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Big Data Reduction 1: Descriptive Analytics - Lithosphere Community

Now that SxSW interactive is over, it’s time to get back and do some serious business. For me, that means I’ll return to the world of big data . Bu
luiy's insight:

From Exploratory Play to Statistical Rigor

In my previous big data post, we discussed the first step when analyzing any complex data set, that is EDA. This is one of the most important steps in data analysis. However, it is often not given the attention it deserves, because the result of EDA is rarely the end result that businesses want. Rather than helping business answer a question, EDA often creates more questions for the analysts. Moreover, EDA is very challenging, because successful EDA requires both a deep knowledge in statistics and creative imagination. Hence, most data scientists don’t spend enough time doing EDA. However with the rare combination of knowledge and imagination, the result of EDA can be very valuable. It will guide subsequent analyses in a way that will most likely lead to the discovery of new insights.

 

Suppose you’ve done your homework as a good data scientist and played with the data sufficiently to get a sense of what might be interesting in the data set. What can you do next?

 

This is where the number-crunching analytics for data reduction begins. Sometimes, your big data may go from hundreds of terabytes down to just a few bytes or bits. Like EDA, there are an infinite number of analytics for data reduction, but they can be group into three classes:

Descriptive AnalyticsPredictive AnalyticsPrescriptive Analytics

In an attempt to write shorter and more digestible posts, we will only discuss the first class of data reduction techniques today—descriptive analytics. And we will cover predictive and prescriptive analytics in subsequent posts.

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The Myth of Cyberspace – The New Inquiry

The Myth of Cyberspace – The New Inquiry | e-Xploration | Scoop.it

In the early 1980s, when personal computing first became a reality, the faces of glowing terminals had an almost magical aura, transubstantiating arcane passages of 1s and 0s into sensory experience. In fact, the seemingly impenetrable complexity of what was unfolding behind the screen created a sense of mystery and wonderment. We were in awe of the hackers who could unlock the code and conjure various illusions from it; they were modern magicians who seemed to travel between two worlds: reality and cyberspace. One day, we imagined, these sages of cyberspace would leave their bodies behind and fully immerse themselves in the secret world behind the screen. Such images manifested themselves through the decades in films like Tron, Hackers, and The Matrix and in the fiction narratives of the cyberpunk genre. When the public internet first emerged, images of cyberspace were already deeply embedded in our collective imagination; these images have become the primary lens through which we view and evaluate our online activity. For this reason, tracing the genealogy of the cyberspace concept reveals much about present cultural assumptions regarding our relationship with information technology.

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luiy's curator insight, March 18, 2013 10:38 AM

The great irony of the cyberspace concept is that, though we embraced it to resolve cognitive dissonance, it has come to cause only more of it. As Facebook, Twitter, and other social-networking sites have grown more popular, it has become undeniable that they play an important role in organizing our social lives. Our presence on these sites arguably has become so important that we begin to experience the world differently, tailoring our behavior toward producing desirable sorts of things to share on them. We all know intuitively that what we do online affects us offline and vice versa — that both comprise the same friends, the same conversations, the same events. Yet the collective fantasy of cyberspace and all its related vocabulary are so deeply embedded in our cultural logic that we cannot help but lapse into denial of these obvious truths. Our language betrays us; it obfuscates the truth of our experience.

Western culture has a long history of creating such dualisms when confronted with crises of meaning or identity. For example, we have long evaded questions regarding our mortality by conceptually separating matter and form, body and soul. As with cyberspace, this age-old dualism generated a subsequent need to imagine a space where soul could exist apart from body, so we imagined heaven and hell. Our uncritical acceptance of the cyberspace fantasy has imbued it with a similar sacredness; it has become part of a new secular religion, built on faith in something that is imagined but never experienced.

Religion, as Emile Durkheim famously defined it, “is a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, that is to say, things set apart and surrounded by prohibitions — beliefs and practices that unite its adherents in a single moral community.” Cyberspace is exactly the sort of thing that we have set apart conceptually and subjected to ceaseless moralizing: It has become almost second nature to claim that “the virtual” is less intimate, authentic, or natural than “the real.” Despite its failure to compellingly describe the world we inhabit, cyberspace nevertheless thrives as a framework for making moral judgments about that same world. Cyberspace has become our Mount Olympus, the founding myth of the Internet Age. It is an article of faith, not the product of lived experience.

