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#Complexity in Social Networks | #algorithms #SNA

#Complexity in Social Networks | #algorithms #SNA | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
How network structure impacts consumer experience.
luiy's insight:

In the same way software has “eaten” many industries and continues to devour more, the structure of complex systems is relevant in an increasing number of subjects, from neurobiology to industrial engineering. In the consumer internet, many of the most interesting technology platforms are, at their core, networks. As with most complex systems, small changes can have large consequences, and the structure of a network can materially impact consumer experience, many times changing the core way that people interact with the service.

 

One way to think about these technology platforms is to think of any complex network as having four fundamental components:

 

- Nodes (the objects in the graph, e.g., people, things)

 

- Data/content (the thing being shared between the nodes, e.g., tweet

 

- Edges with rules (e.g., bidirectional “friend”, single-directional “follow”)

 

- Jumping functions, specifically ways to transmit the data/content from one subgroup of people to another on the same platform, usually based on rules surrounding how the edges are structured (e.g., retweeting / liking / favoriting).

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Marlowe : Vers un générateur d’expériences de pensée sur des dossiers #complexes | #DH #AI #agents

Marlowe : Vers un générateur d’expériences de pensée sur des dossiers #complexes | #DH #AI #agents | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
Marlowe, Toward A Generator of Thought Experiments on Complex Files: An author, an experimenter and a reviewer of the computer programs, Marlowe and Prospero, contribute in this article, respectively and successively, an extensive and detailed presentation of Marlowe, a report on what it is like to interact with Marlowe and a review of the recently-published work, by the first author, describing the development of Prospero for the Analyse of complex dossiers of texts concerning a social controversy, and Prospero's extension and adaptation with Marlowe to direct natural language dialog with researchers concerning specific complex dossiers.
luiy's insight:

Comme première définition du type d’expériences engendrées par Marlowe, on peut parler de « dialogues avec un ensemble de mémoires externes ». Marlowe (nom de code : MRLW) est en effet dépositaire de structures de représentation et de stocks de connaissances qui permettent de lui déléguer des tâches d’enquête fastidieuses. Ses ressources étant en grande partie externalisées, MRLW peut permettre un travail collectif via le cumul de concepts et d’exemples, de règles et de procédures éprouvées sur différents dossiers. Contrairement au chercheur humain, MRLW peut explorer, et exploiter, sans autre limite que les capacités de la machine qui l’abrite, d’innombrables combinaisons. Comme la restitution pure et simple de l’ensemble des combinaisons ou des chemins possibles n’aurait aucun sens – augmentant considérablement le travail interprétatif du chercheur – le dialogue sert de cadrage, ou plutôt d’espace de négociation des prises pertinentes par lesquelles s’affirme la maîtrise d’un ou de plusieurs dossiers. MRLW joue son rôle de maintien de la réflexivité à partir de quatre grands types de fonctionnalités :

 

- des accès documentés à des informations difficiles à extraire manuellement (c’est-à-dire par la recherche visuelle dans de multiples fenêtres) ;

 

- des opérations d’évaluation et de synthèse offrant des angles de vue diversifiés sur un même corpus ;

 

- des modèles ou des espaces de calcul aidant à éprouver la consistance des interprétations du chercheur ;

 

- des outils de contrôle sur la composition du corpus, le cadre d’analyse et les priorités du chercheur.

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Beta codex - Organiser pour la complexité | #profils #RSE #collectiveintelligence

Beta Codex, ou comment rendre le travail à nouveau efficace
Comment mettre en œuvre des cellules décentralisées, innovantes et autonomes, pour faire face aux changements dans un monde complexe?


Via Denis Cristol, Nathalie Carpentier, Claude Emond
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Claude Emond's curator insight, January 12, 2014 11:32 AM

Principes agiles à l'oeuvre. Vraiment exhaustif et très très bien fait. L'organisation du travail  telle qu'elle doit être pour fonctionner au 21e siècle: basée sur l'intelligence collective, agile (auto-organisation) et certainement plus durable que l'impossible commandement et contrôle.

