal." He noted that the remote area made any investigation more difficult and that the company controls access to the area. The Russian Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment has opened an investigation.

Bert Guevara's insight:
This is an example of irresponsible mining and industrialization that is killing its people. Who got rich in the process?

"The now-shuttered plant was responsible for more than 4 million tons of cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, arsenic, selenium and zinc released into the atmosphere every year. The effects of decades of pollution are stark. Vegetation can't grow within a 20-mile radius. Acid rain covers an area the size of Germany. Heavy metal pollution is so great that the soil itself can be mined. 
"Life expectancy is 10 years less than in other regions of Russia, the risk of cancer is two times higher and respiratory diseases are widespread," reports the Daily Mail. The city's polluted air may be responsible for 37 percent of child deaths and 21.6 percent of adult mortality."
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10 more mines recommended for suspension – DENR ("audit teams see a lot of technical violations")

10 more mines recommended for suspension – DENR ("audit teams see a lot of technical violations") | Earth Citizens Perspective | Scoop.it

Senior Undersecretary for Environment Leo Jasareno says the names of the 10 mines will be disclosed after evaluation

Audit teams of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) have recommended the suspension of 10 more mines, according to a top environment official. 

"The audit teams have recommended for suspension 10 more mines. This is for evaluation by the DENR," Senior Undersecretary for Environment Leo Jasareno told Rappler in a text message on Thursday, September 22. 

He added that more information, including the names of the 10 mines, will be disclosed after the evaluation, which may be on Monday, September 26. 

To date, the DENR has already suspended the mining operations of 10 firms: 

- BenguetCorp Nickel Mines 

- Incorporated Eramen Minerals Incorporated 

- LNL Archipelago Minerals Incorporated 

- Zambales Diversified Metals Corporation 

- Berong Nickel 

- Citinickel 

- Claver Minerals 

- Ore Asia Mining Development Corporation 

- Mt Sinai Mining Exploration and Development Corporation 

- Emir Mineral Resources Corporation 

During the DENR's budget hearing at the House of Representatives on September 5, Environment Secretary Gina Lopez revealed her department had completed its audit on all existing mines in the country. 

She vowed then to "definitely" suspend more mining operations, including large-scale ones, based on "technical" reasons that are "backed by scientific data." 

Bert Guevara's insight:
10 more mining companies miss the cut - looking forward to suspension of operations.

"During the DENR's budget hearing at the House of Representatives on September 5, Environment Secretary Gina Lopez revealed her department had completed its audit on all existing mines in the country. 
"She vowed then to "definitely" suspend more mining operations, including large-scale ones, based on "technical" reasons that are "backed by scientific data."
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India: Street kids publish newspaper to raise awareness ("tabloid is their voice for world to care")

India: Street kids publish newspaper to raise awareness ("tabloid is their voice for world to care") | Earth Citizens Perspective | Scoop.it

Balaknama newspaper, run and produced by street children in Delhi, tells stories of injustice kids suffer daily.

Sexual abuse, torture, drug addiction, harassment at the hands of thugs and policemen sums up life of street children in India. Delhi’s Balaknama newspaper - the Voice of Children, which is run by the street children has been working to highlight the plight of fellow youngsters. 

The editor of Balaknama, 17-year-old Shambhu, washes cars during the day for a living. "This newspaper is our voice to tell people, about what we go through and that even our lives matter," Shambhu tells Al Jazeera. "People usually don't care about street children. Whether they are beaten up, raped or even disappear, it hardly creates a flutter." 

The newspaper has four main reporters and 64 news gatherers who go around collecting the stories. They are known as "Baatooni" - the talkative ones. Unable to write their own copies, the Baatooni relate the stories to the main reporters who put them in writing for the issue. 

The bilingual newspaper is the size of a tabloid with 5,000 copies published in Hindi and 3,000 in English. An NGO called Chetna funds the printing of the newspaper. 

"Whatever goes into publishing is our brainchild and editorial is fully independent," Shambhu says, adding that the that the NGO only plays a financial role. 

Most of the children associated with Balaknama are rubbish collectors and do not attend school. Others take menial jobs at railways, bus stations, and roadside cafes. The reporters visit them at their workplaces to get their stories. 

Bert Guevara's insight:
This blighted situation may as well be here in the slums of the Philippines. They need a voice, otherwise their existence is almost unheard or unnoticed. Maybe you will just hear about them in the news as dead suspects.

"Sexual abuse, torture, drug addiction, harassment at the hands of thugs and policemen sums up life of street children in India. Delhi’s Balaknama newspaper - the Voice of Children, which is run by the street children has been working to highlight the plight of fellow youngsters."
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Vanishing Act: What’s Causing Sharp Decline in Insects and Why It Matters by Christian Schwägerl

Vanishing Act: What’s Causing Sharp Decline in Insects and Why It Matters by Christian Schwägerl | Earth Citizens Perspective | Scoop.it

Insect populations are declining dramatically in many parts of the world, recent studies show. Researchers say various factors, from monoculture farming to habitat loss, are to blame for the plight of insects, which are essential to agriculture and ecosystems.

"The decline is dramatic and depressing and it affects all kinds of insects, including butterflies, wild bees, and hoverflies," says Martin Sorg, an entomologist from the Krefeld Entomological Association involved in running the monitoring project.

Declines in insect populations are hardly limited to Germany. A 2014 study in Science documented a steep drop in insect and invertebrate populations worldwide. By combining data from the few comprehensive studies that exist, lead author Rodolfo Dirzo, an ecologist at Stanford University, developed a global index for invertebrate abundance that showed a 45 percent decline over the last four decades. Dirzo points out that out of 3,623 terrestrial invertebrate species on the International Union for Conservation of Nature [IUCN] Red List, 42 percent are classified as threatened with extinction. 