Of course, there is nothing intrinsically wrong with fantasy. Speculative fiction provides an important opportunity to anticipate and prepare for techno-cultural change. The problem arises when we begin to prioritize that fictional narrative over actual experience, when we let these speculations control the reality that emerges. We have allowed the myth of cyberspace to usurp reason and to shape perception in our increasingly digitally-mediated lives. Perhaps, this realization should not come as too much of a surprise. Gibson himself recognized that the creative capacities of human beings predispose us to supplanting concrete observation with abstract concepts. A passage from Memory Palace can be read almost as claiming that the cyberspace myth fulfills some broader human teleology:

You see, so we’ve always been on our way to this new place — that is no place, really — but it is real. It’s our nature to represent. We’re the animal that represents — the sole and only maker of maps. And, if our weakness has been to confuse the bright and bloody colors of our calendars with the true weather of days, and the parchment’s territory of our maps with the land spread out before us—never mind. We have always been on our way to this new place — that is no place, really — but it is real.

Support The New Inquiry. Subscribe to TNI Magazine for $2Cyberspace is not real per se but real in the sense of the Thomas theorem: “If [wo]men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences.” Real reality is not characterized by such dualisms; it is equally made of atoms and bits. The cost of upholding this mythical separation is that we have become disassociated with many aspects of our lives. If we hope to make ourselves whole again, we first need a new vocabulary, new myths, and new representations for the Web.

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Defining and Modeling Complex Adaptive Systems

Defining and Modeling Complex Adaptive Systems | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
Almost all the critical problems of our time are problems of control and almost all of them concern complex adaptive systems. If we want to know more about our bodies, it is not just to increase knowledge but so that we can control our health.

 

CAS are  “systems that don’t yield compact forms of representation”1. In other words a complex system cannot be described by a simple set of equations. Why would this be the case? It is the “adaptive” nature of these systems that leads to this intractability. Agents within the system respond to each set of environmental conditions within a complex adaptive system with a different set of responses and the number of such environments and their corresponding agent responses that need to be accounted for to construct an accurate model of the system is simply too large. But is this simply a problem of impracticality? Could we, at least in theory, construct a model that takes into account all possible environmental conditions and all possible agent behaviours? Although some scientists may argue that such an approach is theoretically possible, there is ample evidence that the critical “adaptive” component of some complex adaptive systems may in fact be unmodelable


Via Anne Caspari, Alejandro J. Alvarez S.
luiy's insight:
What Is A Complex Adaptive System?

The first question that then needs to be answered is: What is a complex adaptive system? David Krakauer defines complex systems as “systems that don’t yield compact forms of representation”1. In other words a complex system cannot be described by a simple set of equations. Why would this be the case? As Krakauer notes, it is the “adaptive” nature of these systems that leads to this intractability. Agents within the system respond to each set of environmental conditions within a complex adaptive system with a different set of responses and the number of such environments and their corresponding agent responses that need to be accounted for to construct an accurate model of the system is simply too large. But is this simply a problem of impracticality? Could we, at least in theory, construct a model that takes into account all possible environmental conditions and all possible agent behaviours? Although some scientists may argue that such an approach is theoretically possible, there is ample evidence that the critical “adaptive” component of some complex adaptive systems may in fact be unmodelable. There is no better example of this than the problems faced by the economist Hyman Minsky in formalising many of his most important ideas.

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Anne Caspari's comment, March 14, 2013 11:56 AM
complex adaptive systems can often be identified by observing the critical role that disorderly processes play in maintaining system resilience. For example, the disorderly and often unpredictable nature of flooding is a vital factor in maintaining the productivity and resilience of many complex river-floodplain systems. But the same rarely holds for simpler systems such as small temperate streams... Interesting the examples on trying to manage CAS with the opposite effect of reducing resilience and robbing them of antifragility. Forests, rivers, ecnomic systems..
Luciano Lampi's curator insight, March 19, 2013 6:02 AM

Interesting to read!

