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antropologo.net, dataviz, collective intelligence, algorithms, social learning, social change, digital humanities
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Journalism in the Age of Data I #dataviz #datajournalism

Journalism in the Age of Data I #dataviz #datajournalism | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
How journalists are coping with a flood of information by borrowing data visualization techniques from computer scientists, researchers and artists.
luiy's insight:

Journalists are coping with the rising information flood by borrowing data visualization techniques from computer scientists, researchers and artists. Some newsrooms are already beginning to retool their staffs and systems to prepare for a future in which data becomes a medium. But how do we communicate with data, how can traditional narratives be fused with sophisticated, interactive information displays?

 

Watch the full version with annotations and links at datajournalism.stanford.edu.

Produced during a 2009-2010 John S. Knight Journalism Fellowship at Stanford University.

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The Psychology of Video Game #Avatars I #cyberculture

The Psychology of Video Game #Avatars I #cyberculture | e-Xploration | Scoop.it

When each of us gets up in the morning, we start messing with what might as well be avatar customization tools to change our appearance. We decide what clothes and jewelry to wear, and we decide which hairs to shave and which hairs to style. Some of us occasionally make more radical alterations, such as getting tattoos, piercing various dangly bits with metal, or even going in for cosmetic surgery. In real life, though, we’re often limited in the changes we can make to appear taller, say, or more prosperous. Videogames and virtual realities, on the other hand, are more flexible.


Via Vicki Kossoff @ The Learning Factor, michel verstrepen, BOUTELOUP Jean-Paul, Pascale Mousset
luiy's insight:

“Studies have shown that, in general, people create slightly idealized avatars based on their actual selves,” says Nick Yee, who used to work as a research scientist at the Palo Alto Research Center but who now works at Ubisoft. He should know: before joining Ubisoft Yee has spent years studying the effects of avatars on human behavior in settings such as Second Life and World Of Warcraft. “But a compensation effect has been observed. People with a higher body mass index – likely overweight or obese – create more physically idealized avatars, [which are] taller or thinner. And people who are depressed or have low self-esteem create avatars with more idealized traits, [such as being] more gregarious and conscientious.”

 

Other researchers have found that the ability to create idealized versions of ourselves is strongly connected to how much we enjoy the game, how immersed we become, and how much we identify with the avatar. Assistant professor Seung-A ‘Annie’ Jin, who works at Emerson College’s Marketing Communication Department, did a series of experiments with Nintendo Miis and Wii Fit.1 She found that players who were able to create a Mii that was approximately their ideal body shape generally felt more connected to that avatar and also felt more capable of changing their virtual self’s behavior – a fancy way of saying that the game felt more interactive and immersive. This link was strongest, in fact, when there was a big discrepancy between participants’ perceptions of their ideal and actual selves.

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Vicki Kossoff @ The Learning Factor's curator insight, November 30, 2013 1:36 AM

Are you more dominant, kind, assertive, clever, or flirty depending on how your character appears in-game? Both new and old research has shown that the avatars we adopt can influence our behaviours.

BOUTELOUP Jean-Paul's curator insight, December 2, 2013 12:44 AM

A l'heure ou le serious game tente de s'imposer dans les processus de recrutement....

Josie Eldred's curator insight, September 8, 10:15 PM

1. I've ranked this link at the top of the list because it's one of the very few I found while curating my resources that really touched on the exact point I'm trying to make in my online identity project. It alludes to the fact that people have been proven to create online avatars that are based off their actual identities, but are often idealised or improved. It goes on to say that we tend to use avatars to compensate for what we perceive to be flaws and that we may even start to reflect our online avatars. Because the author of the article, Jamie Madigan, has studied psychology (specifically video game psychology) and appears to be highly respected in the video game community, I trust his word to hold a lot of value.

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#Facial Recognition #Analytics - When #Algorithms Grow Accustomed to Your Face

#Facial Recognition #Analytics - When #Algorithms Grow Accustomed to Your Face | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
Companies are developing software to analyze our fleeting facial expressions and to get at the emotions behind them.

Via AnalyticsInnovations
luiy's insight:

Ever since Darwin, scientists have systematically analyzed facial expressions, finding that many of them are universal. Humans are remarkably consistent in the way their noses wrinkle, say, or their eyebrows move as they experience certain emotions. People can be trained to note tiny changes in facial muscles, learning to distinguish common expressions by studying photographs and video. Now computers can be programmed to make those distinctions, too.