Philippe Vallat's curator insight, February 3, 2014 10:36 AM

Une bonne vue d'ensemble qui aborde intelligence collective, leadership, systémique

Anne-Laure Delpech's curator insight, February 3, 2014 11:24 AM

une vision intéressante de la complexité et des évolutions managériales qu'elle impose. 

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#Complexity map - Brian Castellani - Dec. 5 update

#Complexity map - Brian Castellani - Dec. 5 update | e-Xploration | Scoop.it

Via Bernard Ryefield, NESS, Spaceweaver
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Networks, #complexity, and #privacy, by Casilli I #SNA

ATHENS programme seminar by Antonio A. Casilli (Telecom ParisTech, Nov. 19, 2013).
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#FreeBook : "Network Science Book" | #dataviz #BarabasiLab

#FreeBook : "Network Science Book" | #dataviz #BarabasiLab | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
The power of network science, the beauty of network visualization.
luiy's insight:
The power of network science, the beauty of network visualization.

Network Science Book Project aims to produce an interactive textbook for network science. It is a work in progress, as we add chapters as they are finalized. Currently you will find Chapter 1-6, and we hope to have ten chapters by the end of the year. It is freely available under the Creative Commons licence for iPad and in pdf, together with the slides to teach the material. Feel free to offerfeedback and follow its development on Facebook, Twitter or by signining up to our mailing list, so that we can notify you of new chapters and developments.

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Our Self-Inflicted #Complexity | #economy

Our Self-Inflicted #Complexity | #economy | e-Xploration | Scoop.it

Our ability to make progress against large-scale problems requires that we figure out how to tackle inter-domain complexity writes Roger Martin. The HBR blog post is part of a series of perspectives on complexity leading up to Global Drucker Forum in Vienna 14 + 15 November 2013. 


Via Kenneth Mikkelsen
luiy's insight:

My own clan — the economists — is particularly inclined in this direction. There are a thousand economists working on partial equilibrium problems for every one working on a general equilibrium problem. This is despite the fact that no one would contest that general equilibrium clarity is the most valuable knowledge by far. Why? Because it is really difficult to specify any general equilibrium cause-and-effect relationships.

 

Instead, most of the guns deployed in modern knowledge advancement are aimed at narrow problems for which the cause-and-effect relationship is specified with the famous “all other things being equal” proviso. Each narrow knowledge domain develops analytical tool-sets that deepen the narrow knowledge domain. Each narrow domain develops ever more algorithmic knowledge, and those developing the knowledge are extremely confident that they are right because they are so specialized within their own domain. The liver expert is completely confident that he or she is correct even if it is the interaction with another condition that threatens your health most.

This approach has created another kind of complexity: inter-domain complexity. Every field is segmented into multiple domains, each with deep algorithmic knowledge, specialized tools, and experts in the domain who think they are absolutely right. And they are indeed right, as long as we ignore the reality of detail complexity.

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#Complex Thinking for a Complex World – About Reductionism, Disjunction and Systemism, by Edgar Morin

This article is based on the keynote address presented to the European Meetings on Cybernetics and Systems Research (EMCSR) in 2012, on the occasion of Edgar Morin receiving the Bertalanffy Prize in Complexity Thinking, awarded by the Bertalanffy Centre for the Study of Systems Science (BCSSS).


The following theses will be elaborated on: (a) The whole is at the same time more and less than its parts; (b) We must abandon the term "object" for systems because all the objects are systems and parts of systems; (c) System and organization are the two faces of the same reality; (d) Eco-systems illustrate self-organization.

 

Complex Thinking for a Complex World – About Reductionism, Disjunction and Systemism


Edgar Morin

 

Systema: connecting matter, life, culture and technology Vol 2, No 1 (2014)

 

http://www.systema-journal.org/article/view/257


Via Complexity Digest, Roger D. Jones, PhD
luiy's insight:

In this light is interesting to consider the nature of life. Living systems represent a complex type of organization. The organization of a living system is more complex than the  organization of the molecules of which it is composed. However, this organization is  achieved using only molecules from the physical universe – living systems are not made from something like ‘living matter’, but from ordinary physical and chemical substances.