Léonne Willems's curator insight, March 25, 2013 1:27 PM

Another way to think about environmental influences at the source of tensions at work (as opposed to individual lack of employee performance or motivational problems). Are these 'tensions' actually symptoms of a system out of balance? Are these tensions the real gems for organisational steering? Check out how Holacracy capitalises just on that! 

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History of Human-Computer Interaction

Presented to the students at KULeuven on 11 March 2013.

Via Rui Guimarães Lima
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Data Analytics & Big Data | Visual.ly

Data Analytics & Big Data | Visual.ly | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
The quick reference guide to big data and data analytics; from the definition to the history and future applications of big data.
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Open Access increases citation? A brief overview of two reports | Open Science

Open Access increases citation? A brief overview of two reports | Open Science | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
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Internet of things: How machine-to-machine technology is making inroads into our lives

Internet of things: How machine-to-machine technology is making inroads into our lives | e-Xploration | Scoop.it

 

Imagine a situation where you are driving down the highway at night and your car hits a divider. It's not a major accident but you need help and there is virtually no network on your mobile phone. Wouldn't it be perfect if your car could send out a distress signal and your GPS co-ordinates as soon as it hit that divider so that help could reach you as soon as possible?


Via Jean-Philippe BOCQUENET, Andrea Naranjo
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Un ouvrage sur une approche plurielle du "journalisme 2.0"

Un ouvrage sur une approche plurielle du "journalisme 2.0" | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
Eric Scherer, directeur de la prospective et de la stratégie numérique de France Télévisions, voit ainsi trois grands débouchés dans le journalisme entrepreunarial : monter son projet en ligne, rejoindre un "pure player" et ...

Via Andrea Naranjo
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Word Co_Ocurrence Network 2000-2013

Word Co_Ocurrence Network 2000-2013 | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
Word Co-Ocurrence Network. 2000-2013. Digital Humanities, e-Research, e-Social Science. IVMOOC
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Habemus trollum: why the new Pope’s Twitter account imitates its detractors : Antonio A. Casilli :: BodySpaceSociety

Habemus trollum: why the new Pope’s Twitter account imitates its detractors : Antonio A. Casilli :: BodySpaceSociety | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
A blog for recovering social scientists
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How to Use the “Network Density” Formula to Measure the Health of a Community

How to Use the “Network Density” Formula to Measure the Health of a Community | e-Xploration | Scoop.it

A lot of community managers just go with their gut on this one, or use proxy metrics like signups, posts per day, klout scores, retweets or some other metric that is fairly hollow, but there are better ways.


Via ukituki
luiy's insight:

How can you determine the health of a community?

A lot of community managers just go with their gut on this one, or use proxy metrics like signups, posts per day, klout scores, retweets or some other metric that is fairly hollow, but there are better ways.

This is very much a work in progress, so I’d love to collaborate. If anyone has any thoughts, please jump in the comments sections and let’s discuss. That being said, most of this isn’t new, it’s just stolen, adapted and generally simplified from concepts like Network Theory, Affinity Groups, Clustering Coefficients, Small World Networks, and other things I will never fully understand or convince people to invest tech into.

Let’s dig in…

What is Network Density?

First off, Network Density (ND for short) isn’t one number, it’s more like blood pressure where they say “80 over 120″. I have no idea what the 80 or the 120 mean, but it works as an analogy. So, with that in mind, ND breaks down roughly as:

Average Distance Between Users : Number of Paths : Frequency of Interactions

or simply put…

AD : NP : F

Lets break each part down…

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David McCandless : « L’interaction est le futur de la datavisualisation »

David McCandless : « L’interaction est le futur de la datavisualisation » | e-Xploration | Scoop.it

David McCandless, précurseur du design d’information, a donné une conférence à Paris dans le cadre des Rencontres RSLN aux Techdays. Après un entretien sur les définitions du design d’information, Claire et Camille reviennent sur ce qu’il faut retenir de ce rendez-vous entre McCandless et son public.