 

Companies in this field include Affectiva, based in Waltham, Mass., and Emotient, based in San Diego. Affectiva used webcams over two and a half years to accumulate and classify about 1.5 billion emotional reactions from people who gave permission to be recorded as they watched streaming video, said Rana el-Kaliouby, the company’s co-founder and chief science officer. These recordings served as a database to create the company’s face-reading software, which it will offer to mobile software developers starting in mid-January.

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Robert McKenzie's curator insight, December 1, 2013 3:08 PM

This is an emerging field and complements some of the post GFC analytics . e.g. people who take less than 3 weeks leave in 1 stint are more likely to have breached policies...add to that facial and voice recognition. A UK university was looking at IR camera's in immigration based upon the hypothesis that 'untruth' caused greater brain activity that could be picked up on an IR camera as a trigger for deeper enquiry. Sentiment++

Ali Anani's curator insight, December 3, 2013 6:33 AM

Information from faces ans how to turn information into knowledge

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Autopsie d’une #dataviz : des cartes #choroplèthes harmonisées

luiy's insight:

Je partage quelques réflexions à propos de trois cartes choroplèthes publiées récemment sur Rue89Strasbourg. Harmonisation des couleurs et opacité sont notamment au programme.

 

Quand j'ai écrit un article avec cartes et data sur les bastions droite/gauche aux dernières municipales de Strasbourg

 

, j'étais parti pour refaire ce que j'avais fait pour l'abstention

 

Par souci pratique, j'utilise Google Fusion Tables

 

 (GFT) pour héberger les données et les cartes directement sur le compte Google de Rue89Strasbourg.

 

Niveau carte choroplèthe

 

, on peut très facilement "harmoniser" les couleurs de sa carte, ou en utilisant des seaux ("buckets" dans le texte) ou en utilisant ce qu'on appelle des "gradients".

 

Les gradients font tout automatiquement : on dit juste en combien de pots on veut trier nos données, de la valeur minimale à la valeur maximale. GFT calcule tout tout seul et l'utilisateur peut changer la couleur des pots à sa guise, en respectant une palette préétablie ou non.

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un.org. Third Committee Approves Text Titled ‘Right to #Privacy in the Digital Age’ I #surveillance

un.org. Third Committee Approves Text Titled ‘Right to #Privacy in the Digital Age’ I #surveillance | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
Third Committee Approves Text Titled ‘Right to Privacy in the Digital Age’, as It Takes Action on 18 Draft Resolutions
luiy's insight:

The draft, approved without a vote, would have the General Assembly call upon Member States to review their procedures, practices and legislation on the surveillance of communications, their interception and collection of personal data, including mass surveillance, with a view to upholding the right to privacy by ensuring the full and effective implementation of all relevant obligations under international human rights law.

 

Following the approval, some delegates stressed the need for agreed international human rights mechanisms in relation to ensuring privacy and freedom of expression.  Some expressed regret over the lack of a specific reference to such mechanisms in the draft, while others applauded the consensus as a clear international reaction to the national and extraterritorial electronic surveillance activities conducted by the United States.

 

The Committee then approved, by a recorded vote of 148 in favour to 4 against ( Canada, Israel, United Kingdom, United States), with 27 abstentions, a draft resolution titled “The right to development”.  By its terms, the General Assembly would express deep concern about the negative impact on the realization of the right to development caused by the further aggravation of the economic and social situation, in particular that of developing countries, as a result of the ongoing international energy, food and financial crises, among other factors.  The Assembly would urge developed countries that had not yet done so to make concrete efforts to devote 0.7 per cent of gross national product to official development assistance (ODA) to developing countries.

 

Speaking in explanation of position, the representatives of the United States and Canada expressed their respective concerns over attempts to create a legally binding instrument.  Canada’s speaker said the right to development could be better implemented by sharing best practices and strengthening existing initiatives.  The representative of the United Kingdom said it was the responsibility of States to create the necessary enabling economic conditions, while the provisions of the draft could also curtail political and civil rights.

