Research talk on latest brain research of LDs. We'll be giving this talk in San Francisco next week for the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists. Topics covered include dyslexia, dysgraphia, dyscalculia, ADD / ADHD, psychology, creativity, gifted, neurodiversity, and more.
John "Jack" Greene, a student at the University of Colorado Boulder, shares his story of living with dyslexia as a child, and the impact of accessible audiobook accommodations from Learning Ally that have helped him thrive in college.
Visual processing disorder & disability - There are lots of ways the brain processes visual information. Weaknesses in a particular kind of visual processing can often be seen in specific difficulties.
Results from fMRI suggest that there are at least two pathways for reading in the brain: inexperienced readers use one pathway, whereas a second, faster pathway takes over in more skilled readers. Both involve three key areas in the left side of the brain: a region at the front of the brain known as Broca's area; and at the rear, the parieto-temporal and occipito-temporal regions (see diagram). Broca's area has long been known, from studies of patients with brain lesions, to be required for normal speech and writing. Novice readers seem to use the parieto-temporal region to dismantle words for step-by-step phonological analysis; more experienced readers apparently rely on the occipito-temporal region to recognize whole words instantly8.
Map reading: the brain regions that are involved in deciphering text.
With her husband Bennett and other Yale colleagues, Shaywitz has used fMRI to compare the brains of dyslexics to those of normal, healthy readers as they perform reading tasks such as trying to identify nonsensical words in rhyming pairs and real words in non-rhyming pairs. When the words used were nonsensical ('jeat' and 'lete', for example), they could not instantly be recognized, and so all the volunteers were forced to sound out the words in their heads, phoneme by phoneme. In 1998, Shaywitz and her colleagues reported that dyslexics and non-dyslexics differ in their patterns of brain activity9. "We found a clear neurological signature for dyslexia," she says.
"For me I was able to rotate images in my head and look at drawings and describe what could not be seen or how it would look form a different angle. I also found i could memorize chucks of maps, drawings etc in a almost photographic type way..."
Trimble Local Schools take part in statewide Dyslexia Pilot Project The Athens Messenger Dyslexia is a developmental reading disorder that occurs when the brain does not properly recognize and process certain symbols.