Via Christophe CESETTI, juandoming
luiy's insight:
Cas pratiques

Pour nous plonger au cœur de son monde, McCandless a ponctué son intervention de cas pratiques. Les données sont partout et racontent des histoires. La magie, point de départ de son travail – et de la présentation – se base sur cette supposition : « Quelque chose de magique peut se passer ».

La datavisualisation doit révéler une information intéressante qui permet de créer un lien avec le lecteur. Mais elle doit aussi être belle et attractive pour acquérir la confiance du lecteur. Premier exemple d’illustration du pouvoir d’une visualisation de données ? Les dettes d’état. Le journaliste explique :

« Les chiffres sont partout dans la presse, mais on ne les comprend pas vraiment. C’était une sorte de frustration alors j’ai décidé de les mettre en forme en utilisant des couleurs. Cette mise en forme permet de révéler des modèles et des tendances et de faire ressortir les chiffres marquants. On a une relation différente avec les chiffres et on peut voir les choses instantanément. »

Les données permettent également de mettre en valeur ce qui se passe dans l’imaginaire collectif. Comme l’explique McCandless :

« Les données permettent de voir l’invisible. Des choses qui n’apparaissent que quand on les regroupe et que l’on peut facilement intégrer par les yeux. On compresse les données pour qu’elles soient compréhensibles.»

Les craintes provoquées par les jeux vidéo font ainsi toujours suite à des évènements dramatiques : en 1999, avril et mai ont connu des pics d’appréhensions. L’explication pour le journaliste ? Elles faisaient suite à la fusillade de Columbine. Et on a pu observer la même chose sur la peur après les attentats du 11 septembre.

Dans un registre plus léger et jour de Saint-Valentin oblige, « le pape de la data-visualisation » n’a pas manqué de revenir sur les tendances « data » concernant les couples en révélant une infographie sur les périodes de ruptures amoureuses les plus communes dont les pics se situent habituellement un peu avant Pâques et Noël.

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17 Ways to Visualize the Twitter Universe

17 Ways to Visualize the Twitter Universe | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
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Elgg pour bâtir un réseau social de chercheurs : pourquoi ? comment ? | Deuxième labo

L’extension du domaine de la recherche, c’est utiliser les réseaux sociaux pour favoriser les fertilisations croisées à l’intérieur et à l’extérieur du laboratoire.

 

Les réseaux sociaux de chercheurs font beaucoup parler d’eux, et à raison. Le succès remporté par l’atelier que nous avons proposé à ce sujet lors du THATCamp 2012, animé par Nicolas de Lavergne et Olivier Le Deuff[1], le prouve. Les ResearchGate, Academia.edu, Mendeley et autres

 

MyScienceWork sont dans l’air du temps d’une science ultra-connectée, rapide, et mettant en œuvre tous les moyens à sa disposition pour améliorer sa visibilité et sa diffusion. Il faudrait également citer Facebook, dont les chercheurs font un usage professionnel et qui constitue pour certaines universités un moyen quasi-exclusif de mise en relation, à l’instar de l’université Lumière Lyon 2 (comme raconté ici).


Via Fondation MSH
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Kevin Kelly: The next 5,000 days of the web | Video on TED.com

At the 2007 EG conference, Kevin Kelly shares a fun stat: The World Wide Web, as we know it, is only 5,000 days old. Now, Kelly asks, how can we predict what's coming in the next 5,000 days? (Just over 5 yrs ago the web was 5000 days old.

Via Richard Kastelein , Vincent Bastide
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Surveillance and Digital Dualism: A Reflection on “Theorizing the Web” (#TtW13) | Technophilosophy

Surveillance and Digital Dualism: A Reflection on “Theorizing the Web” (#TtW13) | Technophilosophy | e-Xploration | Scoop.it

Via Pierre Levy
luiy's insight:

One example is collective intelligence according to philosopher Pierre Lévy (@plevy), whose ideas have, early on, orientated the French approach towards the logic of digital cooperation; the economy of contribution according to philosopher Bernard Stiegler, which is integrated into a global vision of the current hyper-industrial political economy and develops (in its way) this logic of cooperation; the psychological experience of new technologies according to psychoanalyst Serge Tisseron, who develops an empathic psychology of the relationship with machines but based on the extremely problematic concept of the ‘virtual’; the new opportunities of Internet democracy according to sociologist Dominique Cardon, in opposition to the demonization of the internet of which the media are so fond; or, in the younger generation, the new hybrid forms of sociability introduced by the digital liaisons according to the sociologist Antonio A. Casilli (@bodyspacesoc), the new ontology that emerges from the architecture of the Web according to Alexandre Monnin (@aamonnz) or the new structures of perception introduced by digital ontophany into the phenomeno-technological approach that I suggest (1).

I’m not saying that French thinkers are not interested in the issue of surveillance as it may be raised again or in a new way due to Internet technologies. What I’m saying is that it’s not what concerns them the most with regard to the internet, even if young philosophers such as Cléo Collomb (@CleoCollomb) are currently working on the ‘digital traces’ we leave behind us in the era of Big Data. Moreover, when discussing this with Lev Manovich (@manovich) during the After Party at Slattery’s Pub, I had the feeling that I was right to consider the theme of surveillance as excessive. Manovich was telling me that, according to him, this could be explained by the importance given to the individual and to ‘privacy’ in the culture of English speaking countries. For my part, I was thinking that a country that dominates the world like the United States does, and is so focused on performance, can only be extremely concerned about all forms of power that exist between individuals. But these reflections may be too simplistic in addressing this issue.

By the way, thanks to Theorizing the Web 2013, I am now more aware of surveillance issues in digital media and I even agree on the assholishness of Google Glass. 

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Pierre Levy's curator insight, March 18, 2013 9:09 AM

Using surveillance as the major subject of a conference whose aim is to ‘theorize the Web’ seems to be a questionable choice which I personally disagree with. Although it is perfectly legitimate to ask oneself what role is digital technology playing, as a technical device, in the society of surveillance. But insofar as surveillance goes beyond (and precedes) the issue of digital technology, I don’t understand why it should be the main subject of the ‘Theory of the Web.’ And, as such, even if he has been widely quoted by several speakers, Foucault does not seem to be the best suited author to understand the digital changes that we are experiencing.

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How Beer Gave Us Civilization

How Beer Gave Us Civilization | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
Humans may have found brew before they found bread. It’s a lucky thing.

Via Howard Rheingold
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Howard Rheingold's curator insight, March 17, 2013 11:56 AM

Evidence that humans started hanging out in settlements long enough for grain to ferment before settled agriculture -- in the fertile crescent and Oaxaca valley -- makes social sense. Agriculture -- an exaptation of beer brewing?

JoseAlvarezCornett's curator insight, March 18, 2013 6:09 AM

Long before Internet brought us together, beer did it first.