 

The Committee then approved, without a vote, a draft resolution titled “Protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism”.  By that text, the General Assembly would take note of the report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism, which referred to the use of remotely piloted aircraft.  The Assembly would also note the urgent and imperative need to seek agreement among Member States on legal questions pertaining to the use of remotely piloted aircraft

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An R Introduction to Statistics | R #Tutorial I #datascience #openaccess

An R Introduction to Statistics | R #Tutorial I #datascience #openaccess | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
An R introduction to statistics that explains basic R concepts and illustrates with statistics textbook homework exercises.
luiy's insight:

Welcome to R Tutorial. We provide an introduction to the R programming language, and illustrate its use by solving elementary statistics textbook exercises. Beyond the basics, we also cover topics of GPU computing in R. Hope you find the material helpful, and this site serves the intended purpose of being a stepping stone for further study.

 

Thank you for visiting us. Please bookmark us and come back often.

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#dataviz - Ecology : Where the wild #bees are

#dataviz - Ecology : Where the wild #bees are | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
luiy's insight:

The project was based on a published piece of research, providing me not only with existing data, but also results of scientific analysis, and a thorough description of how the data was gathered, and how it can be interpreted. In a nutshell, the study was looking at how bee-plant interactions have changed at a specific site over time, by looking at the results of a study from the late 19th century on which bee species would fly to which plants, repeating the same study today, and then looking at the differences. While the paper is pretty explicit about the results, unfortunately, the main graphic I was commissioned to redesign did not really help much in understanding the gist of the research.

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Timescape visualizes data in space, time and relationship I #dataviz #tools #ddj

Timescape visualizes data in space, time and relationship I #dataviz #tools #ddj | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
A new visualization platform, Timescape wants to extend the ways in which global organizations visualize narratives.
luiy's insight:

Data visualization is essentially an alternative way to tell a story. A new platform called Timescape aims to extend the ways in which we can visualize our stories by allowing organizations to sift through information on a map.

 

The result is a geo-temporal relationship map. That means, one can plot the events of, say, the Arab Spring as locations on a map and see how they relate to each other both in causation and in time. The ability to visually parse the data in these multiple ways illuminates alternative narratives surrounding those events, allowing people to see which events precipitated others and where they fit in with each other in space and time.

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Learning Graph - #Neo4j GraphGist

Learning Graph - #Neo4j GraphGist | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
luiy's insight:

This graph is used to visualize the knowledge a person has in a certain area. In this example, the knowledge a Java developer has over a stack of technologies. The purpose is to document acquired knowledge and to help to further educate oneself in a structured way. This is accomplished by graphing dependencies between technologies as well as resources that can be used to learn a technology and to determine possible learning paths through the graph, which show a way to learn a specific technology, by first learning the technologies, in order, which are prerequisites for the technology to be learned. The graph is meant not to be static, but updated as new connections between technologies are discovered and new knowledge is acquired.

The main use case explored here is how to learn Spring Data Neo4j (SDN) in a structured manner.

Node types

Person: green

Technology: yellow

Concept: orange

Resources: blue

 
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#Offline : Ciudadanos a las armas en México. #Mireles, líder de las #autodefensas en Michoacán

#Offline : Ciudadanos a las armas en México. #Mireles, líder de las #autodefensas en Michoacán | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
Lo han acusado de actuar en la ilegalidad, de violentar el estado de derecho, de ser un exconvicto. Pero  José Manuel Mireles, uno de los líderes referentes de los grupos de autodefensa de Michoacá...
luiy's insight:

viva Jose Manuel Mireles.


TEPALCATEPEC, Mich. (Proceso).- José Manuel Mireles Valverde, dirigente del grupo local de autodefensa ciudadana, interrumpe momentáneamente la entrevista con este semanario cuando le informan por radio que los Caballeros Templarios están atacando a sus compañeros en un paraje del municipio de Aguililla. Pide una ambulancia para recoger a los heridos, pero el vehículo está descompuesto.

 

Miembros de la autodefensa llegan a las instalaciones de la empresa ganadera a la entrada de esta población, su centro de operaciones. Al mismo tiempo pasan por ahí dos vehículos con soldados. No se detienen. Las autodefensas suben a sus camionetas y salen a toda velocidad para apoyar a sus compañeros. En el radiorreceptor se escuchan voces desesperadas de auxilio.

 

Es la noche del miércoles 20 –conmemoración de la Revolución Mexicana– y los integrantes del grupo de autodefensa ciudadana de Tepalcatepec celebran más bien la ayuda que desde cuatro días antes empezaron a dar a los habitantes de Tancítaro, quienes decidieron armarse y hacer frente al crimen organizado.