"Although invertebrates are the least well-evaluated faunal groups within the IUCN database, the available information suggests a dire situation in many parts of the world," says Dirzo.

Scientists cite many factors in the fall-off of the world’s insect populations, but chief among them are the ubiquitous use of pesticides, the spread of monoculture crops such as corn and soybeans, urbanization, and habitat destruction.

Scientists have described 1 million species of insects so far, and estimate that at least 4 million species worldwide are still unrecorded. For people living in areas with ample wilderness and a plethora of biting mosquitoes that carry malaria and other diseases, a decline in insect populations might seem like an outlandish concern. But in areas with intensive industrialized agriculture, the drop in insect populations is worrying.

Bert Guevara's insight:
Even in the Philippines, insects are not given much value. They are regarded as pests - to be eradicated.

"The decline is dramatic and depressing and it affects all kinds of insects, including butterflies, wild bees, and hoverflies," says Martin Sorg, an entomologist from the Krefeld Entomological Association involved in running the monitoring project. ...
"Scientists cite many factors in the fall-off of the world’s insect populations, but chief among them are the ubiquitous use of pesticides, the spread of monoculture crops such as corn and soybeans, urbanization, and habitat destruction."
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Turn Your Phone Into an Early Warning System ("easy to set up; you'll never know when you'll need it")

Turn Your Phone Into an Early Warning System ("easy to set up; you'll never know when you'll need it") | Earth Citizens Perspective | Scoop.it

Mobile alerts and free tools can notify you and help you prepare for emergencies including extreme weather, natural disasters and other crisis situations.

Q. What is the best way to get emergency weather alerts and information as quickly as possible on my phone? 

A. Unless you have disabled the feature, your smartphone is probably set to automatically receive free Wireless Emergency Alerts issued by government agencies. These messages can warn of extreme weather situations in your area, local emergencies that require some sort of immediate action or evacuation, and Amber Alerts regarding missing children. The system can also broadcast Presidential alerts in a national crisis. 

If you suspect the emergency alerts have been turned off on your device, check your settings. These controls may differ based on your version of Android, but try opening the Settings icon, tapping More under Wireless & Networks and looking for the Cell Broadcasts options. In recent versions of iOS, open the Settings app, tap Notifications and scroll to the bottom of the screen to Government Alerts to check if the options for Amber Alerts and Emergency Alerts are enabled.

If you are a Twitter user, you can sign up for Twitter Alerts that push out tweets or text messages from public agencies in emergency situations, including earthquakes or warnings related to the spread of the Zika virus. To sign up for Twitter Alerts, visit the site’s page of participating organizations and select the agencies you wish to use.

The Google Public Alerts system from the Google Crisis Response Team may also be useful for getting information before or during natural disasters. Available for desktop as well as mobile browsers, the Public Alerts map shows where emergencies are happening around the world, and offers links to traffic, weather, evacuation resources and more.

Bert Guevara's insight:
You'll never know when your phone can save a life or when you need to be saved from danger. Set up your phone now! There are many local apps available:
Project NOAH
AccuWeather
Twitter: PAGASA DOST, local radio stations: DZMM, DZBB, RadyoInquirer990AM, etc.
Google: Public Alerts

"The Google Public Alerts system from the Google Crisis Response Team may also be useful for getting information before or during natural disasters. Available for desktop as well as mobile browsers, the Public Alerts map shows where emergencies are happening around the world, and offers links to traffic, weather, evacuation resources and more."
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BusinessWorld | Forecast for power demand raised to 30,189 MW ("big rise from current 17,925 mw")

BusinessWorld | Forecast for power demand raised to 30,189 MW ("big rise from current 17,925 mw") | Earth Citizens Perspective | Scoop.it

THE DEPARTMENT of Energy (DoE) expects the country’s demand for electricity in 2030 to reach 30,189 megawatts (MW), or nearly 70% more than the current dependable capacity being supplied by the country’s existing power plants. “From here on until 2030, we will be needing something like 30,000 megawatts,” Energy Secretary Alfonso G. Cusi told reporters after a Senate hearing on Wednesday that discussed, among others, the Philippine Energy Plan for 2016-2030. “We need to add around 1,100 MW per year, roughly that’s the number,” he added. The country has an existing dependable capacity of 17,925 MW, while a number of ongoing projects have committed to deliver 6,178 MW.

During the Senate hearing on Aug. 19, Mr. Cusi said the DoE’s “very raw study” had estimated the country’s demand by 2030 to grow by 10,191 MW more, assuming a gross domestic product growth forecast of 5% and a population growth of 1.5%.

The new estimate builds a case for new baseload power sources, which are currently supplied mostly by coal-fired power plants. It also includes the system’s reserve requirement. 

The DoE’s power demand projection has become crucial as this has prompted Mr. Cusi to look for more sources, including the 620-MW Bataan nuclear power plant, which remains idle since construction started in the ’70s.

“Baseload is the foundation,” Mr. Cusi said, citing figures that showed 73% of the committed projects and nearly 84% of the required capacity to be coming from reliable power resources that include coal-fired power plants, geothermal facilities, biomass and nuclear, which has now become an option.

Bert Guevara's insight:
The DOE is saying that we need new sources of 1,100 MW per year until 2030. This scenario opens the door to discussion of all power sources, which now includes the nuclear option.
What I fear is the desperate reaction of accepting anything just to meet the target, without clear assessment of long-term implications.
More coal plants means more carbon and water pollution.
Nuclear power is still having safety concerns in an earthquake country like ours, and the safe disposal of nuclear waste has not been solved, even in the US. Its viability is also a question.
Huge waste-to-energy facilities have a problem with guaranteed feed stock requirements.

All I am saying is that short-sightedness will get us into more trouble in the future.
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