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Complex systems made simple

Just as the name implies, complex systems are difficult to tease apart. An organism's genome, a bio­chem­ical reac­tion, or even a social network all contain many interdependent components—and changing any one of them can have per­va­sive effects on all the others. In the case of a very large system, like the human genome, which contains 20,000 inter­con­nected genes, it's impossible to monitor the whole system at once. But that may not matter anymore. In a paper published in the prestigious multidisciplinary journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, North­eastern network scientific have developed an algorithm capable of iden­ti­fying the subset of components—or nodes—that are nec­es­sary to reveal a complex system's overall nature. The approach takes advan­tage of the inter­de­pen­dent nature of com­plexity to devise a method for observing sys­tems that are oth­er­wise beyond quan­ti­ta­tive scrutiny. "Con­nect­ed­ness is the essence of complex systems," said Albert-​​László Barabási, one of the paper's authors and a Distinguished Professor of Physics with joint appointments in biology and the Col­lege of Com­puter and Infor­ma­tion Sci­ence. "Thanks to the links between com­po­nents, infor­ma­tion is dis­trib­uted throughout a net­work. Hence I do not need to mon­itor everyone to have a full sense of what the system does." Barabási's col­lab­o­ra­tors com­prise Jean-​​Jacques Slo­tine of M.I.T. and Yang-​​Yu Liu, lead author and research asso­ciate pro­fessor in Northeastern's Center for Com­plex Net­work Research, for which Barabási is the founding director. Using their novel approach, the researchers first iden­tify all the math­e­mat­ical equa­tions that describe the system's dynamics. For example, in a bio­chem­ical reac­tion system, sev­eral smaller reac­tions between periph­er­ally related mol­e­cules may col­lec­tively account for the final product. By looking at how the vari­ables are affected by each of the reac­tions, the researchers can then draw a graph­ical map of the system. The nodes that form the foun­da­tion of the map reveal them­selves as indis­pen­sible to under­standing any other part of the whole. "What sur­prised me," said Liu, "was that the nec­es­sary nodes are also suf­fi­cient in most cases." That is, the indis­pen­sible nodes can tell the whole story without drawing on any of the other components. The meta­bolic system of any organism is a col­lec­tion of hun­dreds of mol­e­cules involved in thou­sands of bio­chem­ical reac­tions. The new method, which com­bines exper­tise from con­trol theory, graph theory, and net­work sci­ence, reduces large com­plex sys­tems like this to a set of essen­tial "sensor nodes." In the case of metab­o­lism, the researchers' algo­rithm could sim­plify the process of iden­ti­fying bio­markers, which are mol­e­cules in the blood that tell clin­i­cians whether an indi­vidual is healthy or sick. "Most of the cur­rent bio­markers were selected almost by chance," said Barabási. "Chemists and doc­tors found that they happen to work. Observ­ability offers a rational way to choose bio­markers, if we know the system we need to monitor."
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Vidéo de Michel Serres et Bernard Stiegler. Moteurs de recherche

Vidéo de Michel Serres et Bernard Stiegler. Moteurs de recherche | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
. Michel Serres et Bernard Stiegler. Moteurs de recherche
Video publiée dans la rubrique Les vidéos de Philosophie Magazine (version web).
luiy's insight:
Avec MICHEL SERRES

Né en 1930, pacifiste convaincu, il est le penseur de la communication et de la réconciliation. Observateur des grandes mutations de notre époque, il est tout sauf nostalgique. En témoigne son dernier ouvrage sur la culture digitale, Petite Poucette (Le Pommier, 2012).

Avec BERNARD STIEGLER

Philosophe, Bernard Stiegler dirige l’Institut de recherche et d’innovation (IRI) au sein du Centre Georges-Pompidou et préside l’association Ars industrialis. Il vient de signer États de choc. Bêtise et savoir au XXIe siècle (Mille et une nuits) et L’École, le Numérique et la Société qui vient (avec Julien Gautier, Denis Kambouchner, Philippe Meirieu et Guillaume Vergne ;

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Clash of the Titans: Noam Chomsky & Michel ... - Open Culture

Clash of the Titans: Noam Chomsky & Michel ... - Open Culture | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
httpv://youtu.be/WveI_vgmPz8 Today, we're revisiting the clash of two intellectual titans, Noam Chomsky and Michel Foucault. In 1971, at the height of the.

Via cafonso
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lapdftext - Layout-Aware Text #Extraction from Full-text PDF of Scientific Articles | #semantic #scientometrics

lapdftext - Layout-Aware Text #Extraction from Full-text PDF of Scientific Articles | #semantic #scientometrics | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
luiy's insight:

Publications

 

If you use LA-PDFText in your project, please cite us as follows:

Ramakrishnan, C., A. Patnia, E. Hovy and G. Burns (2012). "Layout-Aware Text Extraction from Full-text PDF of Scientific Articles."Source Code for Biology and Medicine 7(1): 7. [http://www.scfbm.org/content/7/1/7/abstract]

 

Introduction

 

The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the almost universally used file format for online scientific publications. It is also notoriously difficult to read and handle computationally, presenting challenges for developers of biomedical text mining or biocuration informatics systems that use the published literature as an information source. To facilitate the effective use of scientific literature in such systems we introduce Layout-Aware PDF Text Extraction (LA-PDFText).

See Overview for a list of commands that you can execute with this tool. This includes simple and more detailed text extraction from PDF files.