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Silicon Valley Isn't a #Meritocracy. And It's Dangerous to Hero-Worship Entrepreneurs

Silicon Valley Isn't a #Meritocracy. And It's Dangerous to Hero-Worship Entrepreneurs | e-Xploration | Scoop.it

If the tech scene is really a meritocracy, why are so many of its key players, from Mark Zuckerberg to Steve Jobs, white men?


If entrepreneurs are born, not made, why are there so many programs attempting to create entrepreneurs?


If tech is truly game-changing, why are old-fashioned capitalism and the commodification of personal information never truly questioned?


Via Kenneth Mikkelsen
luiy's insight:

 The Myth of Meritocracy

The myth is that anyone can come from anywhere and achieve great success in Silicon Valley if they are skilled. It holds that those who “make it” do so due to their excellent ideas and ability, because the tech scene is a meritocracy where what you do, not who you are, matters.

There is some truth to this statement. To a certain extent, there is a lower barrier to entry in tech than in some other industries. Having a famous father or coming from an old money family would not necessarily be an asset as it might in banking (it wouldn’t necessarily hurt, either). And certainly the highest status in the tech scene comes from one’s job rather than family name, although wealth factors considerably into status.

I frequently heard variations of the saying “everyone wants to take the pretty girl to the dance,” which refers to the tendency venture capitalists have to cluster around popular deals. (The prevalence of this phrase is very revealing of who is in these meetings.) In reality, everyone wants to be in business with young, white, male entrepreneurs with connections to high-status people, a pedigree from certain companies, a well-known mentor. Sharon Vosmek, CEO of the nonprofit Astia that helps fund women entrepreneurs, identified “systematic and hidden biases” in technology funding:

VCs hold clear stereotypes of successful CEOs (they call it pattern recognition, but in other industries they call it profiling or stereotyping.) John Doerr publicly stated that his most successful investments — and the no-brainer pattern for future investments — were in founders who were white, male, under 30, nerds, with no social life who dropped out of Harvard or Stanford.

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#Pemex : Reforma Energética en México I #SNA #dataviz #sentiments

#Pemex : Reforma Energética en México I #SNA #dataviz #sentiments | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
Dataviz - Sentiments Analysis - Roles - Ego Network
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Introduction to R Shiny: Building web apps in R Shiny for learning and visualization I #datascience #dataviz

Slides: http://files.meetup.com/1685538/IntroductionRShiny.pptx R Shiny, from the people behind R Studio, allows you to quickly and easily build basic web ap...

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Interpretation and Trust: Designing Model-Driven Visualizations for Text Analysis I #dataviz #semantic #similarity

Interpretation and Trust: Designing Model-Driven Visualizations for Text Analysis I #dataviz #semantic #similarity | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
luiy's insight:

Statistical topic models can help analysts discover patterns in large text corpora by identifying recurring sets of words and enabling exploration by topical concepts. However, understanding and validating the output of these models can itself be a challenging analysis task. In this paper, we offer two design considerations - interpretation and trust - for designing visualizations based on data-driven models. Interpretation refers to the facility with which an analyst makes inferences about the data through the lens of a model abstraction. Trust refers to the actual and perceived accuracy of an analyst's inferences. These considerations derive from our experiences developing the Stanford Dissertation Browser, a tool for exploring over 9,000 Ph.D. theses by topical similarity, and a subsequent review of existing literature. We contribute a novel similarity measure for text collections based on a notion of "word-borrowing" that arose from an iterative design process. Based on our experiences and a literature review, we distill a set of design recommendations and describe how they promote interpretable and trustworthy visual analysis tools.

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Comparison of Popular #NoSql databases (#MongoDb, #CouchDb, #Hbase, #Neo4j, #Cassandra)

luiy's insight:

There are many SQL databases so far.But i personally feel the 15 years history of SQL coming to an end as everyone is moving to an era of BigData. As experts say SQL databases are not a best fit for Big Data No Sql databases came into picture as a best fit for this which provides more flexibility in storing data.


I just want to compare few popular NoSql databases that are available at this point of time.Few well known NoSql databases are:

 

- MongoDb,

- Cassandra,

- Hbase,

- CouchDb,

- Neo4j.