“Life” is a property created through complex self-organisation. Life is characterized by processes of self-reproduction and self-repair, processes that involve knowledge and  memory. The central feature of a living system is the self-organizational capacity to produce
and reproduce itself. However, as von Foerster noted, calling this self-organisation is paradoxical, because the organizational processes of life require a continuous input of energy. We need energy even when we sleep – energy to drive our heartbeat, our digestion, our breathing. We use energy in all moments of life. However, we also need to compensate for the dissipation of energy in line with the second law of thermodynamics, and this means we must take in energy from the environment. We do this by ingesting material  that contains energy, and to this we need knowledge of the environment, and in particular knowledge of the organization of the environment. So self-organisation requires an interplay between the knowledge of how to organize the self and the knowledge of how the environment is organized.

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Eli Levine's curator insight, April 13, 2014 10:21 PM

There is a kind of meditation in Buddhist practice known as analytical meditation.  It's purpose is to inform us about an object, all of its properties and all of the associations, connections and contexts that it can have in the individual and collective sense. 

 

We're not going to be perfect coming up with all of the connections all of the time.  However, I think it's a good starting basis for the purposes of analyzing complex systems and all of the layered, interconnected parts.  We are one, and one is all.

 

The universe is us as well as around us.


And that's a scientific fact, it seems.

 

Think about it.

Luciano Lampi's curator insight, April 14, 2014 2:37 PM

objects versus systems?

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Social Media #Analysis Reveals The Complexities Of Syrian #Conflict | #SNA

Social Media #Analysis Reveals The Complexities Of Syrian #Conflict | #SNA | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
Computer scientists have used the pattern of social media communication in Syria to reveal the structure of opposing forces in the civil war.
luiy's insight:

These guys studied over 600 Twitter and YouTube accounts that post or link to content related to the Syrian conflict. Since many of these accounts point to each other or similar content, they form communities amongst themselves. So O’Callaghan and co used a standard community detection algorithm to tease apart how the accounts were aligned.

 

The results reveal 16 separate communities which together form four clearly aligned groups. The first are Jihadist, made up of three communities and including accounts associated with Al-Qa’ida.

 

The second are Kurdish, consisting of a community of political parties and another of youth organisations.

 

The third is Pro-Assad and consists of essentially one community of supporters of the current Syrian regime.

 

The final group is made up of ten communities who are characterised as secular or moderate opposition. This includes accounts that support the Free Syrian Army and the Syrian National Coalition.

 

O’Callaghan and co go on to analyse a representative community from each group. For example, one community supporting the Free Syrian Army consists of 105 social media accounts including one with 73,000 followers that supplies photographs of unidentified bodies so that people can help identify them.

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Understanding #complexity | #dataviz

Understanding #complexity | #dataviz | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
As I have suggested, it was the most-regulated in the financial system that were in fact the most disaster-prone: big banks on both sides of the Atlantic, not hedge funds.

Via Thomas Faltin
luiy's insight:

A schematic history of human civilization reflects a growing complexity of the collective behavior of human organizations. The internal structure of organizations changed from the large branching ratio hierarchies of ancient civilizations, through decreasing branching ratios of massive hierarchical bureaucracies, to hybrid systems where lateral connections appear to be more important than the hierarchy. As the importance of lateral interactions increases, the boundaries between subsystems become porous. The increasing collective complexity also is manifest in the increasing specialization and diversity of professions. Among the possible future organizational structures are fully networked systems where hierarchical structures are unimportant. – Y. Bar-Yam,Complexity rising: From human beings to human civilization, a complexity profile, EOLSS UNESCO 2002

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Managing #Complexity: The Battle Between #Emergence And #Entropy | #cybernetics

Managing #Complexity: The Battle Between #Emergence And #Entropy | #cybernetics | e-Xploration | Scoop.it

The business news continues to be full of stories of large companies getting into trouble in part because of their complexity. 