 

LA-PDFText has been developed by members of the Biomedical Knowledge Engineering group @ the Information Sciences Institute. It is intended for use both scientists and NLP engineers interested in getting access to text within specific sections of research articles. The system is open-source and provides a simple baseline function for extracting text from primary research articles using rules that developers can customize. This means that the system works quite well for most applications (and might occasionally make mistakes and extract the wrong text), but it is always possible to 'hack' your own rules and improve performance.

 

For questions about future development or support of the current tool, please contact Gully Burns (gully@usc.edu). For discussions concerning the work contributing to this project, please contact any of the research team: Gully Burns, Cartic

 

Ramakrishnan (rcartic@gmail.com) or Ed Hovy (hovy@isi.edu).

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Scientometrics 2000 - 2013: e-Research, e-Social Science, Digital Humanities.

Scientometrics 2000 - 2013: e-Research, e-Social Science, Digital Humanities. | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
e-Research Analysis 2013

 

#ivmooc #infovis #dh @luiy @katycns

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On the notion of balance in social network analysis


Via ukituki
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ukituki's curator insight, December 25, 2012 2:12 PM
The notion of "balance" is fundamental for sociologists who study social networks. In formal mathematical terms, it concerns the distribution of triad configurations in actual networks compared to random networks of the same edge density.

 

On reading Charles Kadushin's recent book "Understanding Social Networks", we were struck by the amount of confusion in the presentation of this concept in the early sections of the book. This confusion seems to lie behind his flawed analysis of a classical empirical data set, namely the karate club graph of Zachary. Our goal here is twofold. Firstly, we present the notion of balance in terms which are logically consistent, but also consistent with the way sociologists use the term.

 

The main message is that the notion can only be meaningfully applied to undirected graphs. Secondly, we correct the analysis of triads in the karate club graph. This results in the interesting observation that the graph is, in a precise sense, quite "unbalanced". We show that this lack of balance is characteristic of a wide class of starlike-graphs, and discuss possible sociological interpretations of this fact, which may be useful in many other situations.

  

Rescooped by luiy from Digital Delights - Avatars, Virtual Worlds, Gamification
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What Happened to Cyberpunk?

What Happened to Cyberpunk? | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
Cyberpunk writing was “not outside us, but next to us. Under our skin; often, inside our minds.”

Via Ana Cristina Pratas
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Ana Cristina Pratas's curator insight, March 14, 2013 9:02 AM

In a sense, it’s a generational thing. In 1980, the writer Bruce Bethke – whose short story “Cyberpunk” inadvertently christened the genre – was working at a Radio Shack in Wisconsin, selling TRS-80 microcomputers. One day, a group of teenagers waltzed in and hacked one of the store machines, and Bethke, who’d imagined himself a tech wiz, couldn’t figure out how to fix it. It was after this incident that he realized something: these teenaged hackers were going to sire kids of their own someday, and those kids were going to have a technological fluency that he could only guess at. They, he writes, were going to truly “speak computer.” And, like teenagers of any era, they were going to be selfish, morally vacuous, and cynical.


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Mexique : Jesús Malverde - Portraits de voyages

Dans la ville mexicaine de Culiacán est honoré Jesús Malverde, saint patron des pauvres et des narcotrafiquants... Regarder toute la série sur http://www.art...
luiy's insight:

Jesús Malverde es un bandido de cabello castaño y ojos azabache, endémico del Estado de Sinaloa que habría sido salteador de caminos y es venerado como santo por muchos, aunque su existencia real está discutida. La Iglesia Católica no le reconoce estatus oficial de santo, porque afirma que no tiene datos concretos sobre tener una vida virtuosa, ni los milagros que habría realizado, pero su culto se ha extendido por todo Sinaloa y fuera de él. Se le han levantado varias capillas: la primera de ellas se construyó en Culiacán; también las hay en Tijuana, Badiraguato,1 Chihuahua,en la carretera que lleva a la ciudad de Aldama,2 Colombia y Los Ángeles.3 Malverde es conocido como "El Bandido Generoso" o "El Ángel de los Pobres";4 también como "El Santo de los Narcos". Era una especie de Robin Hood.

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