 

NoSql databases differ each other more than the way Sql databases differ from each other.I think its one's responsibility to choose the appropriate NoSql database for their application based on their use case. 

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Visualization CrimeMap - #dataviz #maps

Visualization CrimeMap - #dataviz #maps | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
CrimeMap developed with ShinyApps from RStudio (RT @BigDataStartups: Visualization of the Week: CrimeMap #BigData http://t.co/rAwRSSmWjR)

Via AnalyticsInnovations
luiy's insight:

The big data visualization of the week comes to us from Jo-fai Chow, a research engineer and data geek from the UK. He uses the ShinyApps alpha release version to produce this delightful web app. ShinyApps.io is a new server which is currently in alpha testing to host Shiny applications based on R. You can play with the app HERE by just specifying a location like “Oxford” (only crime data from England, Wales & Northern Ireland is available at this time), and the number of months. The crime map is then rendered as shown below. You can fine tune the plot with a number of other parameters. For detailed usage information, check out Jo-fai’s blog post “Introducing CrimeMap – A Web App Powered by ShinyApps!”

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Urban Network Analysis I #dataviz #SNA_indatcom #SNA

This video introduces Urban Network Analysis concepts that are implemented in the City Form Lab's Urban Network Analysis Toolbox for ArcGIS. It demonstrates how…
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Living in a #surveillance state: Mikko Hypponen I #privacy

In the spirit of ideas worth spreading, TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TED...
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Bokeh, a Python library for interactive visualization I #dataviz #python

Bokeh, a Python library for interactive visualization I #dataviz #python | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
Bokeh is a Python interactive visualization library for large datasets that natively uses the latest web technologies. Its goal is to provide elegant, concise construction of novel graphics in the style of Protovis/D3, while delivering high-performance interactivity over large data to thin clients. If you're new to this stuff, you might just want to start with D3.js simply to avoid the Python setup, but if you use Python exclusively already, this might fit well in your workflow.
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#Dataviz Politics: La réserve parlementaire décryptée I #ddj #politics

#Dataviz Politics: La réserve parlementaire décryptée I #ddj #politics | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
Réserve parlementaire: l'application interactive qui en dévoile les petits secrets
luiy's insight:

Le processus de transparence de ces subventions est en marche: le montant par député est fixé, sa complète mise à disposition des citoyens actée.


Mais la réserve ministérielle reste elle bien opaque et cela n'empêche pas le sénateur Philippe Marini d'utiliser l'argent public pour financer le programme d'investissement de sa mairie et de penser que "c'est un usage". Usage que certains aimeraient encadrer très finement, mais avec quelle efficacité et pour quelle énergie dépensée?


Arrêtons de polluer le débat démocratique tous les ans avec un sujet qui sent fort l’Ancien Régime. Il est plus judicieux de libérer l’énergie des journalistes et des parlementaires de ce sujet. Enfin rendons par exemple la moitié de l'argent au budget de l'état qui ne s'en portera pas plus mal et l'autre moitié aux communes de manière directe sans passer par le bon vouloir de députés et de sénateurs qu'on devrait courtiser.

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Designing Effective #Knowledge Networks I #collaboration #design

Designing Effective #Knowledge Networks I #collaboration #design | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
In today’s interconnected world, networks for sharing knowledge are increasingly important.

Via Jordi Marti @martijordi
luiy's insight:

A Framework for Effective Knowledge Networks

Meeting any of the four goals of a knowledge network requires members to act by capitalizing on the cohesion, conversation and connectedness of the network. Those traits don’t just emerge out of thin air. We sought to understand the larger effects that influence knowledge network performance. Borrowing from the organizational learning field, we studied the knowledge network through the lens of what is called a leverage framework. (See “A Framework for Knowledge Network Effectiveness.”) First, we read the diagram from left to right to see the chain of influences (Design → Dynamics → Behaviors → Outcomes). Then, reading from right to left, we can peel back the layers that lead to the outcomes.

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

"This design dimension is as much about being explicit about how to have an impact as about how to be a leadership team. We found that good leaders were role models, inspiring members to act, and they did not delegate work such as being online and responding to discussions. They were routinely visible — as a cohesive team — to the community."

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Jordi Marti @martijordi's curator insight, November 26, 2013 11:16 PM

Fer xarxa està més enllà de fer contactes o generar idees..