So what is a leader to do when faced with a highly complex organisation and a nagging concern that the creeping costs of complexity are starting to outweigh the benefits?


Via Kenneth Mikkelsen
luiy's insight:

1. There is a design process –the allocation of roles and responsibilities through some sort of top-down master plan. We all know how this works.

 

2. There is an emergent process – a bottom-up form of spontaneous interaction between well-intentioned individuals, also known as self-organising. This has become very popular in the field of management, in large part because it draws on insights from the world of nature, such as the seemingly-spontaneous order that is exhibited by migrating geese and ant colonies. Under the right conditions, it seems, individual employees will come together to create effective coordinated action. The role of the leader is therefore to foster “emergent” order among employees without falling into the trap of over-engineering it.

 

3. Finally, there is an entropic process – the gradual trending of an organisational system towards disorder. This is where it gets a bit tricky. The disciples of self-organising often note that companies are “open systems” that exchange resources with the outside world, and this external source of energy is what helps to renew and refresh them. But the reality is that most companies are only semi-open. In fact, many large companies I know are actually pretty closed to outside influences. And if this is the case, the second law of thermodynamics comes into effect, namely that a closed system will gradually move towards a state of maximum disorder (i.e. entropy).

 

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Olivier Arnould's curator insight, December 1, 2013 3:40 AM

Une approche intéressante des organisations...

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How Benoit Mandelbrot Discovered #Fractals: A Short Film by Errol Morris I #complexity

How Benoit Mandelbrot Discovered #Fractals: A Short Film by Errol Morris I #complexity | e-Xploration | Scoop.it
Documentary filmmaker Errol Morris talked with Benoit Mandelbrot about the origins of fractals in 2010, only 19 days before the mathematician's death. You can watch the short film online.
luiy's insight:

Even if you know little of mathematics, you probably have some awareness of fractals. You’ve almost certainly heard them invoked, correctly or otherwise, to describe things that look or act the same at the large scale as they do at the small. You may even know the name Benoit Mandelbrot, the much-laureled Polish-French-American “father of fractal geometry.” Hard science-fiction titan Arthur C. Clarke called his eponymous set of mathematical points “one of the most astonishing discoveries in the entire history of mathematics.” Nassim Nicholas Taleb, the famously discriminating author of The Black Swan, called him ”the only person for whom I have had intellectual respect.” Even former French president Nicolas Sarkozy gave Mandelbrot his props, crediting his discoveries of the geometrical regularities of “rough” things, from coastlines to stock-market fluctuations, as antecedent to modern information theory. He also acknowledged Mandelbrot’s having carried on his work “entirely outside mainstream research,” and the mathematician’s reputation as an unusually insightful intellectual maverick survives him.

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The Network of Global Corporate Control | #complex #dataviz #economics

The Network of Global Corporate Control | #complex #dataviz #economics | e-Xploration | Scoop.it

Vitali S, Glattfelder JB, Battiston S (2011) The Network of Global Corporate Control. PLoS ONE 6(10).

 

The structure of the control network of transnational corporations affects global market competition and financial stability. So far, only small national samples were studied and there was no appropriate methodology to assess control globally. We present the first investigation of the architecture of the international ownership network, along with the computation of the control held by each global player. We find that transnational corporations form a giant bow-tie structure and that a large portion of control flows to a small tightly-knit core of financial institutions. This core can be seen as an economic “super-entity” that raises new important issues both for researchers and policy makers.


Via John Postill
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franz contemplates complexity

A brief animated video on complex systems theory.

Via Anne Caspari, Spaceweaver
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Anne Caspari's curator insight, February 1, 2013 10:32 AM

this is great food for thought; nicely done! 

Spaceweaver's curator insight, February 3, 2013 10:06 AM

Excellent introduction and some reference books at the end

Luciano Lampi's curator insight, March 25, 2013 9:48 AM

a cool start...