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Top Secret America: Who is TSA? | #dataviz #datajournalism

Top Secret America: Who is TSA? | #dataviz #datajournalism | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
Washington Post reporters Dana Priest and William M. Arkin's investigation of the government's response to 9/11. Top Secret America explores what they found.
luiy's insight:

The Top Secret America database was put together by compiling hundreds of thousands of public records of government organizations and private-sector companies over the past two years.

From these records, The Washington Post identified 45 government organizations (for example, the FBI) engaged in top-secret work and determined that those 45 organizations could be broken down into 1,271 sub-units (for example, the Terrorist Screening Center of the FBI). One of the 45 organizations is represented as “unknown”; this category was created as a catchall for companies doing work for a government organization that could not be determined.

 

At the private-sector level, The Post identified 1,931 companies engaged in top-secret work for the government. Private-sector companies were grouped together and listed by a parent company's name (for example, General Dynamics), even though one company might contain multiple sub-units (for example, General Dynamics Information Technology).

 

In a case where a large corporation (for example, Boeing) has a distinctly named sub-unit engaged in top-secret work (for example, Boeing's Digital Receiver Technology), the name of the sub-unit was used. In the case of large corporations not primarily in the defense industry (for example, AT&T) that have similarly named sub-units that focus on top-secret work (for example, AT&T Government Solutions), the name of the parent company is used and the name of the sub-unit is noted. For every company listed, revenue and employee data and the date of establishment were drawn from public filings, Dun & Bradstreet data and original reporting.

 

State and local government organizations generally do not work at the top-secret level; that type of clearance is rarely granted to state officials. But the organizations are all part of a secretive domestic intelligence and homeland security world. The Post examined nearly 1,000 threat documents marked "For Official Use Only" and collected information from government Web sites, reports and other documents to identify 4,058 government organizations involved in domestic counterterrorism and homeland security. Of the total, 2,880 are federal organizations that work at the state level, such as the FBI's Joint Terrorism Task Forces (JTTFs). There are also 818 state and 360 local organizations. Many of these listed themselves in documents as participants in either Joint Terrorism Task Forces, fusion centers or Anti-Terrorism Advisory Councils in 2009 or 2010.

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2007-2011 : la cartographie de la blogosphère politique I #SNA_Indatcom #dataviz

2007-2011 : la cartographie de la blogosphère politique I #SNA_Indatcom #dataviz | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
Réalisée par Linkfluence en partenariat avec Le Monde et Le Monde.fr, cette représentation, zoomable et cliquable, modélise les principaux blogs militants en France.
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Barabási : The Hidden #Pattern Behind Everything We Do I #datascience #SNA


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ukituki's curator insight, November 24, 2013 5:35 AM

Barabasi argues that, rather than being random,
humans actually act in predictable patterns. We go along for long
periods of quiet routine followed suddenly by loud bursts of activity.
Barabasi demonstrates that these breaks in routine, or "bursts," are
present in all aspects of our existence— in the way we write emails,
spend our money, manage our health, form ideas. Barabasi has even
found "burstiness" in our webpage clicking activity and the online
news cycle."

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Think link: network #patterns in social media I #SNA #dataviz

Think link: network #patterns in social media I #SNA #dataviz | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
luiy's insight:

Divided networks are created when two groups of people talk about a controversial topic – but do not connect to people in the “other” group. Unified networks are formed by small to medium sized groups that are obscure or professional topics, conference hashtags are a good example. Fragmented networks have few connections among the people in them: these are often people talking about a brand or popular topic or event. Clusters sometimes grow among the people talking about a brand, indicating a existence of a brand “community”.Broadcast networks are formed when a prominent media person is widely repeated by many audience members, forming a hub-and-spoke pattern with the spokes pointed inward at the hub. The final pattern is the opposite, hub-and-spoke patterns with the hub linking out to a number of spokes. This pattern is generated by technical and customer support accounts like those for computer and airline companies. Additional patterns may exist, but these patterns are prominent in many social media network data sets.

 

When applied to external conversations, social media networks help identify the “mayor” of a hashtag or topic: these are the people at the center of the network. Network maps can be compared to the six basic types of networks to understand the nature of the topic community. We can look for examples of successful social media efforts and map those topic networks. Social media managers can contrast their topics with those of their aspirational targets and measure the difference between where they are and where they want to be.

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